Starch is a complex carbohydrate formed by the repeating units of glucose structure connected by the alpha-glycosidic linkages. Starch is classified according to their derivatives such as cereals, legumes, tubers, palms, fruits, and stems. For decades, native starch has been widely utilized in various applications such as a thickener, stabilizer, binder, and coating agent. However, starches need to be modified to enhance their properties and to make them more functional in a wide range of applications. Porous starch is a modified starch product which has attracted interest of late. It consists of abundant pores that are distributed on the granule surface without compromising the integrity of its granular structure. Porous starch can be produced either by enzymatic, chemical, and physical methods or a combination thereof. The type of starch and selection of the modification method highly influence the formation of pore structure. By carefully choosing a suitable starch and modification method, the desired morphology of porous starch can be produced and applied accordingly for its intended application. Innovations and technologies related to starch modification methods have evolved over the years in terms of the structure, properties and modification effects of different starch varieties. Therefore, this article reviews recent modification methods in developing porous starch from various origins.
Laboratory-scale column experiments were carried out to assess the influence of water infiltration on pooled light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) redistribution in porous media. A simplified image analysis method (SIAM) was used to evaluate the saturation distributions of the LNAPL and water in the entire domain under dynamic conditions. The experiments were conducted for high/low LNAPL volumes LNAPL volumes differentiated as low and high volumes. High resolution SIAM images of the soil column during LNAPL migration and water infiltration events were captured and analyzed. Results indicated that the capillary fringe is about 6-7 cm which was consistent with the capillary height derived from empirical equations. Moreover, SIAM provided an estimate of the field capacity (30%) of the sand. Once the LNAPL infiltration stage was started, the LNAPL was observed to rapidly migrate through the vadose zone. For the case of large LNAPL volume, the LNAPL penetrated further into capillary fringe zone. Analysis of SIAM images showed that the LNAPL redistribution was observed to vary significantly with the rate of infiltration. For higher water infiltration intensity, the injected water exerted a larger hydrodynamic force on the entrapped LNAPL forcing it move further downward into the capillary zone and the saturated zone. Overall, this study demonstrated that the SIAM technique is an accurate and cost-effective tool for the visualization of the time-dependent NAPL/water movement in laboratory-scale experiments and dynamic changes in fluid saturation in porous media.
Numerical results are presented for the effect of first order chemical reaction and thermal radiation on mixed convection flow of Casson fluid in the presence of magnetic field. The flow is generated due to unsteady nonlinearly stretching sheet placed inside a porous medium. Convective conditions on wall temperature and wall concentration are also employed in the investigation. The governing partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations using suitable transformations and then solved numerically via Keller-box method. It is noticed that fluid velocity rises with increase in radiation parameter in the case of assisting flow and is opposite in the case of opposing fluid while radiation parameter has no effect on fluid velocity in the forced convection. It is also seen that fluid velocity and concentration enhances in the case of generative chemical reaction whereas both profiles reduces in the case of destructive chemical reaction. Further, increase in local unsteadiness parameter reduces fluid velocity, temperature and concentration. Over all the effects of physical parameters on fluid velocity, temperature and concentration distribution as well as on the wall shear stress, heat and mass transfer rates are discussed in detail.
In this paper, the problem of laminar viscous flow in a semi-porous channel in the presence of transverse magnetic field is studied. The Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) is employed to approximate the solution of the system of nonlinear differential equations governing the problem. The influence of the Hartmann number (Ha) and the Reynolds number (Re) on the flow was investigated. The results of the OHAM were compared with homotopy analysis method (HAM) and variation iteration method (VIM) results.
This study aims to reduce radon gas emanations in the indoor environment by incorporating kenaf and oil palm nanocellulose that act as nano-fillers into building materials. Fabrication of composite brick was carried out according to the MS and ASTM standards. In this research, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 ml of nanocellulose were used to replace the usage of sand, stone and cement materials, respectively. Kenaf and oil palm nanocellulose were utilised to reduce the internal and surface porosity as well as to replace the radon resources (stone), which indirectly reduced radon gas emanation. Radon gas emanated from each composite brick was measured within 10 consecutive days in an airtight prototype Perspex room using Radon Monitor Sentinel 1030. A compression test was also carried out to investigate the physical strength of the fabricated composite bricks. The results showed that 40 ml of kenaf and oil palm nanocellulose was the optimum amount in reducing the radon concentration, where the radon readings were 1.4 and 0.93 pCi per l, respectively. Meanwhile, the brick with no nanocellulose exhibited the highest radon reading of 3.77 pCi per l. Moreover, the Young modulus for the composite brick of both kenaf and oil palm nanocellulose was 28.92 and 27.8 N per mm2 compared to the control brick, which was 27 N per mm2. The results proved that radon gas emanations were reduced by 62.86% for kenaf and 75.3% for oil palm by incorporating the organic nanocellulose, which has high potential towards a healthy indoor environment.
