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  1. Bhandarkar AM, Pandey AK, Nayak R, Pujary K, Kumar A
    Med J Armed Forces India, 2021 Feb;77(Suppl 1):S37-S41.
    PMID: 33612930 DOI: 10.1016/j.mjafi.2020.10.021
    Background: Social media has become an integral part in the life of every individual in the 21st century. Social media addiction in the younger age group is a major problem. The objective of this study was to find a correlation between academic performance and social media use.

    Methods: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study conducted in a medical school over a period of 3 months (Nov 2018-Jan 2019), where 400 medical undergraduates who use social media participated in the study. Data collected from the questionnaire included the academic performance in terms of university examination marks, the duration of social media use per day and the social media addiction score. Data correlation was done using the Pearson's correlation factor.

    Results: 41.5% of students used social media for upto 3 h per day. Whatsapp (98.25%) and Youtube (91.75%) were the most commonly used social media applications. 73.5% used social media to read health-related news, 71.5% used it to complete assignments and more than 50% used it for seminar preparation, test preparation and research-related purposes. Academic performance of female students was better than male students. There was a significantly higher use of social media among academically low-performing medical students compared with high-performing medical students. There was a weak negative correlation between academic performance and social media usage and a strong positive correlation between social media usage and the social media addiction score.

    Conclusions: Social media has a negative impact on the academic performance of 21st-century undergraduate medical students.

  2. Kalidasan B, Pandey AK, Aljafari B, Chinnasamy S, Kareri T, Rahman S
    J Environ Manage, 2023 Dec 15;348:119439.
    PMID: 37890400 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2023.119439
    Metal, carbon and conducting polymer nanoparticles are blended with organic phase change materials (PCMs) to enhance the thermal conductivity, heat storage ability, thermal stability and optical property. However, the existing nanoparticle are expensive and need to be handle with high caution during operation as well during disposal owing to its toxicity. Subsequently handling of solid waste and the disposal of organic PCM after longevity usage are of utmost concern and are less exposed. Henceforth, the current research presents a new dimension of exploration by green synthesized nanoparticles from a thorny shrub of an invasive weed named Prosopis Juliflora (PJ) which is a agro based solid waste. Subsequently, the research is indented to decide the concentration of green synthesized nanoparticle for effective heat transfer rate of organic PCM (Tm = 35-40 °C & Hm = 145 J/g). Furthermore, an in-depth understanding on the kinetic and thermodynamic profile of degradation mechanism involved in disposal of PCM after usage via Coats and Redfern technique is exhibited. Engaging a two-step method, we fuse the green synthesized nanomaterial with PCM to obtain nanocomposite PCM. On experimental evaluation, thermal conductivity of the developed nanocomposite (PCM + PJ) increases by 63.8% (0.282 W/m⋅K to 0.462 W/m⋅K) with 0.8 wt% green synthesized nanomaterial owing to the uniform distribution of nanoparticle within PCM matrix thereby contributing to bridging thermal networks. Subsequently, PCM and PCM + PJ nanocomposites are tested using thermogravimetric analyzer at different heating rates (05 °C/min; 10 °C/min; 15 °C/min & 20 °C/min) to analyze the decomposition kinetic reaction. The kinetic and thermodynamic profile of degradation mechanism involved in disposal of PCM and its nanocomposite of PCM + PJ provides insight on thermal parameters to be considered on large scale operation and to understand the complex nature of the chemical reactions. Adopting thirteen different chemical mechanism model under Coats and Redfern method we determine the reaction mechanism; kinetic parameter like activation energy (Ea) & pre-exponential factor (A) and thermodynamic parameter like change in enthalpy (ΔH), change in Gibbs free energy (ΔG) and change in entropy (ΔS). Dispersion of PJ nanomaterial with PCM reduces Ea from 370.82 kJ/mol-1 to 342.54 kJ/mol-1 (7.7% reduction), as the developed nanomaterial is enriched in carbon element and exhibits a catalytic effect for breakdown reaction. Corresponding, value of ΔG for PCM and PCM + PJ sample within heating rates of 05-20 °C/min varies between 168.95 and 41.611 kJ/mol-1. The current research will unbolt new works with focus on exploring the pyrolysis behaviour of phase change materials and its nanocomposite used for energy storage applications. This work also provides insights on the disposal of PCM which is an organic solid waste. The thermo-kinetic profile will help to investigate and predict the optimum heating rate and temperature range for conversion of micro-scale pyrolysis to commercial scale process.
  3. Bajpai J, Pradhan A, Bajaj D, Verma AK, Kant S, Pandey AK, et al.
    Am J Cardiovasc Dis, 2023;13(1):1-9.
    PMID: 36938517
    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with many diseases, but evidence indicating that OSA is a risk factor for dyslipidemia is lacking. Aim This cross-sectional study investigated the prevalence of lipid abnormalities in patients with OSA and its association with OSA severity.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 102 patients with suspected OSA underwent standard polysomnography. All patients with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of ≥5 with symptoms were diagnosed as having OSA. A fasting blood sample was collected from all patients. Blood levels of triglycerides (TGs), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) were measured. The relationship between the AHI and lipid profiles was analyzed, and linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of dyslipidemia on OSA.

