RESULTS: This study found that the annual rate of deforestation within inland forests in Peninsular Malaysia was 0.38% year-1 and subsequently caused a carbon loss of approximately 9 million Mg C year-1, which is equal to emissions of 33 million Mg CO2 year-1, within the ten-year observation period. Spatially explicit maps of AGB over the dipterocarps forests in the entire Peninsular Malaysia were produced. The RMSE associated with the AGB estimation was approximately 117 Mg ha-1, which is equal to an error of 29.3% and thus an accuracy of approximately 70.7%.
CONCLUSION: The PALSAR and PALSAR-2 systems offer a great opportunity for providing consistent data acquisition, cloud-free images and wall-to-wall coverage for monitoring since at least the past decade. We recommend the proposed method and findings of this study be considered for MRV in REDD+ implementation in Malaysia.
Methods: This is a single-center retrospective observational study of patients with malignant biliary obstruction undergoing EUS-HGS after failed ERCP between January 2018 and May 2019. The end-point of the study was to assess the technical and clinical success rate, as well as the stent- and procedure-related complications.
Results: There were 20 subjects in this study. The average age was 71.8 ± 7.6 years. Most patients were male, 16 (80%). Inaccessible papillae was the most common indication for this procedure, 16 (80%). Technical success was achieved in all patients. The average procedural time was 39.9 ± 1.3 min. Mean preprocedural bilirubin levels were 348.6 ± 28.8 and subsequently decreased to 108.94 ± 37.1 μmol/L at 2 weeks postprocedure. The clinical success rate was 95% (19/20), with one patient requiring percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD). There were no stent- or procedure-related complications reported in this study.
Conclusion: EUS-HGS with PCMS is a feasible, effective, and safe alternative for biliary decompression in patients with failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).