The ultrasound wave assisted synthesis of a novel ZnWO3/rGO hybrid nono composition (ZnWO3/rGO HNC) as a high performance sensor for formaldehyde (FA) has been reported. Different techniques of analysis such as XRD, FE-SEM, TGA, XPS, HRTEM and BET were applied for morphological and spectroscopic characterization of the ZnWO3/rGO HNC. The sensing evaluation of the constructed sensor showed high selectivity, sensitivity and a linear correlation between achieved responses and concentration of target gas (1-10 ppm) with R2 = 0.993 at temperature of 95 °C. The determination of FA was validated and performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined by solid phase micro-extraction after derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-benzyl)-hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Validation was carried out in terms of limit of detection linearity, precision, and recovery. The mechanistic evaluation of sensing behavior of the ZnWO3/rGO HNC was interpreted based on large specific surface area (SSA) to volume, mesoporous structure and the heterojunction between rGO and ZnWO3 at the interface between the rGO and ZnWO3.
In this study, several simple equations are suggested to investigate the effects of size and density on the number, surface area, stiffening efficiency, and specific surface area of nanoparticles in polymer nanocomposites. In addition, the roles of nanoparticle size and interphase thickness in the interfacial/interphase properties and tensile strength of nanocomposites are explained by various equations. The aggregates/agglomerates of nanoparticles are also assumed as large particles in nanocomposites, and their influences on the nanoparticle characteristics, interface/interphase properties, and tensile strength are discussed. The small size advantageously affects the number, surface area, stiffening efficiency, and specific surface area of nanoparticles. Only 2 g of isolated and well-dispersed nanoparticles with radius of 10 nm (R = 10 nm) and density of 2 g/cm3 produce the significant interfacial area of 250 m2 with polymer matrix. Moreover, only a thick interphase cannot produce high interfacial/interphase parameters and significant mechanical properties in nanocomposites because the filler size and aggregates/agglomerates also control these terms. It is found that a thick interphase (t = 25 nm) surrounding the big nanoparticles (R = 50 nm) only improves the B interphase parameter to about 4, while B = 13 is obtained by the smallest nanoparticles and the thickest interphase.
Salinisation of soil is associated with urban pollution, industrial development and rising sea level. Understanding how high salinity is managed at the plant cellular level is vital to increase sustainable farming output. Previous studies focus on plant stress responses under salinity tolerance. Yet, there is limited knowledge about the mechanisms involved from stress state until the recovery state; our research aims to close this gap. By using the most tolerance genotype (SS1-14) and the most susceptible genotype (SS2-18), comparative physiological, metabolome and post-harvest assessments were performed to identify the underlying mechanisms for salinity stress recovery in plant cells. The up-regulation of glutamine, asparagine and malonic acid were found in recovered-tolerant genotype, suggesting a role in the regulation of panicle branching and spikelet formation for survival. Rice could survive up to 150 mM NaCl (∼15 ds/m) with declined of production rate 5-20% ranged from tolerance to susceptible genotype. This show that rice farming may still be viable on the high saline affected area with the right selection of salt-tolerant species, including glycophytes. The salt recovery biomarkers identified in this study and the adaption underlined could be empowered to address salinity problem in rice field.
There is a global need to use plants to restore the ecological environment. There is no systematic review of phytoremediation mechanisms and the parameters for environmental pollution. Here, we review this situation and describe the purification rate of different plants for different pollutants, as well as methods to improve the purification rate of plants. This is needed to promote the use of plants to restore the ecosystems and the environment. We found that plants mainly use their own metabolism including the interaction with microorganisms to repair their ecological environment. In the process of remediation, the purification factors of plants are affected by many conditions such as light intensity, stomatal conductance, temperature and microbial species. In addition the efficiency of phytoremediation is depending on the plants species-specific metabolism including air absorption and photosynthesis, diversity of soil microorganisms and heavy metal uptake. Although the use of nanomaterials and compost promote the restoration of plants to the environment, a high dose may have negative impacts on the plants. In order to improve the practicability of the phytoremediation on environmental restoration, further research is needed to study the effects of different kinds of catalysts on the efficiency of phytoremediation. Thus, the present review provides a recent update for development and applications of phytoremediation in different environments including air, water, and soil.