In this study, porous silicon (PSi) was prepared and tested as an extended gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) for pH sensing. The prepared PSi has pore sizes in the range of 500 to 750 nm with a depth of approximately 42 µm. The results of testing PSi for hydrogen ion sensing in different pH buffer solutions reveal that the PSi has a sensitivity value of 66 mV/pH that is considered a super Nernstian value. The sensor considers stability to be in the pH range of 2 to 12. The hysteresis values of the prepared PSi sensor were approximately 8.2 and 10.5 mV in the low and high pH loop, respectively. The result of this study reveals a promising application of PSi in the field for detecting hydrogen ions in different solutions.
Hydroxyapatite is used extensively in hard tissue repair due to its biocompatibility and similarity to biological apatite, the mineral component of bone. It differs subtly in composition from biological apatite which contains other ions such as magnesium, zinc, carbonate and silicon (believed to play biological roles). Traditional methods of hydroxyapatite synthesis are time consuming and require strict reaction parameter control. This paper outlines synthesis of magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite using simple microwave irradiation of precipitated suspensions. Microwave irradiation resulted in a drastic decrease in ageing times of amorphous apatitic phases. Time taken to synthesize hydroxyapatite (which remained stable upon heat treatment at 900°C for 1h) reduced twelve folds (to 2h) as compared to traditionally required times. The effects of increasing magnesium concentration in the precursors on particle size, surface area, phase-purity, agglomeration and thermal stability, were observed using scanning electron microscopy, BET surface area analysis, X-ray diffraction and photo acoustic Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Porous agglomerates were obtained after a brief heat-treatment (1h) at 900°C.
Reclaimed rubber from rejected natural rubber (NR) latex gloves (r-NRG) was evaluated as partial
replacement for Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR) 20 in producing microcellular rubber. In the study, the amount of reclaimed rubber varied from 20 pphr to 95 pphr for the purpose of cost reduction, environmental interest and as processing aids in reducing internal porosity, swells and to minimize shrinkage and air-trapped problems in producing microcellular rubber. A typical formulation in making microcellular rubber slab was developed and two-roll mill was used for compounding. The cure characteristics and mechanical properties, such as density, hardness, tensile strength, and elongation at break, were evaluated. Scorch time and cure rate index performed marginal decreased with increasing of r-NRG content. 95 pphr r-NRG blends showed a consequential drop in hardness. Both tensile properties and elongation at break decreased as the r-NRG content was increased.
Linear stability analysis was used to investigate the onset of Marangoni convection in a two-layer system. The system comprised a saturated porous layer over which was a layer of the same fluid. The fluid was heated from below and the upper free surface was deformable. At the interface between the fluid and the porous layer, the Beavers-Joseph slip condition was used and in the porous medium the Darcy law was employed to describe the flow. Predictions for the onset of convection were obtained from the analysis by the perturbation technique. The effect of surface deformation and depth ratio, z (which is equal to the depth of the fluid layer/depth of the porous layer) on the onset of fluid motion was studied in detail.
Porous ceramic components with decently controlled porosity offers remarkable advantages in industrial and structural applications such as fluid filtration, thermal insulation and scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In this review study of porous ceramic components, requisite processing techniques necessary for the development of porous ceramics with imbued microstructural model intended for a specific application. An appraisal of the fabrication was made with respect to their economic viability wherein cost effective methods having great potentials in decently controlling the pore network imbued within the host ceramic matrix was preferred over the capital intensive counterparts.
Synthetic membranes used in Franz diffusion cells for topical formulation quality assessment should provide least resistance to drug diffusion. In this study, the diffusion rates of ibuprofen across thirteen membranes were determined using Franz diffusion cells. Correlation of the membrane thickness, pore size and MWCO with drug fluxes was also made. The drug diffusion results showed that the porous membranes were categorized into high-flux (8-18 mg/cm²/h) and low-flux (0.1-3 mg/cm²/h) membranes. The drug fluxes did not show strong correlations (r² < 0.99) with membrane parameters. Synthetic membranes can give variable drug fluxes, thus investigators should be careful in choosing membrane for formulation quality assessment.
