Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 381 in total

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  1. Hj Latip DN, Samsudin H, Utra U, Alias AK
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2021;61(17):2841-2862.
    PMID: 32648775 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2020.1789064
    Starch is a complex carbohydrate formed by the repeating units of glucose structure connected by the alpha-glycosidic linkages. Starch is classified according to their derivatives such as cereals, legumes, tubers, palms, fruits, and stems. For decades, native starch has been widely utilized in various applications such as a thickener, stabilizer, binder, and coating agent. However, starches need to be modified to enhance their properties and to make them more functional in a wide range of applications. Porous starch is a modified starch product which has attracted interest of late. It consists of abundant pores that are distributed on the granule surface without compromising the integrity of its granular structure. Porous starch can be produced either by enzymatic, chemical, and physical methods or a combination thereof. The type of starch and selection of the modification method highly influence the formation of pore structure. By carefully choosing a suitable starch and modification method, the desired morphology of porous starch can be produced and applied accordingly for its intended application. Innovations and technologies related to starch modification methods have evolved over the years in terms of the structure, properties and modification effects of different starch varieties. Therefore, this article reviews recent modification methods in developing porous starch from various origins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
  2. Alazaiza MYD, Ramli MH, Copty NK, Ling MC
    J Contam Hydrol, 2021 Mar;238:103769.
    PMID: 33465656 DOI: 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2021.103769
    Laboratory-scale column experiments were carried out to assess the influence of water infiltration on pooled light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) redistribution in porous media. A simplified image analysis method (SIAM) was used to evaluate the saturation distributions of the LNAPL and water in the entire domain under dynamic conditions. The experiments were conducted for high/low LNAPL volumes LNAPL volumes differentiated as low and high volumes. High resolution SIAM images of the soil column during LNAPL migration and water infiltration events were captured and analyzed. Results indicated that the capillary fringe is about 6-7 cm which was consistent with the capillary height derived from empirical equations. Moreover, SIAM provided an estimate of the field capacity (30%) of the sand. Once the LNAPL infiltration stage was started, the LNAPL was observed to rapidly migrate through the vadose zone. For the case of large LNAPL volume, the LNAPL penetrated further into capillary fringe zone. Analysis of SIAM images showed that the LNAPL redistribution was observed to vary significantly with the rate of infiltration. For higher water infiltration intensity, the injected water exerted a larger hydrodynamic force on the entrapped LNAPL forcing it move further downward into the capillary zone and the saturated zone. Overall, this study demonstrated that the SIAM technique is an accurate and cost-effective tool for the visualization of the time-dependent NAPL/water movement in laboratory-scale experiments and dynamic changes in fluid saturation in porous media.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
  3. Hwang Y, Kim YM, Lee JE, Rhee GH, Show PL, Andrew Lin KY, et al.
    Environ Res, 2023 Feb 15;219:115071.
    PMID: 36528046 DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2022.115071
    To remove harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including 2-butanone (methyl ethyl ketone, MEK) emitted from various industrial plants is very important for the clean air. Also, it is worthwhile to recycle porous spent fluid catalytic cracking (SFCC) catalysts from various petroleum refineries in terms of reducing industrial waste and the reuse of discharged resources. Therefore, Mn and Mn-Cu added SFCC (Mn/SFCC and Mn-Cu/SFCC) catalysts were prepared to compare their catalytic efficiencies together with the SFCC catalyst in the ozonation of 2-butanone. Since the SFCC-based catalysts have a structure similar to that of zeolite Y (Y), the Mn-loaded zeolite Y catalyst (Mn/Y) was also prepared to compare its activity for the removal of 2-butanone and ozone to that of the SFCC-based ones at room temperature. Among the five catalysts of this study (Y, Mn/Y, SFCC, Mn/SFCC, and Mn-Cu/SFCC), the Mn-Cu/SFCC and Mn/SFCC catalysts showed the better catalytic decomposition activity than the others. The increased distributions of the Mn3+ species and the Ovacancy sites in Mn/SFCC and Mn-Cu/SFCC catalysts which could supply more available active sites for the 2-butanone and ozone removal would enhance the catalytic activity of them.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
  4. Ullah I, Bhattacharyya K, Shafie S, Khan I
    PLoS One, 2016;11(10):e0165348.
