Numerical results are presented for the effect of first order chemical reaction and thermal radiation on mixed convection flow of Casson fluid in the presence of magnetic field. The flow is generated due to unsteady nonlinearly stretching sheet placed inside a porous medium. Convective conditions on wall temperature and wall concentration are also employed in the investigation. The governing partial differential equations are converted to ordinary differential equations using suitable transformations and then solved numerically via Keller-box method. It is noticed that fluid velocity rises with increase in radiation parameter in the case of assisting flow and is opposite in the case of opposing fluid while radiation parameter has no effect on fluid velocity in the forced convection. It is also seen that fluid velocity and concentration enhances in the case of generative chemical reaction whereas both profiles reduces in the case of destructive chemical reaction. Further, increase in local unsteadiness parameter reduces fluid velocity, temperature and concentration. Over all the effects of physical parameters on fluid velocity, temperature and concentration distribution as well as on the wall shear stress, heat and mass transfer rates are discussed in detail.
In this paper, the problem of laminar viscous flow in a semi-porous channel in the presence of transverse magnetic field is studied. The Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM) is employed to approximate the solution of the system of nonlinear differential equations governing the problem. The influence of the Hartmann number (Ha) and the Reynolds number (Re) on the flow was investigated. The results of the OHAM were compared with homotopy analysis method (HAM) and variation iteration method (VIM) results.
The current study is proposing a design envelope for porous Ti-6Al-4V alloy femoral stems to survive under fatigue loads. Numerical computational analysis of these stems with a body-centered-cube (BCC) structure is conducted in ABAQUS. Femoral stems without shell and with various outer dense shell thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2 mm) and inner cores (porosities of 90, 77, 63, 47, 30, and 18%) are analyzed. A design space (envelope) is derived by using stem stiffnesses close to that of the femur bone, maximum fatigue stresses of 0.3σys in the porous part, and endurance limits of the dense part of the stems. The Soderberg approach is successfully employed to compute the factor of safety Nf > 1.1. Fully porous stems without dense shells are concluded to fail under fatigue load. It is thus safe to use the porous stems with a shell thickness of 1.5 and 2 mm for all porosities (18-90%), 1 mm shell with 18 and 30% porosities, and 0.5 mm shell with 18% porosity. The reduction in stress shielding was achieved by 28%. Porous stems incorporated BCC structures with dense shells and beads were successfully printed.
Four porous coordination networks have been synthesized from 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate with Cl, Br, I, and NO2 substituents whose different spatial differences are sufficient to influence the coordination mode of adjacent carboxyl moieties to unlock an inter-penetrating framework to give isostructural structures. Their size and polarity differences account for the diverging CO2 adsorption performances.
Porous ZnO nanostructures have become the subject of research interest--due to their special structures with high surface to volume ratio that may produce peculiar properties for use in optoelectronics, sensing and catalysis applications. A microwave-assisted hydrothermal method has been used for effecting the formation of porous nanostructure of metaloxide materials, such as CoO and SnO2, in solution. Here, by adopting the unique performance of a microwave-assisted-hydrothermal method, we realized the formation of highly porous ZnO nanostructures directly on the substrate surface, instead of in solution. The effects of the ambient reaction conditions and the microwave power on the structural growth of the ZnO nanostructures were studied in detail. Two different ambient reaction conditions, namely refluxed and isolated in autoclave systems, were used in this work. Porous ZnO (PZO) nanostructures with networked-nanoflakes morphology is the typical result for this approach. It was found that the morphology of the ZnO nanostructures was strongly depended on the ambient conditions of the reaction; the isolated-autoclave system may produce reasonably high porous ZnO that is constituted by vertically oriented grainy-flakes structures, whereas the refluxed system produced solid vertically-oriented flake structures. The microwave power did not influence the structural growth of the ZnO. It was also found that both the ambient reaction conditions and the microwave power used influenced the crystallographic orientation of the PZO. For instance, PZO with dominant (002) Bragg plane could be obtained by using refluxed system, whereas PZO with dominant (101) plane could be realized if using isolated system. For the case of microwave power, the crystallographic orientation of PZO prepared using both systems changed from dominant (002) to (101) planes if the power was increased. The mechanism for the formation of porous ZnO nanostructures using the present approach is proposed. The ZnO nanostructures prepared using the present method should find an extensive use in currently existing application due to its property of reasonably high porosity.
