Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 108 in total

  1. Norshazila, S., Irwandi, J., Othman, R., Yumi Zuhanis, H.H.
    Characterization and quantification of carotenoid compound is complicated, costly and timeconsuming. The accuracy and reliability of the data depend solely on the standard and to High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis but the major constraint is to acquire and to maintain the pure standards. Carotenoid standards are commercially available but they are expensive and are prone to isomerization and oxidation. Thus, the purpose of this study is to establish an analytical method for isolating β-carotene by using open column chromatography (OCC) from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) to be used as one of the carotenoid standards for determination of total and individual carotenoid. Pumpkin with orange flesh has been chosen due to the non-seasonal nature and its availability all year-round. This study demonstrated that the purity of β-carotene standard; determined by HPLC was ranged from 92.21 to 97.95%. The standard curves with five different concentrations of β-carotene extract from pumpkins in triplicate were constructed by plotting the peak area against the concentration. The coefficient of correlation was 0.9936. Therefore, this study established that pumpkin can be a reliable source of beta-carotene standard as it is cheap and commonly available throughout the year.
  2. Irna, C., Jaswir, I., Othman, R., Jimat, D.N.
    The use of High Pressure Processing as an extraction method was studied by evaluating the yield of astaxanthin from shrimp carapace as a model. Previous studies have demonstrated the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of astaxanthin. The aim of this research was to compare these properties of astaxanthin as a surrogate for its yield from High Pressure Processing (HPP) extraction with the effect of hydrostatic pressure, holding time and amount of solvents versus chemical extraction method. A solvent mixture of acetone and methanol 7:3 (v/v) was used in both methods. The pressure treated was at 238 MPa with 16.29 min of holding time and 6.59 ml of solvents for HPP method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using scavenging activity of DPPH radical, the reducing activity of Ferrum redox reaction and oxygen radical absorption capacity. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated using a zone of inhibition test against four strain of bacteria: E. coli, E. aerogenes, S. aureus and B. subtilis. The sample of astaxanthin demonstrated a significant increase in DPPH radical scavenging activity (25.47% to 87.90%), reducing activity of Ferrum redox reaction (2.86 µmol TE/g to 8.13 µmol TE/g) and oxygen radical absorption capacity (2,000 µmol TE/100 g to 4,000 µmol TE/100 g) compared to the chemical extraction sample. The antimicrobial activity of the astaxanthin from the HPP sample produced a greater zone of inhibition against all four strains of bacteria when compared to the chemically extracted sample. A higher quality of astaxanthin was achieved with the HPP extraction method compared to chemical extraction.
  3. Norshazila, S., Othman, R., Jaswir, I., Yumi Zuhanis, H.H.
    In nature, environmental factors highly influence the carotenoid composition in pumpkin plants and these factors were difficult to control; thus, carotenoid content is varied quantitatively and qualitatively. However, certain parameters can be controlled and this can be conducted in the laboratory through biogenesis manipulation. This approach uses environmental stress as a tool to alter the carotenoid pathway in the plants. The main objective of this study was to observe the inhibiting and enhancing effect of abiotic stress on individual carotenoid accumulation in pumpkin plants under light and dark conditions. The abiotic stresses used were plant elicitors which consisted of Ultra Violet light exposure, Polyethylene Glycol 4000, Salicylic Acid, and half strength nutrients using Murashige and Skoog Salt. After two weeks of treatments, the pumpkin leaves and stems were harvested, freeze dried and extracted to determine the carotenoids compound using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that there was a significant difference (p