    PMID: 27776174 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165348
    Numerical results are presented for the effect of first order chemical reaction and thermal radiation on mixed convection flow of Casson fluid in the presence of magnetic field. The flow is generated due to unsteady nonlinearly stretching sheet placed inside a porous medium. Convective conditions on wall temperature and wall concentration are also employed in the investigation. The governing partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations using suitable transformations and then solved numerically via Keller-box method. It is noticed that fluid velocity rises with increase in radiation parameter in the case of assisting flow and is opposite in the case of opposing fluid while radiation parameter has no effect on fluid velocity in the forced convection. It is also seen that fluid velocity and concentration enhances in the case of generative chemical reaction whereas both profiles reduces in the case of destructive chemical reaction. Further, increase in local unsteadiness parameter reduces fluid velocity, temperature and concentration. Over all the effects of physical parameters on fluid velocity, temperature and concentration distribution as well as on the wall shear stress, heat and mass transfer rates are discussed in detail.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity*
  5. Mocktar FA, Abdul Razab MKA, Mohamed Noor A
    Radiat Prot Dosimetry, 2020 Jul 07;189(1):69-75.
    PMID: 32090244 DOI: 10.1093/rpd/ncaa014
    This study aims to reduce radon gas emanations in the indoor environment by incorporating kenaf and oil palm nanocellulose that act as nano-fillers into building materials. Fabrication of composite brick was carried out according to the MS and ASTM standards. In this research, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 ml of nanocellulose were used to replace the usage of sand, stone and cement materials, respectively. Kenaf and oil palm nanocellulose were utilised to reduce the internal and surface porosity as well as to replace the radon resources (stone), which indirectly reduced radon gas emanation. Radon gas emanated from each composite brick was measured within 10 consecutive days in an airtight prototype Perspex room using Radon Monitor Sentinel 1030. A compression test was also carried out to investigate the physical strength of the fabricated composite bricks. The results showed that 40 ml of kenaf and oil palm nanocellulose was the optimum amount in reducing the radon concentration, where the radon readings were 1.4 and 0.93 pCi per l, respectively. Meanwhile, the brick with no nanocellulose exhibited the highest radon reading of 3.77 pCi per l. Moreover, the Young modulus for the composite brick of both kenaf and oil palm nanocellulose was 28.92 and 27.8 N per mm2 compared to the control brick, which was 27 N per mm2. The results proved that radon gas emanations were reduced by 62.86% for kenaf and 75.3% for oil palm by incorporating the organic nanocellulose, which has high potential towards a healthy indoor environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
  6. Shekholeslami M, Ashorynejad HR, Domairry D, Ishak Hashim
    Sains Malaysiana, 2012;41:1281-1285.
    In this paper, the problem of laminar viscous flow in a semi-porous channel in the presence of transverse magnetic field is studied. The Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) is employed to approximate the solution of the system of nonlinear differential equations governing the problem. The influence of the Hartmann number (Ha) and the Reynolds number (Re) on the flow was investigated. The results of the OHAM were compared with homotopy analysis method (HAM) and variation iteration method (VIM) results.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
  7. An X, Chong PL, Zohourkari I, Roy S, Merdji A, Linda Gnanasagaran C, et al.
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H, 2023 Aug;237(8):1008-1016.
    PMID: 37477395 DOI: 10.1177/09544119231187685
    The mechanical properties of tissue scaffolds are essential in providing stability for tissue repair and growth. Thus, the ability of scaffolds to withstand specific loads is crucial for scaffold design. Most research on scaffold pores focuses on grids with pore size and gradient structure, and many research models are based on scaffolding with vertically arranged holes. However, little attention is paid to the influence of the distribution of holes on the mechanical properties of the scaffold. To address this gap, this research investigates the effect of pore distribution on the mechanical properties of tissue scaffolds. The study involves four types of scaffold designs with regular and staggered pore arrangements and porosity ranging from 30% to 80%. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to compare the mechanical properties of different scaffold designs, with von-Mises stress distribution maps generated for each scaffold. The results show that scaffolds with regular vertical holes exhibit a more uniform stress distribution and better mechanical performance than those with irregular holes. In contrast, the scaffold with a staggered arrangement of holes had a higher probability of stress concentration. The study emphasized the importance of balancing porosity and strength in scaffold design.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
  8. Al-Hardan NH, Abdul Hamid MA, Ahmed NM, Jalar A, Shamsudin R, Othman NK, et al.
    Sensors (Basel), 2016 Jun 07;16(6).