Hydroxyapatite is used extensively in hard tissue repair due to its biocompatibility and similarity to biological apatite, the mineral component of bone. It differs subtly in composition from biological apatite which contains other ions such as magnesium, zinc, carbonate and silicon (believed to play biological roles). Traditional methods of hydroxyapatite synthesis are time consuming and require strict reaction parameter control. This paper outlines synthesis of magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite using simple microwave irradiation of precipitated suspensions. Microwave irradiation resulted in a drastic decrease in ageing times of amorphous apatitic phases. Time taken to synthesize hydroxyapatite (which remained stable upon heat treatment at 900°C for 1h) reduced twelve folds (to 2h) as compared to traditionally required times. The effects of increasing magnesium concentration in the precursors on particle size, surface area, phase-purity, agglomeration and thermal stability, were observed using scanning electron microscopy, BET surface area analysis, X-ray diffraction and photo acoustic Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Porous agglomerates were obtained after a brief heat-treatment (1h) at 900°C.
In this study, porous silicon (PSi) was prepared and tested as an extended gate field-effect transistor (EGFET) for pH sensing. The prepared PSi has pore sizes in the range of 500 to 750 nm with a depth of approximately 42 µm. The results of testing PSi for hydrogen ion sensing in different pH buffer solutions reveal that the PSi has a sensitivity value of 66 mV/pH that is considered a super Nernstian value. The sensor considers stability to be in the pH range of 2 to 12. The hysteresis values of the prepared PSi sensor were approximately 8.2 and 10.5 mV in the low and high pH loop, respectively. The result of this study reveals a promising application of PSi in the field for detecting hydrogen ions in different solutions.
Reclaimed rubber from rejected natural rubber (NR) latex gloves (r-NRG) was evaluated as partial
replacement for Standard Malaysian Rubber (SMR) 20 in producing microcellular rubber. In the study, the amount of reclaimed rubber varied from 20 pphr to 95 pphr for the purpose of cost reduction, environmental interest and as processing aids in reducing internal porosity, swells and to minimize shrinkage and air-trapped problems in producing microcellular rubber. A typical formulation in making microcellular rubber slab was developed and two-roll mill was used for compounding. The cure characteristics and mechanical properties, such as density, hardness, tensile strength, and elongation at break, were evaluated. Scorch time and cure rate index performed marginal decreased with increasing of r-NRG content. 95 pphr r-NRG blends showed a consequential drop in hardness. Both tensile properties and elongation at break decreased as the r-NRG content was increased.
Linear stability analysis was used to investigate the onset of Marangoni convection in a two-layer system. The system comprised a saturated porous layer over which was a layer of the same fluid. The fluid was heated from below and the upper free surface was deformable. At the interface between the fluid and the porous layer, the Beavers-Joseph slip condition was used and in the porous medium the Darcy law was employed to describe the flow. Predictions for the onset of convection were obtained from the analysis by the perturbation technique. The effect of surface deformation and depth ratio, z (which is equal to the depth of the fluid layer/depth of the porous layer) on the onset of fluid motion was studied in detail.
Synthetic membranes used in Franz diffusion cells for topical formulation quality assessment should provide least resistance to drug diffusion. In this study, the diffusion rates of ibuprofen across thirteen membranes were determined using Franz diffusion cells. Correlation of the membrane thickness, pore size and MWCO with drug fluxes was also made. The drug diffusion results showed that the porous membranes were categorized into high-flux (8-18 mg/cm²/h) and low-flux (0.1-3 mg/cm²/h) membranes. The drug fluxes did not show strong correlations (r² < 0.99) with membrane parameters. Synthetic membranes can give variable drug fluxes, thus investigators should be careful in choosing membrane for formulation quality assessment.