The increase in global population size over the past 100 decades has doubled the requirements for energy resources. To mitigate the limited fossil fuel available, new clean energy sources being environmental sustainable for replacement of traditional energy sources are explored to supplement the current scarcity. Biomass containing lignin and cellulose is the main raw material to replace fossil energy given its abundance and lower emission of greenhouse gases and NOx when transformed into energy. Bacteria, fungi and algae decompose lignocellulose leading to generation of hydrogen, methane, bioethanol and biodiesel being the clean energy used for heating, power generation and the automobile industry. Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) uses microorganisms to decompose biomass in wastewater to generate electricity and remove heavy metals in wastewater. Biomass contains cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and other biomacromolecules which need hydrolyzation for conversion into small molecules by corresponding enzymes in order to be utilized by microorganisms. This paper discusses microbial decomposition of biomass into clean energy and the five major ways of clean energy production, and its economic benefits for future renewable energy security.
The Amazon rainforest has sustained human existence for more than 10,000 years. Part of this has been the way that the forest controls regional climate including precipitation important for the ecosystem as well as agroforestry and farming. In addition, the Amazon also affects the global weather systems, so cutting down the rainforest significantly increases the effects of climate change, threatening the world's biodiversity and causing local desertification and soil erosion. The current fire activities and deforestation in the Amazon rainforest therefore have consequences for global sustainability. In the light of this, the current decisions made in Brazil regarding an increase in Amazon deforestation require policy changes if the global ecosystems and biodiversity are not to be set to collapse. There is only one way to move forward and that is to increase efforts in sustainable development of the region including limitation in deforestation and to continuously measure and monitor the development. The G7 countries have offered Brazil financial support for at least 20 million euros for fighting the forest fires but the president denies receiving such financial support and says that it is more relevant to raise new forests in Europe. In fact, this is exactly what is happening in Denmark and China in order to reduce climate change. Such activities should be global and include South America, Europe, Africa and Asia where deforestation is important issue. Forest restoration reduces climate change, desertification, and preserves both the regional tropical and global environment if the wood is not burned at a later stage but instead used in e.g. roads as filling material. Changes are therefore needed through improved international understanding and agreements to better avoid the global climate changes, from cutting down the precious rainforest before it is too late as rainforest cannot be re-planted.
Human livelihood highly depends on applying different sources of energy whose utilization is associated with air pollution. On the other hand, air pollution may be associated with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) development. Unlike other environmental causes of cancer (e.g., irradiation), air pollution cannot efficiently be controlled by geographical borders, regulations, and policies. The unavoidable exposure to air pollution can modify cancer incidence and mortality. GBM treatment with chemotherapy or even its surgical removal has proven insufficient (100% recurrence rate; patient's survival mean of 15 months; 90% fatality within five years) due to glioma infiltrative and migratory capacities. Given the barrage of attention and research investments currently plowed into next-generation cancer therapy, oncolytic viruses are perhaps the most vigorously pursued. Provision of an insight into the current state of the research and future direction is essential for stimulating new ideas with the potentials of filling research gaps. This review manuscript aims to overview types of brain cancer, their burden, and different causative agents. It also describes why air pollution is becoming a concerning factor. The different opinions on the association of air pollution with brain cancer are reviewed. It tries to address the significant controversy in this field by hypothesizing the air-pollution-brain-cancer association via inflammation and atopic conditions. The last section of this review deals with the oncolytic viruses, which have been used in, or are still under clinical trials for GBM treatment. Engineered adenoviruses (i.e., DNX-2401, DNX-2440, CRAd8-S-pk7 loaded Neural stem cells), herpes simplex virus type 1 (i.e., HSV-1 C134, HSV-1 rQNestin34.5v.2, HSV-1 G207, HSV-1 M032), measles virus (i.e., MV-CEA), parvovirus (i.e., ParvOryx), poliovirus (i.e., Poliovirus PVSRIPO), reovirus (i.e., pelareorep), moloney murine leukemia virus (i.e., Toca 511 vector), and vaccinia virus (i.e., vaccinia virus TG6002) as possible life-changing alleviations for GBM have been discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this review is the first review that comprehensively discusses both (i) the negative/positive association of air pollution with GBM; and (ii) the application of oncolytic viruses for GBM, including the most recent advances and clinical trials. It is also the first review that addresses the controversies over air pollution and brain cancer association. We believe that the article will significantly appeal to a broad readership of virologists, oncologists, neurologists, environmentalists, and those who work in the field of (bio)energy. Policymakers may also use it to establish better health policies and regulations about air pollution and (bio)fuels exploration, production, and consumption.