    PMID: 27338381 DOI: 10.3390/s16060839
    In this study, porous silicon (PSi) was prepared and tested as an extended gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) for pH sensing. The prepared PSi has pore sizes in the range of 500 to 750 nm with a depth of approximately 42 µm. The results of testing PSi for hydrogen ion sensing in different pH buffer solutions reveal that the PSi has a sensitivity value of 66 mV/pH that is considered a super Nernstian value. The sensor considers stability to be in the pH range of 2 to 12. The hysteresis values of the prepared PSi sensor were approximately 8.2 and 10.5 mV in the low and high pH loop, respectively. The result of this study reveals a promising application of PSi in the field for detecting hydrogen ions in different solutions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
  9. Khan NI, Ijaz K, Zahid M, Khan AS, Abdul Kadir MR, Hussain R, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2015 Nov 1;56:286-93.
    PMID: 26249592 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2015.05.025
    Hydroxyapatite is used extensively in hard tissue repair due to its biocompatibility and similarity to biological apatite, the mineral component of bone. It differs subtly in composition from biological apatite which contains other ions such as magnesium, zinc, carbonate and silicon (believed to play biological roles). Traditional methods of hydroxyapatite synthesis are time consuming and require strict reaction parameter control. This paper outlines synthesis of magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite using simple microwave irradiation of precipitated suspensions. Microwave irradiation resulted in a drastic decrease in ageing times of amorphous apatitic phases. Time taken to synthesize hydroxyapatite (which remained stable upon heat treatment at 900°C for 1h) reduced twelve folds (to 2h) as compared to traditionally required times. The effects of increasing magnesium concentration in the precursors on particle size, surface area, phase-purity, agglomeration and thermal stability, were observed using scanning electron microscopy, BET surface area analysis, X-ray diffraction and photo acoustic Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Porous agglomerates were obtained after a brief heat-treatment (1h) at 900°C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
  10. Fauzan NAB, Mukhtar H, Nasir R, Mohshim DFB, Arasu N, Man Z, et al.
    R Soc Open Sci, 2020 Sep;7(9):200795.
    PMID: 33047043 DOI: 10.1098/rsos.200795
    The key challenge in the synthesis of composite mixed matrix membrane (MMMs) is the incompatible membrane fabrication using porous support in the dry-wet phase inversion technique. The key objective of this research is to synthesize thin composite ternary (amine) mixed matrix membranes on microporous support by incorporating 10 wt% of carbon molecular sieve (CMS) and 5-15 wt% of diethanolamine (DEA) in polyethersulfone (PES) dope solution for the separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from methane (CH4) at high-pressure applications. The developed membranes were evaluated for their morphological structure, thermal and mechanical stabilities, functional groups, as well as for CO2-CH4 separation performance at high pressure (10-30 bar). The results showed that the developed membranes have asymmetric structure, and they are mechanically strong at 30 bar. This new class of PES/CMS/DEA composite MMMs exhibited improved gas permeance compared to pure PES composite polymeric membrane. CO2-CH4 perm-selectivity enhanced from 8.15 to 16.04 at 15 wt% of DEA at 30 bar pressure. The performance of amine composite MMMs is theoretically predicted using a modified Maxwell model. The predictions were in good agreement with experimental data after applying the optimized values with AARE % = ∼less than 2% and R2 = 0.99.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
  11. Jamil D, Roslan R, Abdulhameed M, Hashim I
    Sains Malaysiana, 2018;47:2581-2587.
    The unsteady blood flow in the stenosed porous artery subjected to a magnetic field was studied analytically. Oscillating
    pressure gradient and periodic body acceleration were imposed on the flow field. The effects of the magnetic field and
    the permeability of the stenosed artery on the blood velocity were studied. The results showed that the magnetic field
    affected the flow field significantly which can be beneficial for some practical problems.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
  12. Arab A, Sktani ZDI, Zhou Q, Ahmad ZA, Chen P
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Jul 31;12(15).
