Mechanical activation of quartz was carried out in jet mill at various specific kinetic energy level and classifier speed. The characterization of the particle size, crystallite size, amorphism rate and lattice strain was conducted on the feed and mechanically activated particles. The area under the prominent quartz peak was used to calculate the amorphism rate of the mechanically activated particles. Scherer equation was used to determine the crystallite size of the feed and mechanically activated particles. Mean particle size less than 5μm was obtained when the specific kinetic energy is ranging between 500 kWh/ton and 1000 kWh/ton. Amorphism of the mechanically activated particles up to 18% was observed at 500 kWh/ton. The crystallite size and lattice strain is influence by the intensity of the specific kinetic energy and classifier speed. The reduction in the crystallite size up to 39% was observed where the minimum crystallite is 23nm. The lattice strain is ranging from 0.024 to 0.038 respective to the specific kinetic energy and classifier speed.
The objective of the present study is to formulate and characterize the properties of complexed glimepiride nanocrystals (GLP) by various techniques at different stages of its development, and to study the effect of PEG 20000 and P90G on particle size reduction and stability of nanocrystals.
The specimens used were CaCO3 (Sigma Aldrich, purity 99.9 %). We have 23 parameters and 20 iterations, including two theta zero error, scale factor, thermal effect, coefficients for polynomial describing the background; U, V, W and mixing parameters of the profile peak function, lattice constants, positional parameters and overall isotropic temperature factors. Most the samples show that the crystal structure are rhombohedral with lattice constants a = b = 4.981 Å, c = 17.044 Å and space group is R3C. The microstrain (K) and the particle size (V) of CaCO3 ceramic were calculated using 10 the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of diffraction peaks from (0 1 2), (1 0 4), (0 0 6), (1 1 0), (1 1 3), (2 0 2), (0 1 8), (1 1 6), (2 2 1 ), (1 2 2) crystal planes are 2.1 x 10-2 and
362 nm, respectively.
Aerobic granulation is increasingly used in wastewater treatment due to its unique physical properties and microbial functionalities. Granule size defines the physical properties of granules based on biomass accumulation. This study aims to determine the profile of size development under two physicochemical conditions. Two identical bioreactors namely Rnp and Rp were operated under non-phototrophic and phototrophic conditions, respectively. An illustrative scheme was developed to comprehend the mechanism of size development that delineates the granular size throughout the granulation. Observations on granules' size variation have shown that activated sludge revolutionised into the form of aerobic granules through the increase of biomass concentration in bioreactors which also determined the changes of granule size. Both reactors demonstrated that size transformed in a similar trend when tested with and without illumination. Thus, different types of aerobic granules may increase in size in the same way as recommended in the aerobic granule size development scheme.
The transient response of magnetorheological (MR) materials, in general, is very important for design consideration in MR-based devices. Better response to magnetic fields is beneficial for a better response rate to the electrical current applied in the electromagnetic coil. As a result, MR-based devices would have a high response to external stimuli. In this work, the principal characteristics of magnetorheological greases (MRGs) which have two different particle shapes are experimentally investigated. One type of particle distributed in the grease medium is conventional spherical-shaped carbonyl iron (CI) particles, while the other is plate-like CI particles made using a high-energy rotary ball mill from spherical CI particles. A set of bidisperse MRG samples are firstly prepared by adjusting the weight percentage of the plate-like CI particles and mixing with the spherical CI particles. Subsequently, three important properties of MRGs in terms of their practical application are measured and compared between the two different particle shapes. The field-dependent apparent viscoelastic properties of the prepared MRG samples are measured, followed by the field-dependent storage and loss moduli using an oscillatory shear rheometer. In addition, the transient response time, which indicates the speed in the actuating period of MRGs, is measured by changing the strain amplitude. Then, a comparative assessment on the three properties are undertaken between two different particle shapes by presenting the corresponding results in the same plot. It is shown that the bidisperse MRG with plate-like CI particles exhibits an increase in the initial apparent viscosity as well as stiffness property compared to the MRG with spherical particles only.
The occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in saltwater bodies is relatively well studied, but nothing is known about their presence in most of the commercial salts that are widely consumed by humans across the globe. Here, we extracted MP-like particles larger than 149 μm from 17 salt brands originating from 8 different countries followed by the identification of their polymer composition using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Microplastics were absent in one brand while others contained between 1 to 10 MPs/Kg of salt. Out of the 72 extracted particles, 41.6% were plastic polymers, 23.6% were pigments, 5.50% were amorphous carbon, and 29.1% remained unidentified. The particle size (mean ± SD) was 515 ± 171 μm. The most common plastic polymers were polypropylene (40.0%) and polyethylene (33.3%). Fragments were the primary form of MPs (63.8%) followed by filaments (25.6%) and films (10.6%). According to our results, the low level of anthropogenic particles intake from the salts (maximum 37 particles per individual per annum) warrants negligible health impacts. However, to better understand the health risks associated with salt consumption, further development in extraction protocols are needed to isolate anthropogenic particles smaller than 149 μm.
Chiroptical activity is observed from an achiral adenine-containing metal-organic framework (MOF) named ZnFDCA. Such a seemingly counterintuitive phenomenon can, in fact, be predicted by the intrinsic crystal symmetry of 4̅2 m point group. Although theoretically allowed, examples of optically active achiral crystals are extremely rare. ZnFDCA is the first reported achiral MOF showing optical activity, as demonstrated by a pair of circular dichroism signals with opposite signs and enhanced intensity. Moreover, simply through adding an amino substituent to adenine, the chiroptical activity, as well as nonlinear optical activity, of the analogous MOF, namely ZnFDCA-NH2, disappears due to diverse packing pattern giving rise to centrosymmetric crystal symmetry.
A distinct element approach has been introduced for simulating the plugging performance of granular lost circulation materials (LCM) in a fracture. This approach solves the fully coupled fracture walls, fluid and particles system in an interactive environment. The effects of the particle shape, size distribution and concentration on the fracture-plugging performance of the granular LCM have been investigated using the three-dimensional particle flow code (PFC3D). The simulated results showed that the irregular granular LCM could plug a fracture width larger than the sieving granulation by single-particle bridging type. The particle size distribution (PSD) of LCM dominates the plugging depth and efficiency in a fracture and there exists an optimum concentration for maximum effect of LCM additives.
A new type of cyclone design configuration called MR-deDuster, which contains multi cyclone, has been developed.
A theoretical study had been carried out to evaluate and predict the performance of a MR-deDuster. In this paper, a
comparative study was done to investigate the performance of MR-deDuster with other conventional cyclones in terms
of collection efficiency and pressure drop. The performance of MR-deDuster was measured by its collection efficiency
based on the particle size distribution of activated carbon. It was found that MR-deDuster is able to collect as high as
94% of PM10 which is high comparing with many other conventional cyclones. In addition, the pressure drop of the unit
is relatively low compared to the other cyclones which highlight the ability of the unit to capture the fine particle at low
This paper reports the effects of glyceryl ether specifically mono-tert-butoxypropanediol on oil in water emulsion system.
Based on 12 HLB value, screening for stable emulsions was carried out without the presence of glyceryl ether. A stable
emulsion was used as a control. Then the effects of glyceryl ether on the emulsion system were investigated. The emulsions
prepared were analyzed for stability, viscosity, pH value, particle size, in vitro dermal irritation potential, in vitro ocular
irritation potential and also moisturizing property. The incorporation of glycerol in the emulsion system was also done
for comparison. Emulsions with glyceryl ether showed lower viscosity values than emulsions with glycerol. Furthermore,
the emulsions also exhibited moisturizing property compared to the control emulsion. Glyceryl ether is suitable to be
used in cosmetic products which require reduced viscosity but retain its skin hydration property.
Attempts to produce colloidal platinum nanoparticles by using steady absorption spectra with various chemical-based reduction methods often resulted in the fast disappearance of the absorption maxima leaving reduced platinum nanoparticles with little information on their optical properties. We synthesized colloidal platinum nanoparticles in an aqueous solution of polyvinyl pyrrolidone by gamma radiolytic reduction method, which produced steady absorption spectra of fully reduced and highly pure platinum nanoparticles free from by-product impurities or reducing agent contamination. The average particle size was found to be in the range of 3.4–5.3 nm and decreased with increasing dose due to the domination of nucleation over ion association in the formation of metal nanoparticles by the gamma radiolytic reduction method. The platinum nanoparticles exhibit optical absorption spectra with two absorption peaks centered at about 216 and 264 nm and the peaks blue shifted to lower wavelengths with decreasing particle size. The absorption spectra of platinum nanoparticles were also calculated using quantum mechanical treatment and coincidently a good agreement was obtained between the calculated and measured absorption peaks at various particle sizes. This indicates that the 216 and 264-nm absorption peaks of platinum nanoparticles conceivably originated from the intra-band transitions of conduction electrons of (n = 5, l = 2) and (n = 6, l = 0) energy states respectively to higher energy states. The absorption energies, i.e., conduction band energies of platinum nanoparticles derived from the absorption peaks increased with increasing dose and decreased with increasing particle size.