In recent years, closed-cell porous Aluminum (Al) has drawn increasing attention, particularly in the applications requiring reduced weight and energy absorption capability such as in the automotive and aerospace industries. In the present work, porous Al with closed-cell structure was successfully fabricated by powder metallurgy technique using PMMA as a space holder. The effects of the amount of PMMA powder on the porosity, density, microstructure and compressive behaviors of the porous specimens were systematically evaluated. The results showed that closed-cell porous Al having different porosities (12%-32%) and densities (1.6478 g/cm³, 1.5125 g/cm³ and 1.305 g/cm³) could be produced by varying the amount of PMMA (20-30 wt %). Meanwhile, the compressive behavior results demonstrated that the plateau stress decreased and the energy absorption capacity increased with increasing amount of PMMA. However, the maximum energy absorption capacity was achieved in the closed-cell porous Al with the addition of 25 wt % PMMA. Therefore, fabrication of closed-cell porous Al using 25 wt % PMMA is considered as the optimal condition in the present study since the resultant closed-cell porous Al possessed good combinations of porosity, density and plateau stress, as well as energy absorption capacity.
The key challenge in the synthesis of composite mixed matrix membrane (MMMs) is the incompatible membrane fabrication using porous support in the dry-wet phase inversion technique. The key objective of this research is to synthesize thin composite ternary (amine) mixed matrix membranes on microporous support by incorporating 10 wt% of carbon molecular sieve (CMS) and 5-15 wt% of diethanolamine (DEA) in polyethersulfone (PES) dope solution for the separation of carbon dioxide (CO2) from methane (CH4) at high-pressure applications. The developed membranes were evaluated for their morphological structure, thermal and mechanical stabilities, functional groups, as well as for CO2-CH4 separation performance at high pressure (10-30 bar). The results showed that the developed membranes have asymmetric structure, and they are mechanically strong at 30 bar. This new class of PES/CMS/DEA composite MMMs exhibited improved gas permeance compared to pure PES composite polymeric membrane. CO2-CH4 perm-selectivity enhanced from 8.15 to 16.04 at 15 wt% of DEA at 30 bar pressure. The performance of amine composite MMMs is theoretically predicted using a modified Maxwell model. The predictions were in good agreement with experimental data after applying the optimized values with AARE % = ∼less than 2% and R2 = 0.99.
The unsteady blood flow in the stenosed porous artery subjected to a magnetic field was studied analytically. Oscillating
pressure gradient and periodic body acceleration were imposed on the flow field. The effects of the magnetic field and
the permeability of the stenosed artery on the blood velocity were studied. The results showed that the magnetic field
affected the flow field significantly which can be beneficial for some practical problems.
Zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) is a promising advanced ceramic material for a wide range of applications that are subjected to dynamic loading. Therefore, the investigation of dynamic compressive strength, fracture toughness and hardness is essential for ZTA ceramics. However, the relationship between these mechanical properties in ZTA has not yet been established. An example of this relationship is demonstrated using ZTA samples added with MgO prepared through conventional sintering. The microstructure and mechanical properties of ZTA composites were characterized. The hardness of ZTA composites increased for ≤0.7 wt.% MgO due to the pinning effect of MgO and decrease of the porosity in the microstructure. Oppositely, the fracture toughness of ZTA composites continuously decreased due to the size reduction of Al2O3 grains. This is the main reason of deteriorate of dynamic compressive strength more than 0.2 wt.% of MgO addition. Therefore, the SHPB test shows the improvement of the dynamic compressive strength only up to a tiny amount (0.2 wt.% of MgO addition) into ZTA ceramics.
Titanium-ceramic composites are potential implant material candidates because of their unique mechanical properties and biocompatibility. This review focused on the latest advancement in processing of titanium-ceramic materials. Previously, titanium-ceramic incorporated using different coating techniques, i.e., plasma spraying and electrophoretic depositions, to enhance the biocompatibility of the implants. A major drawback in these coating methods is the growth of tissue at only the surface of the composite and might peel off over time. Recently, metal-ceramic composite was introduced via powder metallurgy method such as powder injection moulding. A porous structure can be obtained via powder metallurgy. Producing a porous titanium-ceramic structure would improve the mechanical properties, biocompatibility and tissue growth within the structure. Hence, further research needed to be done by considering the potential of powder injection moulding method which offer lower costs and more complex shapes for future implant.
