Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 32 in total

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  1. Alazzawi S, Shahrizal T, Prepageran N, Pailoor J
    Qatar Med J, 2014;2014(1):57-60.
    PMID: 25320694 DOI: 10.5339/qmj.2014.10
    Isolated sphenoid sinus lesions are an uncommon entity and present with non-specific symptoms. In this case report, the patient presented with a history of headaches for a duration of one month without sinonasal symptoms. A computed tomography scan showed a soft tissue mass occupying the sphenoid sinus. An endoscopic biopsy revealed fungal infection. Endoscopic wide sphenoidotomy with excision of the sphenoid sinus lesion was then performed however, the microbiological examination post-surgery did not show any fungal elements. Instead, Citrobacter species was implicated to be the cause of infection.
  2. Wong KA, Singh VA, Pailoor J
    Singapore Med J, 2013 Nov;54(11):e228-9.
    PMID: 24276110
    Intra-articular haemangioma is a rare and uncommon condition that sometimes presents in infants. The lesion can be a diagnostic challenge, with misdiagnosis often leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. It is essential to establish and treat the condition early, as intra-articular haemangioma can lead to destruction of the joint and secondary arthrosis. Herein, we report the case of a five-year-old boy who presented with intra-articular haemangioma and discuss the management of his condition.
  3. Mun KS, Pailoor J, Chan KS, Pillay B
    Malays J Pathol, 2009 Jun;31(1):57-61.
    PMID: 19694315 MyJurnal
    Extra-adrenal paragangliomata are uncommon entities. They can be classified into four basic groups according to their anatomical sites, i.e. branchiomeric, intravagal, aorticosympathetic and visceral autonomic. Similar tumours may arise in sites away from the usual distribution of the sympathetic and parasympathetic ganglia, e.g. orbit, nose, small intestine and even in the pancreas. We report three instructive cases of extra-adrenal paraganglioma which were found in unusual sites such as urinary bladder, thyroid gland and on the wall of the inferior vena cava.
  4. Mun KS, Pailoor J, Reddy SC
    Malays J Pathol, 2005 Dec;27(2):113-5.
    PMID: 17191394
    A 62-year-old lady presented with a six-month history of swelling of the left upper eyelid, resulting in mild mechanical ptosis. Clinical assessment suggested a provisional diagnosis of dermoid cyst. The lesion was excised and histology revealed nodular deposits of amorphous eosinophilic material surrounded by lymphocytes and plasma cells. Special histochemistry and immunoperoxidase stain results showed deposition of amyloid, non-AA type. The lesion recurred 6 months later.
  5. Pailoor J, Mun KS, Leow M
    Malays J Pathol, 2012 Dec;34(2):97-101.
    PMID: 23424771 MyJurnal
    Melanoma is a lethal skin cancer that occurs predominantly among Caucasians. In Malaysia, the incidence of melanoma is low. This is a retrospective study of clinical and histopathological features of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were seen at the University Malaya Medical Centre from 1998 to 2008. Thirty-two patients with cutaneous melanoma were recorded during that period. Of these, 24 had sought treatment at the onset of disease at our centre. Chinese patients constituted the largest group (19 cases). The median age of these 24 patients at the time of presentation was 62 years. 16 patients had melanoma involving the lower limb with 12 affecting the sole of the foot. None had melanoma arising from the face. Histopathology showed nodular melanoma in 22 cases (91.6%), with superficial spreading and acral lentiginous melanoma diagnosed in 1 case each. The majority of patients (62.5%) were found to be in Stage III of the disease at the time of diagnosis.
  6. Singh VA, Gunasagaran J, Pailoor J
    Singapore Med J, 2015 Sep;56(9):513-7.