  4. Othman R, Nuraziyan A
    J. Plant Physiol., 2010 Jan 15;167(2):131-7.
    PMID: 19729222 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2009.07.015
    Subtilisin-like serine proteases (EC 3.4.21) consist of a widespread family of enzymes that is involved in various processes including in plants. The full-length cDNA (CpSUB1) and the corresponding genomic DNA for papaya subtilase have been obtained using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACEs) and PCR primer walking techniques, respectively. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame of 2316bp encoding 772 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 82.6kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 8.97. The CpSUB1 gene is composed of nine exons and eight introns. The amino acid sequence encoded by CpSUB1 shared high identity (>60%) with the amino acid sequence of other plant subtilisin-like proteases. Sequence analysis of CpSUB1 revealed the presence of a possible signal peptide (25 amino acid residues) and an NH(2)-terminal prosequence (88 amino acid residues). In addition, papaya subtilase possesses the characteristic subtilisin catalytic triad amino acids namely Asp, His and Ser, together with the substrate-binding site, Asn. DNA hybridization analysis showed that subtilase gene exists as a single copy in the papaya genome. RNA hybridization analyses showed that expression of the subtilase transcripts was only detected in mesocarp but not in non-fruit tissues. Gene expression in fruit tissues reached the highest level during the ripening stage at which the fruits undergo dramatic softening process. Subsequently, pro-subtilase ( approximately 80kDa) was expressed as recombinant pro-enzyme ( approximately 97kDa), which was used to generate antiserum against papaya subtilase, anti-sub. Protein gel blot analysis using anti-sub towards total protein extracted from all ripening stages revealed that a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 70kDa reacted with the antiserum. Hence both RNA hybridization and protein gel blot analyses confirmed the presence of subtilase during papaya fruit ripening, pointing to its possible involvement in this important process.
  5. Fernando WJ, Othman R
    Math Biosci, 2006 Feb;199(2):175-87.
    PMID: 16387333
    Disinfectants are generally used to inactivate microorganisms in solutions. The process of inactivation involves the disinfectant in the liquid diffusing towards the bacteria sites and thereafter reacting with bacteria at rates determined by the respective reaction rates. Such processes have demonstrated an initial lag phase followed by an active depletion phase of bacteria. This paper attempts to study the importance of the combined effects of diffusion of the disinfectant through the outer membrane of the bacteria and transport through the associated concentration boundary layers (CBLs) during the initial lag phase. Mathematical equations are developed correlating the initial concentration of the disinfectant with time required for reaching a critical concentration (C*) at the inner side of the membrane of the cell based on diffusion of disinfectant through the outer membranes of the bacteria and the formation of concentration boundary layers on both sides of the membranes. Experimental data of the lag phases of inactivation already available in the literature for inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores with ozone and monochloramine are tested with the equations. The results seem to be in good agreement with the theoretical equations indicating the importance of diffusion process across the outer cell membranes and the resulting CBL's during the lag phase of disinfection.
  6. Arshat H, Othman R, Kuan Lin Chee, Abdullah M
    JOICFP Rev, 1985 Oct;10:10-5.
    PMID: 12313881
    The NADI program (pulse in Malay) was initially launched as a pilot project in 1980 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It utilized an integrated approach involving both the government and the private sectors. By sharing resources and expertise, and by working together, the government and the people can achieve national development faster and with better results. The agencies work through a multi-level supportive structure, at the head of which is the steering committee. The NADI teams at the field level are the focal points of services from the various agencies. Members of NADI teams also work with urban poor families as well as health groups, parents-teachers associations, and other similar groups. The policy and planning functions are carried out by the steering committee, the 5 area action committees and the community action committees, while the implementation function is carried out by the area program managers and NADI teams. The chairman of each area action committee is the head of the branch office of city hall. Using intestinal parasite control as the entry point, the NADI Integrated Family Development Program has greatly helped in expanding inter-agency cooperation and exchange of experiences by a coordinated, effective and efficient resource-mobilization. The program was later expanded to other parts of the country including the industrial and estate sectors. Services provided by NADI include: comprehensive health services to promote maternal and child health; adequate water supply, proper waste disposal, construction of latrines and providing electricity; and initiating community and family development such as community education, preschool education, vocational training, family counseling and building special facilities for recreational and educational purposes.