Reducing the size of food particles is crucial for herbivores. Seasonal dietary changes are known to influence animals' chewing efficiency. Proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) are foregut fermenters, with a high chewing efficiency allowing them to achieve very fine faecal particles. In this study, we investigated how proboscis monkeys' chewing efficiency varies between wet and dry seasons, hypothesising differences possibly related to diet change. Faecal particle size analysis is an established approach to estimate chewing efficiency in mammalian herbivores. We analysed 113 proboscis monkey faecal samples collected in the Lower Kinabatangan Wildlife Sanctuary, between 2015 and 2017. By following standard sieve analysis protocols, we measured a mean particle size MPS0.025-8 of 0.45 ± 0.14 mm, and confirmed a previous result that proboscis monkeys have a very low faecal MPS. This study highlights a seasonal influence on proboscis monkeys' chewing efficiency, with smaller MPS (better chewing efficiency) during the wet season. During that time of the year, individuals may potentially change their diet, as all faecal samples contained intact seeds. Whether the seasonal MPS difference in proboscis monkeys is smaller than in other colobines due to their "rumination" strategy remains to be investigated.
This review presents an introduction to the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles by radiation-induced method, especially gamma irradiation. This method offers some benefits over the conventional methods because it provides fully reduced and highly pure nanoparticles free from by-products or chemical reducing agents, and is capable of controlling the particle size and structure. The nucleation and growth mechanism of metallic nanoparticles are also discussed. The competition between nucleation and growth process in the formation of nanoparticles can determine the size of nanoparticles which is influenced by certain parameters such as the choice of solvents and stabilizer, the precursor to stabilizer ratio, pH during synthesis, and absorbed dose.
The long term objective of this research is to look into the possibility of replacing soil strength parameters such as cohesion and angle of friction with electrical resistivity value for the purpose of computing among others, factor of safety in slopes or bearing capacity of soil. This paper however is limited to the investigation of correlation between electrical resistivity with some selected soil parameters. Electrical resistivity tests, using a basic multi meter, steel moulds and other related equipment, were conducted in the laboratory on soil samples with variations in soil type, compaction energy and moisture content. The samples consisted of predominantly clay, silt and sandy size particles and were compacted in a 100 x 100 mm square mould, while the corresponding electrical resistivity tests were carried out using the disc electrode method in accordance to BS 1377. The values of the electrical parameters such as voltage, current and resistance, with the corresponding value of soil parameters such as cohesion, angle of friction and moisture content, were measured and recorded. The results of the tests produced some initial crude relationships between electrical resistivity and the selected soil parameters. The strongest correlation between electrical resistivity and angle of internal friction, φ, was obtained from the clay size samples with R2 of 0.824, while the maximum correlation between electrical resistivity and moisture content again was obtained through the clay samples with R2 of 0.818. From the other results and graphs analyzed, some consistencies and specific trends of behaviour observed gave some early indications that a more detail and precise correlation between electrical resistivity and soil strength parameters could be very well possible in future.
β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powders were synthesized by using various particles sizes (40 nm – 780 μm) calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) at room temperature (25 ˚C). The synthesized powders were characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) method. The purity of β-TCP powders were determined from XRD pattern while the crystallite size of β-TCP powders were calculated by using Scherrer equation. Results shows that the purity of β-TCP powders were ranged from 20.33 % to 81.94 % while the crystallite size of β- TCP powders were ranged from 0.04391 μm to 0.06751 μm. From this work, particle size of CaCO3 will influenced the purity but not the mean crystallite size of synthesized β-TCP.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of milling methods on tensile properties of polypropylene (PP) / oil palm mesocarp fibre (OPMF) biocomposites. Two types of mills were used; Wiley mill (WM) and disc mill (DM). Ground OPMF from each milling process was examined for its particle size distribution and aspect ratio by sieve and microscopic analyses, respectively. Results showed that DM-OPMF had smaller diameter fibre with uniform particle size compared to the WM-OPMF. Surface morphology study by SEM showed that DM-OPMF had rougher surface compared to WM-OPMF. Furthermore, it was found that PP/DM-OPMF biocomposite had higher tensile strength compared to PP/WM-OPMF, with almost two-fold. Thus, it is suggested that small diameter and uniform size fibre may improve stress transfer and surface contact between the fibre and polymer matrix and cause well dispersion of filler throughout the polymer resulted in better tensile strength of PP/DM-OPMF Compared to PP/WM-OPMF biocomposite. Overall, it can be concluded that disc milling could serve as a simple and effective grinding method for improving the tensile properties of biocomposite.