    PMID: 31370216 DOI: 10.3390/ma12152440
    Zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) is a promising advanced ceramic material for a wide range of applications that are subjected to dynamic loading. Therefore, the investigation of dynamic compressive strength, fracture toughness and hardness is essential for ZTA ceramics. However, the relationship between these mechanical properties in ZTA has not yet been established. An example of this relationship is demonstrated using ZTA samples added with MgO prepared through conventional sintering. The microstructure and mechanical properties of ZTA composites were characterized. The hardness of ZTA composites increased for ≤0.7 wt.% MgO due to the pinning effect of MgO and decrease of the porosity in the microstructure. Oppositely, the fracture toughness of ZTA composites continuously decreased due to the size reduction of Al2O3 grains. This is the main reason of deteriorate of dynamic compressive strength more than 0.2 wt.% of MgO addition. Therefore, the SHPB test shows the improvement of the dynamic compressive strength only up to a tiny amount (0.2 wt.% of MgO addition) into ZTA ceramics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
  13. Zakaria MY, Sulong AB, Muhamad N, Raza MR, Ramli MI
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Apr;97:884-895.
    PMID: 30678979 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.12.056
    Titanium-ceramic composites are potential implant material candidates because of their unique mechanical properties and biocompatibility. This review focused on the latest advancement in processing of titanium-ceramic materials. Previously, titanium-ceramic incorporated using different coating techniques, i.e., plasma spraying and electrophoretic depositions, to enhance the biocompatibility of the implants. A major drawback in these coating methods is the growth of tissue at only the surface of the composite and might peel off over time. Recently, metal-ceramic composite was introduced via powder metallurgy method such as powder injection moulding. A porous structure can be obtained via powder metallurgy. Producing a porous titanium-ceramic structure would improve the mechanical properties, biocompatibility and tissue growth within the structure. Hence, further research needed to be done by considering the potential of powder injection moulding method which offer lower costs and more complex shapes for future implant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
  14. Abdal S, Hussain S, Siddique I, Ahmadian A, Ferrara M
    Sci Rep, 2021 Apr 08;11(1):7799.
    PMID: 33833251 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-86953-1
    It is a theoretical exportation for mass transpiration and thermal transportation of Casson nanofluid over an extending cylindrical surface. The Stagnation point flow through porous matrix is influenced by magnetic field of uniform strength. Appropriate similarity functions are availed to yield the transmuted system of leading differential equations. Existence for the solution of momentum equation is proved for various values of Casson parameter [Formula: see text], magnetic parameter M, porosity parameter [Formula: see text] and Reynolds number Re in two situations of mass transpiration (suction/injuction). The core interest for this study aroused to address some analytical aspects. Therefore, existence of solution is proved and uniqueness of this results is discussed with evaluation of bounds for existence of solution. Results for skin friction factor are established to attain accuracy for large injection values. Thermal and concentration profiles are delineated numerically by applying Runge-Kutta method and shooting technique. The flow speed retards against M, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for both situations of mass injection and suction. The thermal boundary layer improves with Brownian and thermopherotic diffusions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
  15. Alsabery AI, Tayebi T, Chamkha AJ, Hashim I
    Sci Rep, 2020 Oct 22;10(1):18048.
    PMID: 33093608 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-75095-5
    This study investigates thermal natural convective heat transfer in a nanofluid filled-non-Darcian porous and wavy-walled domain under the local thermal non-equilibrium condition. The considered cavity has corrugated and cold vertical walls and insulated horizontal walls except the heated part positioned at the bottom wall. The transport equations in their non-dimensional model are numerically solved based on the Galerkin finite-element discretization technique. The dimensionless governing parameters of the present work are the nanoparticle in volume concentration, the Darcy number, number of undulations, modified heat conductivity ratio, dimensionless heated part length, and location. Comparisons with other published theoretical and experimental results show good agreement with the present outcomes. The findings indicate that the heater length, its position, and the waves number on the side vertical walls as well as the nanoparticles concentration can be the control parameters for free convective motion and heat transport within the wavy cavity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
  16. Udenni Gunathilake TMS, Ching YC, Ching KY, Chuah CH, Abdullah LC
    Polymers (Basel), 2017 Apr 29;9(5).
    PMID: 30970839 DOI: 10.3390/polym9050160
    Extensive employment of biomaterials in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications is considered to be of prime importance. As expected, oil based polymer materials were gradually replaced by natural or synthetic biopolymers due to their well-known intrinsic characteristics such as biodegradability, non-toxicity and biocompatibility. Literature on this subject was found to be expanding, especially in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications. Introduction of porosity into a biomaterial broadens the scope of applications. In addition, increased porosity can have a beneficial effect for the applications which exploit their exceptional ability of loading, retaining and releasing of fluids. Different applications require a unique set of pore characteristics in the biopolymer matrix. Various pore morphologies have different characteristics and contribute different performances to the biopolymer matrix. Fabrication methods for bio-based porous materials more related to the choice of material. By choosing the appropriate combination of fabrication technique and biomaterial employment, one can obtain tunable pore characteristic to fulfill the requirements of desired application. In our previous review, we described the literature related to biopolymers and fabrication techniques of porous materials. This paper we will focus on the biomedical and microbiological applications of bio-based porous materials.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
  17. Yap JX, Leo CP, Mohd Yasin NH, Derek CJC
    Chemosphere, 2021 Jun;273:129657.