It is a theoretical exportation for mass transpiration and thermal transportation of Casson nanofluid over an extending cylindrical surface. The Stagnation point flow through porous matrix is influenced by magnetic field of uniform strength. Appropriate similarity functions are availed to yield the transmuted system of leading differential equations. Existence for the solution of momentum equation is proved for various values of Casson parameter [Formula: see text], magnetic parameter M, porosity parameter [Formula: see text] and Reynolds number Re in two situations of mass transpiration (suction/injuction). The core interest for this study aroused to address some analytical aspects. Therefore, existence of solution is proved and uniqueness of this results is discussed with evaluation of bounds for existence of solution. Results for skin friction factor are established to attain accuracy for large injection values. Thermal and concentration profiles are delineated numerically by applying Runge-Kutta method and shooting technique. The flow speed retards against M, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for both situations of mass injection and suction. The thermal boundary layer improves with Brownian and thermopherotic diffusions.
This study investigates thermal natural convective heat transfer in a nanofluid filled-non-Darcian porous and wavy-walled domain under the local thermal non-equilibrium condition. The considered cavity has corrugated and cold vertical walls and insulated horizontal walls except the heated part positioned at the bottom wall. The transport equations in their non-dimensional model are numerically solved based on the Galerkin finite-element discretization technique. The dimensionless governing parameters of the present work are the nanoparticle in volume concentration, the Darcy number, number of undulations, modified heat conductivity ratio, dimensionless heated part length, and location. Comparisons with other published theoretical and experimental results show good agreement with the present outcomes. The findings indicate that the heater length, its position, and the waves number on the side vertical walls as well as the nanoparticles concentration can be the control parameters for free convective motion and heat transport within the wavy cavity.
Extensive employment of biomaterials in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications is considered to be of prime importance. As expected, oil based polymer materials were gradually replaced by natural or synthetic biopolymers due to their well-known intrinsic characteristics such as biodegradability, non-toxicity and biocompatibility. Literature on this subject was found to be expanding, especially in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications. Introduction of porosity into a biomaterial broadens the scope of applications. In addition, increased porosity can have a beneficial effect for the applications which exploit their exceptional ability of loading, retaining and releasing of fluids. Different applications require a unique set of pore characteristics in the biopolymer matrix. Various pore morphologies have different characteristics and contribute different performances to the biopolymer matrix. Fabrication methods for bio-based porous materials more related to the choice of material. By choosing the appropriate combination of fabrication technique and biomaterial employment, one can obtain tunable pore characteristic to fulfill the requirements of desired application. In our previous review, we described the literature related to biopolymers and fabrication techniques of porous materials. This paper we will focus on the biomedical and microbiological applications of bio-based porous materials.
Microalgae cultivation using open cultivation systems requires large area and it is susceptible to contamination as well as weather changes. Meanwhile, the closed systems require large capital investment, and they are susceptible to the build-up of dissolved oxygen. Air-liquid interface culture systems with low water-footprint, but high packing density can be used for microalgae cultivation if low-cost culture scaffolds are available. In this study, cellulose-based scaffolds were synthesized using NaOH/urea aqueous solution as the solvent. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), silica gel and polyethylene glycol 1000 (PEG 1000) nanoparticles were added into the membrane scaffolds to increase the hydrophilicity of nutrient absorbing to support the growth of microalgae. The membrane scaffolds were characterized by FTIR, SEM, contact angle, porosity and porometry. All three nanoparticles additives showed their ability in reducing the contact angle of membrane scaffolds from 63.4 ± 2.3° to a range of 52.6 ± 1.2° to 38.8 ± 1.5° due to the hydrophilic properties of the nanoparticles. The decreasing in pore size when nanoparticles were added did not affect the porosity of membrane scaffolds. Cellulose membrane scaffold with TiO2 showed the highest percentage of microalgae Navicula incerta growth rate of 22.1% because of the antibacterial properties of TiO2 in lowering the risk of cell contamination and enhancing the growth of N. incerta. The results exhibited that cellulose-based scaffold with TiO2 added could be an effective support in plant cell culture field.