    PMID: 26451054 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2015136
    Granular cell tumours (GrCTs) are uncommon soft tissue tumours that are usually benign (approximately 0.5%-2.0% have been reported as malignant). They are very rarely found at the extremities. Differentiating a malignant GrCT from a benign one is important as the former is aggressive and has a poor prognosis, whereas the latter, after surgical resection, has excellent outcomes. A malignant lesion can be suspected on clinical presentation and confirmed via histopathological examination using the Fanburg-Smith criteria.
  7. Devan SM, Pailoor J, Sthaneshwar P, Narayanan V
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(8):4545-8.
    PMID: 24083699
    The objective of this study is to assess tissue expression of CA-125 and HE4 protein in primary benign and malignant epithelial tumours of the ovary and correlate with serum CA-125 levels. A total of 100 formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded sections of ovarian tumours which included serous adenoma (11), mucinous adenoma (42), serous carcinoma (20), mucinous carcinoma (12) and endometrioid carcinoma (15), histologically diagnosed between 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2012 at the University Malaya Medical Centre, were stained for HE4 (rabbit polyclonal antibody, Abcam, UK) and CA-125 (mouse monoclonal antibody clone: OC125, Cell Marque Corporation, Rocklin, California, USA). Pre-operative serum CA-125 levels were obtained from the laboratory information system. Immunoscore (I score) for HE4 and CA-125 was given based on the intensity of staining and percentage of positive tumour cells and considered significant when it was >50 (intensity of staining multiplied by percentage of positive tumour cells). Serum CA-125 levels were compared with the I score of HE4 and CA-125 in tissues. We noted that the CA-125 levels in serum and tissues were significantly raised in malignant compared to benign ovarian tumours (p value<0.05). Tissue expression of HE4 protein was also significantly raised in malignant tumours compared to benign tumours (p value<0.05). We conclude that HE4 can be a useful tissue immunomarker in addition to CA-125.
  8. Hilmi I, Hartono JL, Pailoor J, Mahadeva S, Goh KL
    BMC Gastroenterol, 2013;13:80.
    PMID: 23651739 DOI: 10.1186/1471-230X-13-80
    There is increasing evidence for the role of microscopic inflammation in patients with IBS. We aimed to examine the prevalence of microscopic colitis and inflammation in Malaysian IBS patients with diarrhoea (IBS-D).
  9. Norfadzilah MY, Pailoor J, Retneswari M, Chinna K, Noor LM
    Malays J Pathol, 2011 Dec;33(2):89-94.
    PMID: 22299208 MyJurnal
    Patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma are known to have a high mortality rate. The 5-year survival rate still remains low even now compared to that of the 1960's despite new advances in management including surgery, chemotherapy, pathological classification and molecular diagnostic technologies. Precursors to invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma have been identified in the last ten years that include mucinous cystic neoplasm, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. p53 protein accumulation in the nuclei is a common molecular event in most human neoplasms. Our objective is to investigate p53 expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and precursor lesions and their significance. The selected study material encompassed 31 invasive ductal adenocarcinoma, 15 mucinous cystic neoplasm and papillary mucinous neoplasm, and 27 cases of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia including grade 1, 2 and 3. Immunoscore was given for each case based on intensity of staining and percentage of cells positive and compared between precursor lesions and invasive adenocarcinoma. A score of 50 and above was considered significant. The results showed that p53 expression increased progressively and significantly with the grade of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma (p-value < 0.001). These findings support the concept of multistep carcinogenesis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and suggest that p53 inactivation occurs in the progression of precursors to pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
  10. Singh VA, Nagalingam J, Saad M, Pailoor J
    Biomed Eng Online, 2010;9:48.
    PMID: 20831801 DOI: 10.1186/1475-925X-9-48
    Sterilization and re-usage of tumour bone for reconstruction after tumour resection is now gaining popularity in the East. This recycle tumour bone needs to be sterilized in order to eradicate the tumour cells before re-implantation for limb salvage procedures. The effect of some of these treatments on the integrity and sterility of the bone after treatment has been published but there has yet been a direct comparison between the various methods of sterilization to determine the one method that gives the best tumour kill without compromising the bone's structural integrity.