    PMID: 33524750 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129657
    Microalgae cultivation using open cultivation systems requires large area and it is susceptible to contamination as well as weather changes. Meanwhile, the closed systems require large capital investment, and they are susceptible to the build-up of dissolved oxygen. Air-liquid interface culture systems with low water-footprint, but high packing density can be used for microalgae cultivation if low-cost culture scaffolds are available. In this study, cellulose-based scaffolds were synthesized using NaOH/urea aqueous solution as the solvent. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), silica gel and polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG 1000) nanoparticles were added into the membrane scaffolds to increase the hydrophilicity of nutrient absorbing to support the growth of microalgae. The membrane scaffolds were characterized by FTIR, SEM, contact angle, porosity and porometry. All three nanoparticles additives showed their ability in reducing the contact angle of membrane scaffolds from 63.4 ± 2.3° to a range of 52.6 ± 1.2° to 38.8 ± 1.5° due to the hydrophilic properties of the nanoparticles. The decreasing in pore size when nanoparticles were added did not affect the porosity of membrane scaffolds. Cellulose membrane scaffold with TiO2 showed the highest percentage of microalgae Navicula incerta growth rate of 22.1% because of the antibacterial properties of TiO2 in lowering the risk of cell contamination and enhancing the growth of N. incerta. The results exhibited that cellulose-based scaffold with TiO2 added could be an effective support in plant cell culture field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
  18. Huang SL, Zhang WH, Ling Y, Ng SW, Luo HK, Hor TS
    Chem Asian J, 2015 Oct;10(10):2117-20.
    PMID: 25965032 DOI: 10.1002/asia.201500231
    Four porous coordination networks have been synthesized from 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate with Cl, Br, I, and NO2 substituents whose different spatial differences are sufficient to influence the coordination mode of adjacent carboxyl moieties to unlock an inter-penetrating framework to give isostructural structures. Their size and polarity differences account for the diverging CO2 adsorption performances.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
  19. Mahmud MN, Siri Z, Vélez JA, Pérez LM, Laroze D
    Chaos, 2020 Jul;30(7):073109.
    PMID: 32752617 DOI: 10.1063/5.0002846
    The control effects on the convection dynamics in a viscoelastic fluid-saturated porous medium heated from below and cooled from above are studied. A truncated Galerkin expansion was applied to balance equations to obtain a four-dimensional generalized Lorenz system. The dynamical behavior is mainly characterized by the Lyapunov exponents, bifurcation, and isospike diagrams. The results show that within a range of moderate and high Rayleigh numbers, proportional controller gain is found to enhance the stabilization and destabilization effects on the thermal convection. Furthermore, due to the effect of viscoelasticity, the system exhibits remarkable topological structures of regular regions embedded in chaotic domains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
  20. Madhiyah Yahaya Bermakai, Nor Farahin Jafri, Norha Abdul Hadi
    MyJurnal
    Recently, the development of activated carbon electrodes from agricultural waste biomass for application in carbon-based electrode of supercapacitor is increasing. The use of agricultural waste biomass as a precursor for the production of activated carbon become popular because it is economical, easily available and also beneficial in reducing waste disposal problem in agricultural industries. In this review, the biomass material for activated carbon using various activators is presented. The effects of activating methods which is physical and chemical activation on the properties of activated carbons are reviewed. Carbonaceous materials with high surface area, which is above 1000 m2g-1 and good porosity with total pore volume approximately 1.0 cm3g-1 promote fast ion-transport, making them an ideal choice to be used in supercapacitor. Previous study had shown that different types of activation method influence significantly on the properties of activated carbon produced. Producing a high porosity and high surface area of activated carbon are essentials to fabricate a high quality of supercapacitor. With proper treatment, it is found that many agriculture wastes have high potential and carry good properties as an electrode in supercapacitor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Porosity
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