    RESULTS: The patients with OSA had a significantly higher TG level and a significantly lower HDL level than did those without OSA. The lipid abnormalities increased with OSA severity. The mean serum TG level was higher in the severe OSA group (175±46.5 vs. 153±42.45, mg/dl P = 0.048), and the mean serum HDL level was lower in the severe OSA group (38.43 ± 5.19 vs. 45.73 ± 4.98, mg/dl P = 0.004). Serum TG, cholesterol, and LDL levels were correlated with a BMI of <30 and a BMI of >30 in the OSA group. Linear regression analysis indicated that only age (β = 0.301, P = 0.000), BMI (β = 0.455, P = 0.000), serum HDL level (β = -0.297, P = 0.012), and serum LDL level (β = 0.429, P = 0.001) were the independent predictors of OSA.

    CONCLUSION: OSA and obesity are potential risk factors for dyslipidemia. The diagnosis of hyperlipidemia was linked to OSA, and the association was more significant with OSA severity. Hyperlipidemia was well recognized in patients with OSA. LDL and HDL are the independent predictors of OSA.

  4. Pandey AK, Reji Kumar R, B K, Laghari IA, Samykano M, Kothari R, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2021 Nov 01;297:113300.
    PMID: 34293672 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113300
    This article offers a trend of inventions and implementations of photocatalysis process, desalination technologies and solar disinfection techniques adapted particularly for treatment of industrial and domestic wastewater. Photocatalysis treatment of wastewater using solar energy is a promising renewable solution to reduce stresses on global water crisis. Rendering to the United Nation Environment Programme, 1/3 of world population live in water-stressed countries, while by 2025 about 2/3 of world population will face water scarcity. Major pollutants exhibited from numerous sources are critically discussed with focus on potential environmental impacts & hazards. Treatment of wastewater by photocatalysis technique, solar thermal electrochemical process, solar desalination of brackish water and solar advanced oxidation process have been presented and systematically analysed with challenges. Both heterogenous and homogenous photocatalysis techniques employed for wastewater treatment are critically reviewed. For treating domestic wastewater, solar desalination technologies adopted for purifying brackish water into potable water is presented along with key challenges and remedies. Advanced oxidation process using solar energy for degradation of organic pollutant is an important technique to be reviewed due to their effectiveness in wastewater treatment process. Present article focused on three key issues i.e. major pollutants, wastewater treatment techniques and environmental benefits of using solar power for removal of pollutants. The review also provides close ideas on further research needs and major concerns. Drawbacks associated with conventional wastewater treatment options and direct solar energy-based wastewater treatment with energy storage systems to make it convenient during day and night both listed. Although, energy storage systems increase the overall cost of the wastewater treatment plant it also increases the overall efficiency of the system on environmental cost. Cost-efficient wastewater treatment methods using solar power would significantly ensure effective water source utilization, thereby contributing towards sustainable development goals.
  5. Sharma N, Singh V, Pandey AK, Mishra BN, Kulsoom M, Dasgupta N, et al.
    Biomolecules, 2019 11 21;9(12).
    PMID: 31766572 DOI: 10.3390/biom9120764
    Nanoparticles (NPs) possessing antibacterial activity represent an effective way of overcoming bacterial resistance. In the present work, we report a novel formulation of a nanoantibiotic formed using Ampicillin/sulbactam (Ams) and a zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnO NP). 'ZnO NP-Ams' nanoantibiotic formulation is optimized using response surface methodology coupled genetic algorithm approach. The optimized formulation of nanoantibiotic (ZnO NP: 49.9 μg/mL; Ams: 33.6 μg/mL; incubation time: 27 h) demonstrated 15% enhanced activity compared to the unoptimized formulation against K. pneumoniae. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was directly proportional to the interaction time of nanoantibiotic and K. pneumoniae after the initial lag phase of ~18 h as evident from 2'-7'-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay. A low minimum inhibitory concentration (6.25 μg/mL) of nanoantibiotic formulation reveals that even a low concentration of nanoantibiotic can prove to be effective against K. pneumoniae. The importance of nanoantibiotic formulation is also evident by the fact that the 100 μg/mL of Ams and 25 µg of ZnO NP was required individually to inhibit the growth of K. pneumonia, whereas only 6.25 μg/mL of optimized nanoantibiotic formulation (ZnO NP and Ams in the ratio of 49.9: 33.6 in μg/mL and conjugation time of 27 h) was needed for the same.
  6. Thakur AK, Sathyamurthy R, Velraj R, Lynch I, Saidur R, Pandey AK, et al.
    J Environ Manage, 2021 Jul 15;290:112668.
    PMID: 33895445 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.112668