The unsteady blood flow in the stenosed porous artery subjected to a magnetic field was studied analytically. Oscillating
pressure gradient and periodic body acceleration were imposed on the flow field. The effects of the magnetic field and
the permeability of the stenosed artery on the blood velocity were studied. The results showed that the magnetic field
affected the flow field significantly which can be beneficial for some practical problems.
Extensive employment of biomaterials in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications is considered to be of prime importance. As expected, oil based polymer materials were gradually replaced by natural or synthetic biopolymers due to their well-known intrinsic characteristics such as biodegradability, non-toxicity and biocompatibility. Literature on this subject was found to be expanding, especially in the areas of biomedical and microbiological applications. Introduction of porosity into a biomaterial broadens the scope of applications. In addition, increased porosity can have a beneficial effect for the applications which exploit their exceptional ability of loading, retaining and releasing of fluids. Different applications require a unique set of pore characteristics in the biopolymer matrix. Various pore morphologies have different characteristics and contribute different performances to the biopolymer matrix. Fabrication methods for bio-based porous materials more related to the choice of material. By choosing the appropriate combination of fabrication technique and biomaterial employment, one can obtain tunable pore characteristic to fulfill the requirements of desired application. In our previous review, we described the literature related to biopolymers and fabrication techniques of porous materials. This paper we will focus on the biomedical and microbiological applications of bio-based porous materials.
Zirconia toughened alumina (ZTA) is a promising advanced ceramic material for a wide range of applications that are subjected to dynamic loading. Therefore, the investigation of dynamic compressive strength, fracture toughness and hardness is essential for ZTA ceramics. However, the relationship between these mechanical properties in ZTA has not yet been established. An example of this relationship is demonstrated using ZTA samples added with MgO prepared through conventional sintering. The microstructure and mechanical properties of ZTA composites were characterized. The hardness of ZTA composites increased for ≤0.7 wt.% MgO due to the pinning effect of MgO and decrease of the porosity in the microstructure. Oppositely, the fracture toughness of ZTA composites continuously decreased due to the size reduction of Al2O3 grains. This is the main reason of deteriorate of dynamic compressive strength more than 0.2 wt.% of MgO addition. Therefore, the SHPB test shows the improvement of the dynamic compressive strength only up to a tiny amount (0.2 wt.% of MgO addition) into ZTA ceramics.
In recent years, closed-cell porous Aluminum (Al) has drawn increasing attention, particularly in the applications requiring reduced weight and energy absorption capability such as in the automotive and aerospace industries. In the present work, porous Al with closed-cell structure was successfully fabricated by powder metallurgy technique using PMMA as a space holder. The effects of the amount of PMMA powder on the porosity, density, microstructure and compressive behaviors of the porous specimens were systematically evaluated. The results showed that closed-cell porous Al having different porosities (12%-32%) and densities (1.6478 g/cm³, 1.5125 g/cm³ and 1.305 g/cm³) could be produced by varying the amount of PMMA (20-30 wt %). Meanwhile, the compressive behavior results demonstrated that the plateau stress decreased and the energy absorption capacity increased with increasing amount of PMMA. However, the maximum energy absorption capacity was achieved in the closed-cell porous Al with the addition of 25 wt % PMMA. Therefore, fabrication of closed-cell porous Al using 25 wt % PMMA is considered as the optimal condition in the present study since the resultant closed-cell porous Al possessed good combinations of porosity, density and plateau stress, as well as energy absorption capacity.
Porous ceramic components with decently controlled porosity offers remarkable advantages in industrial and structural applications such as fluid filtration, thermal insulation and scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. In this review study of porous ceramic components, requisite processing techniques necessary for the development of porous ceramics with imbued microstructural model intended for a specific application. An appraisal of the fabrication was made with respect to their economic viability wherein cost effective methods having great potentials in decently controlling the pore network imbued within the host ceramic matrix was preferred over the capital intensive counterparts.