  11. Pailoor J, Iyengar KR, Chan KS, Sumithra S
    Malays J Pathol, 2008 Dec;30(2):115-9.
    PMID: 19291921
    Follicular dendritic cell sarcomas (FDCS) are rare neoplasms that involve lymph nodes or extranodal sites. They show varied histological features and thus can be mistaken for carcinoma or sarcoma. Correct identification is important for further management. A 43-year-old Indian female presented with a three-month history of progressive swelling at the right inguinal region. It was excised completely and was reported as lymph node with metastatic poorly differentiated carcinoma based on Haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain findings. Computerized tomography (CT) scans of thorax, abdomen and pelvis were normal and did not reveal a primary site. Following this, the case was referred to one of the authors. The slides were reviewed and a variety of immunocytochemical markers were done. The tumour cells were negative for epithelial, melanocytic, neural, leucocyte and soft tissue tumour markers. They were immunopositive for CD21, CD35 and negative for CD68. Based on the immunocytochemical findings, a final diagnosis of FDCS was made. This case highlights the histological and immunophenotypical profile of a rare tumour which requires a high index of suspicion for diagnosis.
  12. Liam CK, Looi LM, Pailoor J, Alhady SF
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1989 Nov;18(6):713-6.
    PMID: 2624423
    Three cases of progressive dyspnoea in young female adults due to pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis are reported. The underlying primary neoplasm was gastric carcinoma in all 3 cases. The diagnosis was not suspected in 2 patients because of their young age.
  13. Kong BH, Tan NH, Fung SY, Pailoor J
    Front Pharmacol, 2016;7:246.
    PMID: 27555822 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2016.00246
    Lignosus also known as "Tiger Milk Mushroom," is classified in the family Polyporaceae and mainly consumed for its medicinal properties in Southeast Asia and China. The sclerotium is known as the part with medicinal value and often used by the natives to treat a variety of ailments. Lignosus tigris Chon S. Tan, one of the species of the Malaysia Tiger Milk mushroom, has recently been successfully cultivated in laboratory. Earlier studies have demonstrated the L. tigris cultivar E sclerotia exhibited beneficial biomedicinal properties. This study evaluated the potential toxicity of L. tigris E sclerotia in a 28-day sub-acute oral administration in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. L. tigris E sclerotial powder was administered orally at three different doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg to the SD rats once daily, consecutively for 28-days. Body weight of the rats was recorded and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were observed daily throughout the experimental period. At the end of the experiment, blood hematology and biochemistry, relative organ weights, and histopathological analysis were performed. Results showed that there were no mortality nor signs of toxicity throughout the 28-day sub-acute toxicity study. Oral administration of the L. tigris E sclerotial powder at daily dose up to 1000 mg/kg had no significant effects in body weight, relative organ weight, blood hematological and biochemistry, gross pathology, and histopathology of the organs. L. tigris E sclerotial powder did not cause any treatment-related adverse effect in the rats at different treatment dosages up to 1000 mg/kg. As the lethal dose for the rats is above 1000 mg/kg, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) dose is more than 1000 mg/kg.
  14. Fung SY, Lee SS, Tan NH, Pailoor J
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2017 Jul 12;206:236-244.
    PMID: 28587826 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.05.037
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora is one of the most renowned traditional Chinese medicine used as tonic, renal, respiratory and reproductive health, promote longevity and overall improvement in quality of life. Natural production of O. sinensis is limited due to its extreme specificity in host range and confined geographic distribution. Therefore, cultivation of the fungus was developed to meet high demand for commercialization as nutraceutical. O. sinensis fruiting body has recently been successfully cultivated in large scale using rice based solid medium, providing wider source options for consumers and scientific researchers.