    The SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread globally and has severely impacted public health and the economy. Hand hygiene, social distancing, and the usage of personal protective equipment are considered the most vital tools in controlling the primary transmission of the virus. Converging evidence indicated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and its persistence over several days, which may create secondary transmission of the virus via waterborne and wastewater pathways. Although, researchers have started focusing on this mode of virus transmission, limited knowledge and societal unawareness of the transmission through wastewater may lead to significant increases in the number of positive cases. To emphasize the severe issue of virus transmission through wastewater and create societal awareness, we present a state of the art critical review on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater and the potential remedial strategies to effectively control the viral spread and safeguard society. For low-income countries with high population densities, it is suggested to identify the virus in large scale municipal wastewater plants before following up with one-to-one testing for effective control of the secondary transmission. Ultrafiltration is an effective method for wastewater treatment and usually more than 4 logs of virus removal are achieved while safeguarding good protein permeability. Decentralized wastewater treatment facilities using solar-assisted disinfestation methods are most economical and can be effectively used in hospitals, isolation wards, and medical centers for reducing the risk of transmission from high local concentration sites, especially in tropical countries with abundant solar energy. Disinfection with chlorine, sodium hypochlorite, benzalkonium chloride, and peracetic acid have shown potential in terms of virucidal properties. Biological wastewater treatment using micro-algae will be highly effective in removal of virus and can be incorporated into membrane bio-reaction to achieve excellent virus removal rate. Though promising results have been shown by initial research for inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater using physical, chemical and biological based treatment methods, there is a pressing need for extensive investigation of COVID-19 specific disinfectants with appropriate concentrations, their environmental implications, and regular monitoring of transmission. Effective wastewater treatment methods with high virus removal capacity and low treatment costs should be selected to control the virus spread and safeguard society from this deadly virus.
  7. Christopher SS, Thakur AK, Hazra SK, Sharshir SW, Pandey AK, Rahman S, et al.
    PMID: 36940023 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-023-26399-2
    The aim of this research was to develop a model for a solar refrigeration system (SRS) that utilizes an External Compound Parabolic Collector and a thermal energy storage system (TESS) for solar water heating in Chennai, India. The system parameters were optimized using TRNSYS software by varying factors such as collector area, mass flow rate of heat transfer fluid, and storage system volume and height. The resulting optimized system was found to meet 80% of hot water requirements for the application on an annual basis, with an annual collector energy efficiency of 58% and an annual TESS exergy efficiency of 64% for a discharge period of 6 h per day. In addition, the thermal performance of 3.5 kW SRS was studied by connecting it to an optimized solar water heating system (SWHS). The system was found to generate an average cooling energy of 12.26 MJ/h annually, with a coefficient of performance of 0.59. By demonstrating the ability to efficiently generate both hot water and cooling energy, the results of this study indicate the potential for utilizing a SWHS in combination with STST and SRS. The optimization of system parameters and the use of exergy analysis provide valuable insights into the thermal behavior and performance of the system, which can inform future designs and improve the overall efficiency of similar systems.
  8. Meskher H, Ragdi T, Thakur AK, Ha S, Khelfaoui I, Sathyamurthy R, et al.
    Crit Rev Anal Chem, 2023 Feb 01.
    PMID: 36724894 DOI: 10.1080/10408347.2023.2171277
    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are safe, biocompatible, bioactive, and biodegradable materials, and have sparked a lot of attention due to their unique characteristics in a variety of applications, including medical and dye industries, paper manufacturing and water purification. CNTs also have a strong film-forming potential, permitting them to be widely employed in constructing sensors and biosensors. This review concentrates on the application of CNT-based nanocomposites in the production of electrochemical sensors and biosensors. It emphasizes the synthesis and optimization of CNT-based sensors for a range of applications and outlines the benefits of using CNTs for biomolecule immobilization. In addition, the use of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-CNTs in the production of electrochemical sensors is also discussed. The challenges faced by the current CNTs-based sensors, along with some the future perspectives and their future opportunities, are also briefly explained in this paper.
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