Waste cooking oil (WCO) is a hazardous waste generated at staggering values globally. WCO disposal into various ecosystems, including soil and water, could result in severe environmental consequences. On the other hand, mismanagement of this hazardous waste could also be translated into the loss of resources given its energy content. Hence, finding cost-effective and eco-friendly alternative pathways for simultaneous management and valorization of WCO, such as conversion into biodiesel, has been widely sought. Due to its low toxicity, high biodegradability, renewability, and the possibility of direct use in diesel engines, biodiesel is a promising alternative to mineral diesel. However, the conventional homogeneous or heterogeneous catalysts used in the biodiesel production process, i.e., transesterification, are generally toxic and derived from non-renewable resources. Therefore, to boost the sustainability features of the process, the development of catalysts derived from renewable waste-oriented resources is of significant importance. In light of the above, the present work aims to review and critically discuss the hazardous WCO application for bioenergy production. Moreover, various waste-oriented catalysts used to valorize this waste are presented and discussed.
Improper healthcare waste (HCW) management poses significant risks to the environment, human health, and socio-economic sustainability due to the infectious and hazardous nature of HCW. This research aims at rendering a comprehensive landscape of the body of research on HCW management by (i) mapping the scientific development of HCW research, (ii) identifying the prominent HCW research themes and trends, and (iii) providing a research agenda for HCW management towards a circular economy (CE) transition and sustainable environment. The analysis revealed four dominant HCW research themes: (1) HCW minimization, sustainable management, and policy-making; (2) HCW incineration and its associated environmental impacts; (3) hazardous HCW management practices; and (4) HCW handling and occupational safety and training. The results showed that the healthcare industry, despite its potential to contribute to the CE transition, has been overlooked in the CE discourse due to the single-use mindset of the healthcare industry in the wake of the infectious, toxic, and hazardous nature of HCW streams. The findings shed light on the HCW management domain by uncovering the current status of HCW research, highlighting the existing gaps and challenges, and providing potential avenues for further research towards a CE transition in the healthcare industry and HCW management.
On January 30, 2020, the World Health Organization identified SARS-CoV-2 as a public health emergency of global concern. Accordingly, the demand for personal protective equipment (PPE), including medical face masks, has sharply risen compared with 2019. The new situation has led to a sharp increase in energy demand and the environmental impacts associated with these product systems. Hence, the pandemic's effects on the environmental consequences of various PPE types, such as medical face masks, should be assessed. In light of that, the current study aimed to identify the environmental hot-spots of medical face mask production and consumption by using life cycle assessment (LCA) and tried to provide solutions to mitigate the adverse impacts. Based on the results obtained, in 2020, medical face masks production using fossil-based plastics causes the loss of 2.03 × 103 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs); 1.63 × 108 PDF*m2*yr damage to ecosystem quality; the climate-damaging release of 2.13 × 109 kg CO2eq; and 5.65 × 1010 MJ damage to resources. Besides, annual medical face mask production results in 5.88 × 104 TJ demand for exergy. On the other hand, if used makes are not appropriately handled, they can lead to 4.99 × 105 Pt/yr additional damage to the environment in 2020 as determined by the EDIP 2003. Replacement of fossil-based plastics with bio-based plastics, at rates ranging from 10 to 100%, could mitigate the product's total yearly environmental damage by 4-43%, respectively. Our study calls attention to the environmental sustainability of PPE used to prevent virus transmission in the current and future pandemics.
Microplastics are among the major contaminations in terrestrial and marine environments worldwide. These persistent organic contaminants composed of tiny particles are of concern due to their potential hazards to ecosystem and human health. Microplastics accumulates in the ocean and in terrestrial ecosystems, exerting effects on living organisms including microbiomes, fish and plants. While the accumulation and fate of microplastics in marine ecosystems is thoroughly studied, the distribution and biological effects in terrestrial soil call for more research. Here, we review the sources of microplastics and its effects on soil physical and chemical properties, including water holding capacity, bulk density, pH value as well as the potential effects to microorganisms and animals. In addition, we discuss the effects of microplastics in combination with other toxic environmental contaminants including heavy metals and antibiotics on plant growth and physiology, as well as human health and possible degradation and remediation methods. This reflect is an urgent need for monitoring projects that assess the toxicity of microplastics in soil and plants in various soil environments. The prospect of these future research activities should prioritize microplastics in agro-ecosystems, focusing on microbial degradation for remediation purposes of microplastics in the environment.