  7. Othman, R., Kammona, S., Jaswir, I., Jamal, P., Mohd Hatta, F.A.
    Abiotic stress factors are the main limitation to plant growth and yield in agriculture. Orange sweet potatoes may become major sources of carotenoids in the diet, but the extent of environmental and genetic influences on plant carotenoid biosynthesis are poorly understood. Carotenoid biosynthesis is regulated by several factors such as water, light, pathogen, salinity, nutrients and is susceptible to geometric isomerisation in the presence of oxygen, light and heat which causes colour loss and oxidation. The main problems associated with carotenoid accumulation arise from the inherent instability of pigments. In this study carotenoid biogenesis is investigated in sweet potato callus culture as a potential model system for carotenogenesis by analysing the effects of environmental stress agents such as NaCl (for salt tolerance), PEG (for drought tolerance), salicylic acid (for pathogen stress or disease resistance) and nutrient strength towards carotenoid content and composition. Results of this study revealed that the bioactive compounds detected in orange sweet potato callus were α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Not surprisingly, the response of sweet potato callus culture to such environments appeared to be highly light dependent. Another factor is the activity of functional enzymes and candidate enzymes that regulate carotenoid biosynthesis, which will determine type and quantity of individual carotenoids. By understanding the environmental factors that affected carotenoid biosynthesis, it should be possible to enhance the amount and type of carotenoid that accumulates in sweet potato tubers. In conclusion, in vitro callus culture is suggested as a successful new alternative approaches to enhance or enrich certain carotenoids through controlled environment.
  8. Othman, R., Noh, N., Nurrulhidayah, A.F., Anis Hamizah, H., Jamaludin, M. A.
    It is noted that nowadays, halal products are gaining wider recognition as a new benchmark for safety and quality assurance. As a consequence of these additional pigment needs, the demand in isolated natural colorants has increased as compared with synthetic dyes. The aim of the research is to explore new sources of pigments to be used as halal food colorants. This quest is not only directed in finding natural alternatives for synthetic dyes, but also with the aim to discover new taxons for the pigment production, for instance from microalgae. Therefore, a total of six freshwater algae species were evaluated quantitative and qualitatively using HPLC for carotenoids pigment. Three main carotenoids were identified in Chlorella fusca, Chlorella vulgaris, Selenastrum capricornutum, Pandorina morum, Botryococcus sudeticus and Chlorococcum sp. which are lutein, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene. The ratio of these carotenoids varies between species where lutein was detected substantially higher in Chlorella fusca (69.54±11.29µg/g DW); β-cryptoxanthin in Pandorina morum (1.24±0.33 µg/g DW) whereas β-carotene in Chlorella vulgaris (18.42±9.2 ug/g DW). The significant outcome of the research will be new findings of new natural carotenoid pigment sources as potential food colorants and bioactive compounds which can be beneficial to halal health promoting products industry, food products and dye technology which covers not only the Shariah requirement, but also the hygiene, purification and safety aspects.
  9. Othman, R., Kammona, S., Jaswir, I., Jamal, P., Mohd Hatta, F.A.
    Carotenoid content in plants differs due to several factors such as cultivar, maturity, climate, locality and storage. Improving the nutritional values of sweet potato is an important breeding goal and understanding the regulation, genetics and inheritance of carotenoid biosynthesis are vital to achieve this. Environmental conditions can have a marked influence on the accumulation of carotenoids in sweet potato tubers. Little is known about the effects of location, post-harvest storage time and harvesting season particularly on carotenoid biosynthesis. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of growing location, harvesting season and storage time on carotenoid biosynthesis in orange sweet potato tuber flesh. The results showed that orange sweet potato tubers contained α-carotene and β-carotene in the first and second harvesting season (year 2011 and 2012), whereas lutein and zeaxanthin were detected only in the third harvesting season (year 2013). Analysis of carotenoid profiles of the orange sweet potato tubers grown in three different locations confirmed that the harvesting season had a major effect on the total carotenoid content and the individual carotenoid compounds. The post-harvest storage time of sweet potato tubers also appears to have distinct effects on carotenoid biosynthesis, the magnitude of the effects being dependent on the storage time, harvesting season and location. The results of this study will help to understand the effects of location, year of harvesting season and storage time on carotenoid accumulation in orange sweet potato tubers.
