A 64-year old patient, who had bacteraemia, did not respond to vancomycin despite the MRSA isolate being sensitive to the antibiotic at MIC 2 microg/mL. Electron microscopy of the MRSA isolate showed thickening of the cell wall, which was not observed in MRSA with lower vancomycin MIC.
A 61-year-old male presented with community-onset pneumonia not responding to treatment despite given appropriate antibiotics. Computed tomography scan of the thorax showed large multiloculated pleural effusion with multiple cavitating foci within collapsed segments; lesions which were suggestive of necrotising pneumonia. Drainage of the effusion and culture revealed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which had the same antibiotic profile with the blood isolate and PVL gene positive.
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease which can be transmitted by direct or indirect contact with infected animal or their products. It is an important public health problem but little is known on brucellosis in the Malaysian population. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Brucella antibodies using commercial Brucella IgG and IgM ELISA kits (Vircell, SL, Barcelona Spain). A total of 184 sera from suspected patients were received from 16 hospitals in Malaysia over the years 2004 to 2009. Only 10 serum samples (5.4%) were positive for Brucella antibodies in which 5 showed the presence of both IgM and IgG. Most of the positive patients were occupationally involved with animals. This study suggests the seroprevalance of brucellosis among individuals who have contact with infected animals in Malaysia is low.
This study was conducted to determine whether there was any genetic heterogeneity among Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from the antrum and corpus of the same individual in a Malaysian population and to determine the presence of heterogeneous susceptibility of the isolates by comparing PCR-RAPD and antibiotic profiles. Forty-four H. pylori isolates cultured from the antrum and corpus of 22 patients were analyzed. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out by minimum inhibitory concentration determination, using E-Test method strips. PCR-RAPD was carried out on all the strains and the profiles generated were analysed for cluster analysis. Twenty-nine different PCR-RAPD profiles were observed in the 44 isolates. Fifteen pairs of the isolates from the same patients had the same PCR-RAPD patterns while in 7 pairs, the profiles were different. The strains were clustered into 2 separate clusters at a low coefficient of similarity, where most of the strains were in cluster 1. The degree of similarity was very low among most of the isolates. Most of the patients (16 of 22) were infected with strains that have the same antibiotic susceptibility profiles. Out of these, only 10 pairs shared the same PCR-RAPD and antibiotic profiles. Five pairs of isolates with similar PCR-RAPD profiles differed in their antibiotic profiles due to metronidazole resistance in one of the sites. A large degree of genetic heterogeneity was observed among H. pylori strains circulating among Malaysian patients. An individual patient can be infected with multiple strains and the strains can be antibiotic resistant.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been prevalent in our hospital over the last three years. Differentiation among MRSA strains by DNA typing in addition to antibiotic resistance pattern surveillance is crucial in order to implement infection control measures. The aim of this study was to characterize MRSA isolates from patients admitted to Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM) by phenotypic (analyses of antibiotic susceptibility pattern) and genotypic (PFGE) techniques to determine the genetic relatedness of the MRSA involved and to identify endemic clonal profiles of MRSA circulating in HUKM. Seventy one MRSA strains collected between January to March 2000 from patients from various wards in HUKM were tested for antimicrobial resistance and typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Four major types of PFGE patterns were identified (A, B, C and D) among MRSA strains. Two predominant PFGE types were recognised, Type A (59.2%) and Type B (33.8%). Most of these strains were isolated from ICU, Surgical wards and Medical wards. MRSA strains with different PFGE patterns appeared to be widespread among wards. Strains with the same antibiotype could be of different PFGE types. Most of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin and penicillin. One isolate with a unique PFGE pattern Type D and susceptible to gentamicin was identified as a different clone. Some isolates obtained from the same patient showed different PFGE subtypes suggesting that these patients were infected/colonized with multiple MRSA strains. PFGE analysis suggests that MRSA strains with different PFGE types was propagated within our hospital. The relationship between antibiotic susceptibility and PFGE patterns was independent. The ability of PFGE technique in differentiating our MRSA strains make it a method of choice for investigating the source, transmission and spread of nosocomial MRSA infection, and thus an appropriate control programme can be implemented to prevent the spread of MRSA infection.
A 34-year-old laboratory worker developed murine typhus after an accidental splashing of Rickettsia typhi over her right eye and lips. Indirect immunoperoxidase test showed a four-fold increase in titre to Rickettsia typhi. She responded well to doxycycline.
Antibiotic resistance is increasing worldwide, and it has been regarded as the main factor reducing the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotype and genotype of antibiotic-resistant strains of H. pylori in the Malaysian population and to evaluate the impact of antibiotic resistance to eradication outcome. One hundred and sixty-one H. pylori isolates were analysed in this study. Metronidazole, clarithromycin, fluoroquinolone, amoxicillin and tetracycline susceptibilities were determined by Etest. PCR followed by DNA sequencing was carried out to determine mutations. The medical records of the patients infected with resistant strains were reviewed to determine the eradication outcome. Metronidazole resistance was encountered in 36.6 % of H. pylori isolates, whereas clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance was observed in 1.2 and 1.9 % of isolates, respectively. All strains tested were susceptible to amoxicillin and tetracycline. Frameshift and nonsense mutations in rdxA and frxA genes resulting in stop codons contributed to metronidazole resistance, which leads to reduced eradication efficacy. A2142G and A2143G mutations of 23S rRNA were identified as causing failure of the eradication therapy. Mutation at either codon 87 or 91 of the gyrA gene was identified in fluoroquinolone-resistant strains. However, the effect of resistance could not be assessed. This study showed that frameshift and nonsense mutations in rdxA or frxA genes and point mutations in the 23S rRNA affected the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy.