Titanium-ceramic composites are potential implant material candidates because of their unique mechanical properties and biocompatibility. This review focused on the latest advancement in processing of titanium-ceramic materials. Previously, titanium-ceramic incorporated using different coating techniques, i.e., plasma spraying and electrophoretic depositions, to enhance the biocompatibility of the implants. A major drawback in these coating methods is the growth of tissue at only the surface of the composite and might peel off over time. Recently, metal-ceramic composite was introduced via powder metallurgy method such as powder injection moulding. A porous structure can be obtained via powder metallurgy. Producing a porous titanium-ceramic structure would improve the mechanical properties, biocompatibility and tissue growth within the structure. Hence, further research needed to be done by considering the potential of powder injection moulding method which offer lower costs and more complex shapes for future implant.
Arabinoxylan (AX) is a natural biological macromolecule with several potential biomedical applications. In this research, AX, nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HAp) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) based polymeric nanocomposite scaffolds were fabricated by the freeze-drying method. The physicochemical characterizations of these polymeric nanocomposite scaffolds were performed for surface morphology, porosity, swelling, biodegradability, mechanical, and biological properties. The scaffolds exhibited good porosity and rough surface morphology, which were efficiently controlled by TiO2 concentrations. MC3T3-E1 cells were employed to conduct the biocompatibility of these scaffolds. Scaffolds showed unique biocompatibility in vitro and was favorable for cell attachment and growth. PNS3 proved more biocompatible, showed interconnected porosity and substantial mechanical strength compared to PNS1, PNS2 and PNS4. Furthermore, it has also showed more affinity to cells and cell growth. The results illustrated that the bioactive nanocomposite scaffold has the potential to find applications in the tissue engineering field.
Transport of environmental pollutants in groundwater systems can be greatly influenced by colloids. In this study, the cotransport of Pb2+ and silica (SiO2) colloids at different Pb2+ concentrations was systematically investigated by batch adsorption and saturated sand column experiments. Results showed that SiO2 colloids had low adsorption capacity for Pb2+ (less than 1% of the input) compared with sands. In saturated porous media, SiO2 colloids showed a high mobility; however, with the increase of Pb2+ concentration in the sand column, the mobility of SiO2 colloids gradually decreased. Notably, SiO2 colloids could facilitate Pb2+ transport, although they did not serve as effective carriers of Pb2+. Under the condition of low Pb2+ concentration, SiO2 colloids promoted the Pb2+ transport mainly through the way of "transport channel," while changing the porosity of the medium and masking medium adsorption sites were the main mechanisms of SiO2 colloid-facilitated Pb2+ transport under the condition of high Pb2+ concentration. The discovery of this non-adsorption effect of colloids would improve our understanding of colloid-facilitated Pb2+ transport in saturated porous media, which provided new insights into the role of colloids, especially colloids with weak Pb2+ adsorption capacity, in Pb2+ occurrence and transport in soil-groundwater systems.
The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary-layer flow and heat transfer due to a shrinking sheet in a porous medium is considered for the first time. The Navier-Stokes equations and the heat equation are reduced to two nonlinear ordinary differential equations via similarity transformations. The transformed equations are solved by a semi-analytic method. The effects of the suction and porosity parameters, the Prandtl and Hartmann numbers on the skin friction, heat transfer rate, velocity and temperature profiles are discussed and presented, respectively.
A number of n-type Si (100) samples were prepared into porous structures via electrochemical etching process, using an electrolyte solution; HF and ethanol. The morphological properties of the samples were observed under scanning electron microscope measurement. The results showed that the pore density, pore uniformity distribution and pore size of the porous Si samples increased with time of etching. In the next stage, H2O2 was introduced into the electrolyte solution in order to investigate its effect on the morphological properties of the porous Si. From the experiment, we found that H2O2 gave finer porous structure with highly symmetrical cubic shape on the surface. Besides, H2O2 promoted smoother surface of the pore walls. Hence, the results showed that such porous Si structure could be used as a better substrate for the subsequent layer, in particular for the growth of cubic material.