  10. Jamaludin, M.A., Amin, A., Fadzlillah, N. A., Kartika, B., Othman, R., Sani, S., et al.
    Vinegar is very popular as traditional ingredient for cooking, pickling, and preservation. It is made from sugar or starch by an alcoholic and acetous fermentation and produces ethanol as a by-product. Alcohol is prohibited to be consumed for Muslim or used as ingredient if it is exceeding the allowable limit as stated by Islamic Council in Malaysia. According to Fatwa Committee National Council of Islamic Religious Affairs Malaysia, natural occurrences of ethanol in food products are acceptable if the ethanol contents are less than 1% in beverages and 0.5% for flavoring or coloring substances for the purpose of stabilization. On the other hand, for specific vinegar product, as stated by Malaysian Food Act and Regulation, acetic acid content must be at least 4%. According to FAO/WHO, a product is to be labelled as vinegar if the acetic acid content is 6% and with a maximum residual alcohol content of 0.5%v/v for wine vinegar and 1%v/v for other vinegars. This study investigated the physiochemical properties of the vinegar from different sources of raw materials. Total solubility (TA) by using Brix method, pH, and alcohol and acetic acid content by GC-TOF/MS of 12 commercial vinegars from Malaysia and abroad were studied. The result shown that for pH value of commercial vinegar are ranged from 2.51-3.14°Brix from 2.10-40.73°Brix, acetic acid is ranged from 0.0253-0.1276% and ethanol content from 0-0.5911%. Thus, this study will come out with the clear observation on ethanol content in fermented product which is vinegar in order to categories the halalness of the product that available in Malaysia market especially the ones that are produced internationally. Lastly, as shown by the profiling study, vinegar that are imported internationally may contain some amount of alcohol in contrast with the one that locally produced in Malaysia and has Halal certification.
  11. Jamaludin, M.A., Hashim, D.M., Rahman, R.A., Ramli, M.A., Majid, M.Z.A., Othman, R., et al.
    The halal food production industry is gaining greater attention among Muslim and non-Muslim
    majority countries, particularly due to the increase of global market demand. One of the critical
    areas in issuing halal certified food is the determination of allowable alcohol content in food
    and drinks. The level of alcohol content has not standardized in several standards and fatwa of
    Islamic scholars. In Islam, the alcohol in several fruit products is produced through fermentation
    process such as takhammur (wine making) and takhallul (vinegar making). The fermentation
    process gives an impact to the status of the food products either permissible or prohibited.
    Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss on the determination of permissible alcohol
    and vinegar by fermentation process content in selected food products from Shariah and science
    perspectives. In doing so, the views of authentic of Islamic Law in this issue are supported by
    lab work approached. As a result, in the first phase there are three types of by products from
    takhammur, while two types of takhallul. All the products can be determine of the alcohol
    content and give an implication of the status either permissible (halal) or prohibited (haram).
    Hence, in juice considered as halal due to lower of alcohol content. While cider or alcoholic
    beverage is haram due to above alcohol level permitted which is above of the 1%. Besides,
    cider vinegar or vinegar is halal by the interpretation of hadith of permissible conversion from
    alcoholic to vinegar itself.
  12. Othman R, Mohd Zaifuddin FA, Hassan NM
    J Oleo Sci, 2014;63(8):753-60.
    PMID: 25017864
    Carotenoids are bioactive compounds with remarkably special properties produced by plants in response to internal and external stresses. In this review paper, we focus on the subject of carotenoid biosynthesis and several factors that have been reported to significantly enhance or reduce carotenoid accumulation in studied plant species. These factors include varietal aspects, location, growing season, and type of stress experienced by a plant. In addition, we propose that there are three stress resistance mechanisms in plants: avoidance, tolerance, and acclimation. Better understanding of the environmental factors affecting carotenoid biosynthesis will help researchers to develop methods for enhancing the production of carotenoids and other pigments to desired concentrations in plant crops.
  13. Bang LT, Long BD, Othman R
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:969876.