    AIMS OF THE STUDY: The present study aims to establish safety profile for the consumption of cultivated fruiting body of O. sinensis (FBOS) by 28-days sub-acute toxicity study in Sprague Dawley rats.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were orally administered with cultivated FBOS at three graded doses (250, 500 and 1000mg/kg), once daily for 28 consecutive days. Control group received distilled water. General observations (gross behavioral changes and toxic symptoms) and body weight of each animal were monitored daily. Haematological, serum biochemical and histopathological analysis were carried out at the end of the experiment (Day 29).

    RESULTS: No behavioral changes, toxic symptoms or death was observed in rats throughout the dosing period. Cultivated FBOS treatment up to 1000mg/kg did not cause any adverse effect on the growth of the animals. Results from haematology and serum biochemistry revealed no toxic effect following cultivated FBOS treatment at three graded doses for 28 days. In addition, no treatment related histopathological changes were noted in heart, spleen, kidney, lung and liver of the animals.

    CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that oral administration of cultivated FBOS for 28 days, at dosage up to 1000mg/kg did not pose toxicological concern in rats. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) dose of cultivated FBOS in 28-days subacute toxicity study is higher than 1000mg/kg.

  15. Lee SS, Tan NH, Pailoor J, Fung SY
    Front Pharmacol, 2017;8:594.
    PMID: 28919858 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00594
    Twenty-eight days subacute toxicity studies performed in rats using sclerotial powder of Lignosus cameronensis cultivar was conducted to assess its safety for consumption prior to other scientific investigations on its medicinal benefits, nutraceutical or pharmaceutical application of the mushroom. The study was conducted at 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg sclerotial powder of L. cameronensis cultivar (n = 5 for each respective dose, on both male and female groups) while control groups received only distilled water. At the end of the study (29th day), the animals were sacrificed followed by blood and organs collection for analysis. Subacute toxicity studies done shows that sclerotial powder of L. cameronensis cultivar at 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg did not induce treatment related changes on behavioral patterns, gross physical appearance, growth pattern, body weight gain, values of hematological and clinical biochemical panels as well as histopathological findings on kidney, spleen, heart, lung and liver of the experimental rats. The no-observed-adverse-effect level dose for sclerotial powder of L. cameronensis cultivar in 28-days sub-acute toxicity study is determined to be 1000 mg/kg.
  16. Kong BH, Tan NH, Fung SY, Pailoor J, Tan CS, Ng ST
    Nutr Res, 2016 Feb;36(2):174-83.
    PMID: 26598045 DOI: 10.1016/j.nutres.2015.10.004
    The Tiger Milk Mushroom (Lignosus spp.) is an important medicinal mushroom in Southeast Asia and has been consumed frequently by the natives as a cure for a variety of illnesses. In this study, we hypothesized that Lignosus tigris (cultivar E) sclerotium may contain high nutritional value and antioxidant properties, is nontoxic and a potential candidate as a dietary supplement. The chemical and amino acid compositions of the sclerotium were evaluated and antioxidant activities of the sclerotial extracts were assessed using ferric reducing antioxidant power; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl; and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays. Acute toxicity of the L. tigris E sclerotium was assessed using a rat model study. The sclerotium was found to be rich in carbohydrate, protein, and dietary fibers with small amounts of fat, calories, and sugar. The amino acid composition of the protein contains all essential amino acids, with a protein score of 47. The sclerotial extracts contain phenolics, terpenoids, and glucan. The ferric reducing antioxidant power values of the various sclerotial extracts (hot water, cold water, and methanol) ranged from 0.008 to 0.015 mmol min(-1) g(-1) extract, while the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities ranged from 0.11 to 0.13, and -2.81 to 9.613 mmol Trolox equivalents g(-1) extract, respectively. Acute toxicity assessment indicated that L. tigris E sclerotial powder was not toxic at the dose of 2000 mg kg(-1). In conclusion, L. tigris E sclerotium has the potential to be developed into a functional food and nutraceutical.