This paper presents a suitable and unique system for observing dielectrophoretic particle separation in a microfluidic device. Details presented on the experimental setup used will enable real time examination, monitoring and analysis of carboxylate-modified latex sphere particles in a colloidal mixture. Observations of the particles were made possible through an optical setup that illuminates the particles that went through the microelectrode array in the microchannel that was controlled by two analog signal generators. Through the setup, it was easily observed that the latex sphere particles move at a flow rate of 0.2 μl/s without colliding or overlapping on each other and successfully separated in two bands left and right. The new separation of one finest particles size for finest purification with respect to frequency was also observed, obtained and analysed.
Media components such as wheat flour, MgSO4 and particle size were screened by Placket Burman design (PBD) while the operating range was fixed by one-factor-at-a-time method (OFAT), primarily for the enrichment of cassava peels as animal feed. Optimization of the selected media components was carried out using Face–Centered Central Composite Design (FCCCD) of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the responses were measured in term of protein and lignin contents. Statistical analysis of the result showed that the quadratic term of wheat flour and the interaction between wheat flour and particle size were highly significant (P
In this study, we have employed a photocatalytic method to restore the liquid effluent from a palm oil mill in Malaysia. Specifically, the performance of both TiO2 and ZnO was compared for the photocatalytic polishing of palm oil mill effluent (POME). The ZnO photocatalyst has irregular shape, bigger in particle size but smaller BET specific surface area (9.71 m2/g) compared to the spherical TiO2 photocatalysts (11.34 m2/g). Both scavenging study and post-reaction FTIR analysis suggest that the degradation of organic pollutant in the TiO2 system has occurred in the bulk solution. In contrast, it is necessary for organic pollutant to adsorb onto the surface of ZnO photocatalyst, before the degradation took place. In addition, the reactivity of both photocatalysts differed in terms of mechanisms, photocatalyst loading and also the density of photocatalysts. From the stability test, TiO2 was found to offer higher stability, as no significant deterioration in activity was observed after three consecutive cycles. On the other hand, ZnO lost around 30% of its activity after the 1st-cycle of photoreaction. The pH studies showed that acidic environment did not improve the photocatalytic degradation of the POME, whilst in the basic environment, the reaction media became cloudy. In addition, longevity study also showed that the TiO2 was a better photocatalyst compared to the ZnO (74.12%), with more than 80.0% organic removal after 22 h of UV irradiation.
In this study, the particle size distribution and concentration of metallic elements of solvent- and water-based paint dust from bulk dust collected from dust-collecting hoppers were determined. The mean particle size diameter over a 12-week sampling period was determined using a particle size analyzer. The metals composition and concentration of the dust were determined via acid digestion technique followed by concentration analysis using inductively coupled plasma. The volume weighted mean particle diameters were found to be 0.941+/-0.016 and 8.185+/-0.201 microm for solvent- and water-based paint dust, respectively. The mean concentrations of metals in solvent-based paint dust were found to be 100+/-20.00 microg/g (arsenic), 1550+/-550.00 microg/g (copper), 15,680+/-11,780.00 microg/g (lead) and 30,460+/-10,580.00 microg/g (zinc) while the mean concentrations of metals in water-based paint dust were found to be 20.65+/-6.11 microg/g (arsenic), 9.14+/-14.65 microg/g (copper), 57.46+/-22.42 microg/g (lead) and 1660+/-1260 microg/g (zinc). Both paint dust types could be considered as hazardous since almost all of the dust particles were smaller than 10 microm. Particular emphasis on containment of solvent-based paint dust particles should be given since it was shown that they were very fine in size (<1 microm) and had high lead and zinc concentrations.