    PMID: 24723840 DOI: 10.1155/2014/969876
    The present study investigates the chemical composition, solubility, and physical and mechanical properties of carbonate hydroxyapatite (CO3Ap) and silicon-substituted carbonate hydroxyapatite (Si-CO3Ap) which have been prepared by a simple precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques were used to characterize the formation of CO3Ap and Si-CO3Ap. The results revealed that the silicate (SiO4(4-)) and carbonate (CO3(2-)) ions competed to occupy the phosphate (PO4(3-)) site and also entered simultaneously into the hydroxyapatite structure. The Si-substituted CO3Ap reduced the powder crystallinity and promoted ion release which resulted in a better solubility compared to that of Si-free CO3Ap. The mean particle size of Si-CO3Ap was much finer than that of CO3Ap. At 750°C heat-treatment temperature, the diametral tensile strengths (DTS) of Si-CO3Ap and CO3Ap were about 10.8 ± 0.3 and 11.8 ± 0.4 MPa, respectively.
  14. Othman R, Hasni SI, Baharuddin ZM
    J Environ Biol, 2016 09;37(5 Spec No):1181-1185.
    PMID: 29989751
    Degradation or decline of soil quality that cause shallow slope failure may occur due to physical or chemical processes. It can be triggered off by natural phenomena, or induced by human activity through misuse of land resources, excessive development and urbanization leading to deforestation and erosion of covered soil masses causing serious threat to slopes. The extent of damage of the slopes can be minimized if a long-term early warning system is predicted in the landslide prone areas. The aim of the study was to characterize chemical properties of stable and unstable slope along selected highways of Malaysia which can be manipulated as indicator to forecast shallow slope failure. The elements in soil chemical properties contributed to each other as binding agents that affected the existing soil structure. It could make the soil structure strong or weak. Indicators that can be used to predict shallow slope failure were low content in iron, lead, aluminum, chromium, zinc, low content of organic carbon and CEC.
  15. Nahi A, Othman R, Omar D, Ebrahimi M
    Pol J Microbiol, 2016 Aug 26;65(3):377-382.
    PMID: 29334074 DOI: 10.5604/17331331.1215618
    A study was carried out to determine the effects of paraquat, pretilachlor and 2, 4-D on growth and nitrogen fixing activity of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (Sb16) and pH of Jensen's N-free medium. The growth of Sb16 and pH of medium were significantly reduced with full (X) and double (2X) doses of tested herbicides, but nitrogen fixing activity was decreased by 2X doses. The nitrogenase activity had the highest value in samples treated with 1/2X of 2, 4-D on fifth incubation day, but 2X of 2, 4-D had the most adverse effect. An inhibition in the growth and nitrogenase activity was recovered on the last days of incubation.
  16. Abd Ghani MF, Othman R, Nordin N
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2020 Nov;12(Suppl 2):S676-S680.
    PMID: 33828360 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_272_19
    The naturally derived flavonoids are well known to have anticarcinogenic effects. Flavonoids could be an alternative strategy for ovarian cancer treatment, due to existing platinum-based drugs are reported to develop resistance with low survival rates. Inhibition of antiapoptotic proteins, namely B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2) and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl), is the key target to stimulate apoptosis process in cancer cells. This study aimed to determine the binding interaction of five naturally derived flavonoids (biochanin A, myricetin, apigenin, galangin, and fisetin) with potential antiapoptotic target proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl). The molecular docking study was conducted using AutoDock Vina program. The binding affinity and the presence of hydrogen bonds between the flavonoids and target proteins were predicted. Our findings showed that all the flavonoids showed better binding affinity with Bcl-xl than that of Bcl-2 proteins. The highest binding affinity was recorded in fisetin-Bcl-xl protein complex (-8.8 kcal/mol). Meanwhile, the other flavonoids docked with Bcl-xl protein showed binding affinities, ranging from -8.0 to -8.6 kcal/mol. A total of four hydrogen bonds, four hydrophobic contacts, and one electrostatic interaction were detected in the docked fisetin-Bcl-xl complex, explaining its high binding affinity with Bcl-xl. The present results indicate that all flavonoids could potentially serve as Bcl-xl protein inhibitors, which would consequently lead to apoptotic process in ovarian cancers.