  17. Kwan Z, Pailoor J, Tan LL, Robinson S, Wong SM, Ismail R
    Lepr Rev, 2014 Sep;85(3):170-6.
    PMID: 25509717
    OBJECTIVES: Leprosy remains a public health concern in Malaysia and globally. We aim to review the characteristics of leprosy patients in a tertiary institution in urban Malaysia.
    DESIGN: This is a case series of 27 leprosy patients who presented between 2008 and 2013.
    RESULTS: The majority of our patients consisted of male (74.1%), Malaysian (63.0%), blue collar workers (51.9%) and married (59.3%) patients; 48.1% had lepromatous leprosy. All except one of the patients presented with skin lesions, 25.9% had nerve involvement and 33.3% developed lepra reactions. Forty-four point four percent (44.4%) of the cases seen initially in the primary care setup were misdiagnosed.
    CONCLUSIONS: Doctors need to have a high index of suspicion for leprosy when patients present with suggestive skin, nerve or musculoskeletal lesions. Immigrants accounted for 37% of cases and these patients may become a reservoir of infection, thus accounting for the rise in incidence. An increasing trend in multibacillary cases may be attributed to the spread from migrants from countries with a high burden of leprosy.
  18. Lee ML, Fung SY, Chung I, Pailoor J, Cheah SH, Tan NH
    Int J Med Sci, 2014;11(6):593-601.
    PMID: 24782648 DOI: 10.7150/ijms.8096
    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase (OH-LAAO), a heat stable enzyme, has been shown to exhibit very potent anti-proliferative activity against human breast and lung tumorigenic cells but not in their non-tumorigenic counterparts. We further examine its in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity in a human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) model. OH-LAAO demonstrated potent cytotoxicity against PC-3 cells with IC50 of 0.05 µg/mL after 72 h incubation in vitro. It induced apoptosis as evidenced with an increase in caspase-3/7 cleavages and an increase in annexin V-stained cells. To examine its in vivo anti-tumor activity, we treated PC-3 tumor xenograft implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient NU/NU (nude) mice with 1 µg/g OH-LAAO given intraperitoneally (i.p.). After 8 weeks of treatment, OH-LAAO treated PC-3 tumors were markedly inhibited, when compared to the control group (P <0.05). TUNEL staining analysis on the tumor sections showed a significantly increase of apoptotic cells in the LAAO-treated animals. Histological examinations of the vital organs in these two groups showed no significant differences with normal tissues, indicating no obvious tissue damage. The treatment also did not cause any significant changes on the body weight of the mice during the duration of the study. These observations suggest that OH-LAAO cytotoxic effects may be specific to tumor xenografts and less to normal organs. Given its potent anti-tumor activities shown in vitro as well as in vivo, the king cobra venom LAAO can potentially be developed to treat prostate cancer and other solid tumors.
  19. Pailoor J, Rajandram R, Yap NY, Ng KL, Wang Z, Iyengar KR
    Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2013 Apr-Jun;56(2):98-102.
    PMID: 24056643 DOI: 10.4103/0377-4929.118688
    Chromosome 7 aberrations in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have been reported in papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) and clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, the implication of these anomalies on prognosis and survival is still unclear. RCC Chromosome 7 aberrations have commonly been detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and chromogenic in situ hybridization but not silver in situ hybridization (SISH).
  20. Lee SS, Tan NH, Fung SY, Pailoor J, Sim SM
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Oct 31;138(1):192-200.
    PMID: 21930194 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.09.004
    Lignosus rhinocerus (known locally as 'Tiger Milk mushroom') is the most important medicinal mushroom used by the indigenous communities of Malaysia to treat fever, cough, asthma, cancer, food poisoning and as a general tonic. The sclerotium of the mushroom is the part with medicinal value. Lignosus rhinocerus was hitherto unexploited commercially because of limited supply. Recently, the mushroom was successfully cultivated.
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