Innovative strategies for periodontal regeneration have been the focus of research clusters across the globe for decades. In order to overcome the drawbacks of currently available options, investigators have suggested a novel concept of functionally graded membrane (FGM) templates with different structural and morphological gradients. Chitosan (CH) has been used in the past for similar purpose. However, the composite formulation of composite and tetracycline when cross-linked with glutaraldehyde have received little attention. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate the drug loading and release characteristics of novel freeze gelated chitosan templates at different percentages of glutaraldehyde. These were cross-linked with 0.1 and 1% glutaraldehyde and loaded with doxycycline hyclate. The electron micrographs depicted porous morphology of neat templates. After cross-linking, these templates showed compressed ultrastructures. Computerized tomography analysis showed that the templates had 88 to 92% porosity with average pore diameter decreased from 78 to 44.9 μm with increasing concentration. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed alterations in the glycosidic segment of chitosan fingerprint region which after drug loading showed a dominant doxycycline spectral composite profile. Interestingly, swelling profile was not affected by cross-linking either at 0.1 and 1% glutaraldehyde and template showed a swelling ratio of 80%, which gained equilibrium after 15 min. The drug release pattern also showed a 40 μg/mL of release after 24 h. These doxycycline-loaded templates show their tendency to be used in a functionally graded membrane facing the defect site.
Design and development of novel therapeutic strategies to regenerate lost tissue structure and function is a serious clinical hurdle for researchers. Traditionally, much of the research is dedicated in optimising properties of scaffolds. Current synthetic biomaterials remain rudimentary in comparison to their natural counterparts. The ability to incorporate biologically inspired elements into the design of synthetic materials has advanced with time. Recent reports suggest that functionally graded material mimicking the natural tissue morphology can have a more exaggerated response on the targeted tissue. The aim of this review is to deliver an overview of the functionally graded concept with respect to applications in clinical dentistry. A comprehensive understanding of spatiotemporal arrangement in fields of restorative, prosthodontics, periodontics, orthodontics and oral surgery is presented. Different processing techniques have been adapted to achieve such gradients ranging from additive manufacturing (three dimensional printing/rapid prototyping) to conventional techniques of freeze gelation, freeze drying, electrospinning and particulate leaching. The scope of employing additive manufacturing technique as a reliable and predictable tool for the design and accurate reproduction of biomimetic templates is vast by any measure. Further research in the materials used and refinement of the synthesis techniques will continue to expand the frontiers of functionally graded membrane based biomaterials application in the clinical domain.
The aim of the study is to investigate a new formulation, based on dioctadecyldimethyl ammonium-bromide (QA) and riboflavin (RF), combining antimicrobial activities and protease inhibitory properties with collagen crosslinking without interference to bonding capabilities in a rabbit model. Quaternary ammonium riboflavin (QARF) experimental adhesives modified with dioctadecyldimethyl ammonium-bromide and riboflavin were bonded (0.5/1.0/2.0%) to rabbit dentin to investigate for pulpal-histology, interfacial-morphology, transmission electron microscopy, mechanical properties, collagen crosslinking, micro-Raman analysis, antimicrobial, and anti-protease activities. Collagen type-I molecules were generated using molecular-docking. Odontoblasts appeared with normal histology, were seen in controls with no inflammatory cells detected in 0.5% specimens at day 7 and mild inflammatory response at day 30. In QARF 2.0%, inflammatory cells were not detected at day 7 and 30 (p