  17. Abdul Kadir FA, Azizan KA, Othman R
    Data Brief, 2020 Feb;28:104987.
    PMID: 32226799 DOI: 10.1016/j.dib.2019.104987
    Agarwood is the highly valuable fragrant resin of the wounded Aquilaria spp. trees widely used in fragrances, medicines and incenses. Among the Aquilaria spp., A. malaccensis is the primary producer and is mainly found in Indonesia and Malaysia. In normal condition, agarwood is naturally formed in Aquilaria trees as a defense mechanism upon physical damage or microbial infection on the trees, which is a slow process that occurs over several years. The high demand in agarwood has spurred the development of various artificial inoculation methods where agarwood formation is synthetically induced in a shorter period of time. However, the synthetic induction method produces agarwood with aromas different from the naturally formed agarwood. To understand the changes in the agarwoods produced from different induction conditions, metabolite profiling of agarwood essential oil from A. malaccensis has been performed. The essential oils of healthy undamaged tree trunks and, naturally formed and synthetically induced agarwoods were obtained using hydrodistillation (HS) method and analysed using gas chromatography mass spectrometer (GC-MS). These data will provide valuable resources for chemical components of agarwood produced by the species in the genus Aquilaria.
  18. Chan MK, Othman R, Zubir D, Salmijah S
    PMID: 11879780
    The relationship between a putative metallothionein gene (MT) and exposure to cadmium (Cd) in blood cockles (Anadara granosa) is reported. In a 96-h dose-response experiment, mortality of cockles was found to proportionately increase in the range of 0.2-5.0 mg/l Cd with a calculated LC(50) of 2.94 mg/l. Exposure to 0.25 mg/l Cd for 16 days caused significant increases (P<0.05) in Cd concentrations in whole tissues, gills and hepatopancreas, and the accumulation of Cd in these tissues increased with the duration of exposure. Two cDNA libraries constructed using the hepatopancreas from control and Cd-treated cockles gave titres of 5.62 x 10(5) and 1.94 x 10(5) pfu/microg vector, respectively. A putative MT gene, AnaMT, of 510 nucleotides in length, was isolated from the treated cDNA library using a heterologous probe MT20 from the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Northern analyses using AnaMT as a probe indicated low expression of the MT mRNA in control animals. In cockles treated with 0.25 mg/l Cd for 4 days, MT mRNA level increased to approximately 168%, but declined to 108% at day 8. After 12 and 16 days of Cd treatment, expression of the MT gene was 138% and 187%, respectively, compared to the controls. These observations suggest that induction of the MT gene by a sublethal dose of Cd is rapid, occurring within 4 days of treatment.
  19. Abdul Kadir FA, Azizan KA, Othman R
    BMC Res Notes, 2021 Mar 25;14(1):117.
    PMID: 33766087 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-021-05532-9
    OBJECTIVES: Agarwood is the aromatic heartwood formed upon wounding of Aquilaria trees either naturally formed due to physical wound sustained from natural phenomena followed by microbial infection, or artificially induced using different inoculation methods. Different induction methods produce agarwoods with different aromas which have impacts on their commercial values. In lieu of elucidating the molecular mechanisms of agarwood formation under different treatment conditions, the transcriptome profiles of trunk tissues from healthy A. malaccensis tree, and naturally and artificially induced trees were obtained.

    DATA DESCRIPTION: The transcriptome of trunk tissues from healthy A. malaccensis, and naturally and artificially induced trees were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq™ 4000 platform which resulted in a total of 38.4 Gb clean reads with Q30 rate of at least 91%. The transcriptome consists of 85,986 unigenes containing 1305 bases on average which were annotated against several databases. From this, 44,654 unigenes were mapped to 290 metabolic pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. These transcriptome data represent considerable contribution towards Aquilaria transcriptome data and enhance current knowledge in comprehending the molecular mechanisms underlying agarwood formation in Aquilaria spp.

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