With the synchronous development of highway construction and the urban economy, automobiles have entered thousands of households as essential means of transportation. This paper reviews the latest research progress in using phytoremediation technology to remediate the environmental pollution caused by automobile exhaust in recent years, including the prospects for stereoscopic forestry. Currently, most automobiles on the global market are internal combustion vehicles using fossil energy sources as the primary fuel, such as gasoline, diesel, and liquid or compressed natural gas. The composition of vehicle exhaust is relatively complex. When it enters the atmosphere, it is prone to a series of chemical reactions to generate various secondary pollutants, which are very harmful to human beings, plants, animals, and the eco-environment. Despite improving the automobile fuel quality and installing exhaust gas purification devices, helping to reduce air pollution, the treatment costs of these approaches are expensive and cannot achieve zero emissions of automobile exhaust pollutants. The purification of vehicle exhaust by plants is a crucial way to remediate the environmental pollution caused by automobile exhaust and improve the environment along the highway by utilizing the ecosystem's self-regulating ability. Therefore, it has become a global trend to use phytoremediation technology to restore the automobile exhaust pollution. Now, there is no scientific report or systematic review about how plants absorb vehicle pollutants. The screening and configuration of suitable plant species is the most crucial aspect of successful phytoremediation. The mechanisms of plant adsorption, metabolism, and detoxification are reviewed in this paper to address the problem of automobile exhaust pollution.
Industrialization and overpopulation have polluted aquatic environments with significant impacts on human health and wildlife. The main pollutants in urban sewage are nitrogen, phosphorus, heavy metals and organic pollutants, which need to be treated with sewage, and the use of aquatic plants to purify wastewater has high efficiency and low cost. However, the effectiveness and efficiency of phytoremediation are also affected by temperature, pH, microorganisms and other factors. The use of biochar can reduce the cost of wastewater purification, and the combination of biochar and nanotechnology can improve the efficiency of wastewater purification. Some aquatic plants can enrich pollutants in wastewater, so it can be considered to plant these aquatic plants in constructed wetlands to achieve the effect of purifying wastewater. Biochar treatment technology can purify wastewater with high efficiency and low cost, and can be further applied to constructed wetlands. In this paper, the latest research progress of various pollutants in wastewater purification by aquatic plants is reviewed, and the efficient treatment technology of wastewater by biochar is discussed. It provides theoretical basis for phytoremediation of urban sewage pollution in the future.
Air pollutants are increasingly emitted into the atmosphere because of the high dependency of humans on fossil-derived fuels. Wind speed and direction assisted high dispersibility and uncontrolled nature of air pollution across geo-/demographical borders, making it one of the major global concerns. Besides climate change, air pollution has been found to be associated with various diseases, such as cancer. Lung cancer, which is the world's most common type of cancer, has been found to be associated with traffic-related air pollution. Research and political efforts have been taken to explore green/renewable energy sources. However, these efforts at the current intensity cannot cope with the increasing need for fossil fuels. More specifically, political tensions such as the Russian-Ukraine war, economic tension (e.g., China-USA economic tensions), and other issues (e.g., pandemic, higher inflation rate, and poverty) significantly hindered phasing out fossil fuels. In this context, an increasing global population will be exposed to traffic-related air pollution, which justifies the current uptrend in the number of lung cancer patients. To combat this health burden, novel treatments with higher efficiency and specificity must be designed. One of the potential "life changer" options is microRNA (miRNA)-based therapy to target the expression of oncogenic genes. That said, this review discusses the association of traffic-related air pollution with lung cancer, the changes in indigenous miRNAs in the body during lung cancer, and the current status of miRNA therapeutics for lung cancer treatment. We believe that the article will significantly appeal to a broad readership of oncologists, environmentalists, and those who work in the field of (bio)energy. It may also gain the policymakers' attention to establish better health policies and regulations about air pollution, for example, by promoting (bio)fuel exploration, production, and consumption.
Life cycle assessment was used to evaluate the environmental impacts of phytoplanktonic biofuels as possible sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Three scenarios were examined for converting planktonic biomass into higher-value commodities and energy streams using the alga Scenedesmus sp. and the cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. as the species of interest. The first scenario (Sc-1) involved the production of biodiesel and glycerol from the planktonic biomass. In the second scenario (Sc-2), biodiesel and glycerol were generated from the planktonic biomass, and biogas was produced from the residual biomass. The process also involved using a catalyst derived from snail shells for biodiesel production. The third scenario (Sc-3) was similar to Sc-2 but converted CO2 from the biogas upgrading to methanol, which was then used in synthesizing biodiesel. The results indicated that Sc-2 and Sc-3 had a reduced potential (up to 60 % less) for damaging human health compared to Sc-1. Sc-2 and Sc-3 had up to 61 % less environmental impact than Sc-1. Sc-2 and Sc-3 reduced the total cumulative exergy demand by up to 44 % compared to Sc-1. In conclusion, producing chemicals and utilities within the biorefinery could significantly improve environmental sustainability, reduce waste, and diversify revenue streams.