Subdural collections caused by Salmonella infection are rarely encountered in children. We present two cases caused by non-typhi Salmonella, one a four-and-a-half-month-old boy presenting with subdural effusion, and the other, a 16-month-old boy with empyema. The diagnosis was confirmed on blood and subdural pus cultures. One patient had status epilepticus following focal fit, and the other had prolonged fever without any localising signs of infection on admission. They responded well to prompt surgical drainage and prolonged systemic antibiotic therapy. Contrary to previous reports, both patients showed favourable outcome in terms of neurological sequelae.
We report a case of globe avulsion secondary to maxillofacial trauma and propose potential mechanisms of injury. This case highlights the importance of wearing proper safety attire, especially during motorcycling.
This study was conducted to detect the presence of heterogenous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (heteroVISA) among MRSA isolates in a major hospital. Forty-three MRSA isolates with vancomycin MIC 2 microg/ml collected in 2009 was screened for heteroVISA using Etest Glycopeptide Resistance Detection (GRD) and confirmed by population analysis profile-area under curve method. The genetic relatedness of heteroVISA strains with other MRSA was examined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method. Two isolates were shown to be heteroVISA and derived from the same clone. This showed that heteroVISA strains were already present among our local strains since 2009 and were genetically related to other susceptible strains.
We have analysed DNA fingerprinting patterns by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of 52 unrelated Burkholderia pseudomallei strains isolated from septicemic and localized infections from Malaysian subjects. A total of 38 PFGE types were observed among 36 septicemic and 16 localized strains with no predominant pattern. Type 25 was seen in 2 epidemiologically related strains, suggesting human to human transmission. Twelve PFGE types were shared among 26 strains (21 septicemic and 5 localized) showing close genetic relatedness with coefficient of similarity of 0.81 to 1.0. The other 26 strains (15 septicemic and 11 localized) were unrelated as shown by the similarity coefficient of < 0.8. This study showed that our B. pseudomallei strains in Malaysia were mainly heterogenous with no predominant type both in septicemic or localized strains.
The in-vitro susceptibility of quinupristin/dalfopristin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains, which are also resistant to fusidic acid and rifampicin were carried out to determine whether these antibiotics can be used as an alternative treatment for multiply resistant MRSA strains. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these antibiotics were determined by E-test. Quinupristin/dalfopristin had good activity (MIC90 = 1 mg/L) against these strains while most of the strains showed intermediate resistance to moxifloxacin with MIC90 = 2 mg/L). However, more than 90% of these strains were resistant to levofloxacin with the MICs that ranged from 8 mg/L to 16 mg/L with the majority inhibited at 8 mg/L.
Three monoclonal antibodies (McAb) were produced against soluble antigens of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 which was cultured on BCYE agar. The McAbs were all of the IgM isotype. The McAbs were used in the McAb-based ELISA for detection of circulating L. pneumophila antigens in 186 sera collected from patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of atypical pneumonia. The normal reference optical (OD) density value of each of the McAbs was determined using 44 sera collected from healthy blood donors. The antigen positivity rates for the McAbs 1C7.2B, 2B2.10F and 2B2.11E were 11.3%, 7.7% and 22.2% respectively. Antigen positivity of the McAb 2B2.10F was significantly higher in the younger age group (p < 0.05). There is no significant association between the antigen positivity with age and sex for all the McAbs. There was no cross-reaction demonstrated between the McAbs with other bacterial antigens.
A total of 402 Escherichia coli isolates were obtained from a variety of food samples and screened for enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Screening was carried out using 15 specific monovalent antisera from Murex Diagnostic Limited. A total of 19 E. coli isolates were serotyped as EPEC. The EPEC strains were shown to belong to 8 serotypes. Eight out of 19 EPEC strains belonged to serotype 018C:K77 (B21). Seventeen out of 19 of the EPEC strains were isolated from cooked food. The presence of E. coli in cooked food is an indicator of fecal contamination and a sign of unhygienic food handling. The presence of EPEC in food could be a potential source of food-borne outbreak. Hygiene training for every food-handler is a necessity.
Interpretation of the indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) for melioidosis in endemic areas is difficult because of the presence of antibodies in apparently healthy individuals. Fifty-three out of 200 healthy blood donors in Malaysia showed positive antibody titers (> or = 1 : 40) against Burkholderia pseudomallei. Seven percent had an IHA titer of 1 : 40, 11% had an IHA titer of 1 : 80 while 8.5% had a titer > or = 1 : 160. Out of 258 sera sent for melioidosis serology, 7% of the patients had an IHA titer of 1 : 40, 9% had an IHA titer of 1 : 80 while 20% had an IHA titer of > or = 1 : 160. If a titer of > or = 1 : 80 is taken as cut off point for positivity, 29% of the patients had positive melioidosis serology. Increasing the positivity threshold may jeopardize the sensitivity of the test. A more specific and sensitive test is needed.
The carriage and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus aureus in the community were determined. Nasal, throat and axillary swabs were taken from 100 healthy adults and 90 disabled nursing home inmates. Antibiotic disc susceptibility testing was conducted following the NCCLS method. Staphylococcus aureus carriage was noted in 29% of healthy adults and 47.7% of nursing home inmates. Out of 79 strains, resistance to antibiotics were as follows; penicillin (92.4%), genetamicin (2.5%), tetracycline (6.3%), fusidic acid (11.3%), erythromycin (3.8%), pefloxacin (5.1%), mupirocin (3.8%), amikacin (3.8%), ciprofloxacin (2.5%) and chloramphenicol (2.5%). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was not isolated. Multiple colonizations and multi-antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus were shown to occur in healthy individuals without risk factors and not previously hospitalized.
To characterise the cag pathogenicity island in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) isolates by analysing the strains' vacA alleles and metronidazole susceptibilities in light of patient ethnicity and clinical outcome.