Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

  1. Rus-Anida A, Quah BS
    Med J Malaysia, 1998 Sep;53(3):204-8.
    PMID: 10968154
    There appears to be a general tendency towards under-usage of analgesics not only in children but also in adults. The aim of this study was to describe the pattern of analgesic usage in adults and children admitted for major intra-abdominal surgery. All patients who had intra-abdominal surgery at University Science Malaysia Hospital (USM Hospital) from 1st January to 31st March 1995 were included in the study. Children were patients of 12 years and below and adults were patients above 12 years of age. Data including age, sex, weight, type of analgesics used, the number of patients who had analgesics ordered and administered post-operatively were obtained from the patients' medical record. A total of 48 children and 67 adults were studied. Narcotic analgesics were the most common analgesics ordered both in adults (95.5%) and in children (97%). Post-operative analgesics were ordered significantly more often for adults 67 (100%) than for children 33 (69%) (p < 0.0001). In adults, 70% of patients who had analgesics ordered post-operatively had their analgesics administered, but in children only 39.4% of patients had their analgesics administered (p < 0.001). The most common route of administration was intramuscular in both adults (95.5%) and children (88%). Analgesics were more likely to be administered in the intensive care units (100%) than in the surgical wards (60%) (p = 0.049). Elective or emergency surgery and the time of day when surgery was performed did not affect the frequency of analgesics ordered or administered. In summary, children in this hospital had less analgesics ordered and administered following intra-abdominal surgery compared to adults. The results of this study imply that increased attention should be given to relieve postoperative pain with analgesic drugs in children.
  2. Quah BS, Rogayah J
    Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 1997 Dec;15(4):177-82.
    PMID: 9579609
    As future health care providers medical students should acquire an adequate knowledge of bronchial asthma before graduation from medical school. The aim of this study was to assess whether knowledge about childhood asthma increased during the medical course. The 590 medical students enrolled in the School of Medical Sciences, University of Science Malaysia during the 1995/96 session were studied utilizing a validated questionnaire. There was a significant increase in the mean total scores from 11 (95% CI 10.5-11.6) in Year 1 to 23.4 (95% CI 22.9-24) in Year 5. Questions about symptoms of asthma, pathogenesis of airway narrowing during acute exacerbations, preventive and reliever medications, side effects of steroids, addiction to asthma drugs and assessment of severity revealed a progressive increase in knowledge over the five years. Among 5th year medical students 44.6% named infection and 65.1% named exercise as two common triggers of childhood asthma; only 30.1% could name two prophylactic drugs for asthma. Although the asthma knowledge of medical students increased progressively during the five year curriculum, their knowledge regarding trigger factors and preventive medications were deficient. As childhood asthma affects some 10% of Malaysian children its importance requires greater emphasis in the medical curriculum.
  3. Quah BS, Menon BS
    Clin Genet, 1996 Oct;50(4):232-4.
    PMID: 9001806
    Down syndrome may be associated with many complications. Among the malignancies associated with Down syndrome, leukaemia is the most common. This is a case report of a patient with Down syndrome associated with both a retroperitoneal teratoma and a Morgagni hernia.
  4. Quah BS, Hashim I, Simpson H
    J Pediatr Surg, 1999 Mar;34(3):512-4.
    PMID: 10211672
    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia through the foramen of Bochdalek may present after infancy. A 21/2-year-old Malay girl presented with acute respiratory distress. Chest examination showed reduced chest expansion and decreased breath sounds on the left side. Chest radiograph showed a large "cyst" in the left chest, which was thought to be a lung cyst under tension. Tube thoracostomy resulted in clinical improvement. Results of a barium study showed that the cyst perforated by the thoracostomy tube was the stomach, which had herniated through a Bochdalek diaphragmatic defect. Surgical repair of the diaphragmatic defect and closure of the perforated stomach was performed successfully. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia should be included in the differential diagnosis of respiratory distress in young children. Nasogastric tube placement must be considered as an early diagnostic or therapeutic intervention when the diagnosis is suspected.
  5. Malik AS, Quah BS
    Educ Health (Abingdon), 2003 Jul;16(2):163-75.
    PMID: 14741902
    OBJECTIVE: This paper compares the clinical experience in acute conditions of the undergraduate students of a medical school from a developing country (Malaysia) with those from a developed country (UK).
    METHODS: This study was conducted at the School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). Through questionnaire survey enquiry was made about 27 acute medical conditions (i.e. conditions related to internal medicine, paediatrics, and psychiatry), 15 acute surgical conditions (i.e. conditions related to general surgery, orthopaedics, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, gynaecology and obstetrics), 15 surgical operations and 26 practical procedures. The results obtained were compared with published data from the UK.
    RESULTS: Acute medical conditions were seen by higher number of the USM students but with less frequency than the British students. The USM students saw practical procedures more frequently than the British students did, but almost an equal number performed these procedures independently. The British students attended surgical operations more frequently than the USM students did.
    CONCLUSION: Given the limitations of comparison (epidemiological, cultural and geographical differences, conventional curriculum (in the British medical schools) vs. problem based learning curriculum (in the Malaysian medical school)) the overall clinical experience of the medical students in the USM and the UK was comparable. The USM students had more opportunities to observe cases and procedures but "hands on" experience was similar to that of the British students.
  6. Ling JM, Quah BS, Van Rostenberghe H
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Jun;60(2):140-5.
    PMID: 16114153
    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of oral 30% dextrose during venepuncture in neonates. Neonates admitted in the Special Care Nursery for jaundice from September 200 to January 2001 were recruited for this double-blind randomised controlled trial. The intervention consisted of administration of either 2 ml of oral 30% dextrose or 2 ml of sterile water 2 minutes before venepuncture. The primary outcome measure was the cumulative Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS) score at 3 minutes after venepuncture and the duration of cry assessed from a videotaped recording. Twenty-six neonates received 30% dextrose and 26 neonates received sterile water. The cumulative NIPS score at 3 minutes (median, IQR) after venepuncture for neonates given 30% dextrose (13, 6.8-21) was significantly (p = 0.03) lower than that for neonates given sterile water (21, 13.8-21). The duration of cry in neonates given 30% dextrose (median 45 sec IQR 1.5-180.8 sec) was significantly (p = 0.03) shorter than that in neonates given sterile water (median 191 sec IQR 52.3-250 sec). No neonates developed diarrhoea, fever or rash during the 24 hour observation period. Both the intra-rater (ICC 0.993 95% CI 0.988-0.996) and inter rater (ICC 0.988 95% CI 0.980-0.993) agreement on the 3-minute NIPS score were good. In conclusion oral 30% dextrose given 2 minutes before venepuncture was effective in reducing neonatal pain following venepuncture. It is a simple, safe and fast acting analgesic and should be considered for minor invasive procedure in term neonates.
  7. Quah BS, Wan-Pauzi I, Ariffin N, Mazidah AR
    Respirology, 2005 Mar;10(2):244-9.
    PMID: 15823193
    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of asthma, eczema, and allergic rhinitis in school children in Kota Bharu, Malaysia, and in so doing to determine the differences in symptom prevalence rates of asthma, and atopic diseases in Kota Bharu school children between 1995 and 2001.
  8. Quah BS, Mazidah AR, Simpson H
    Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 2000 Jun;18(2):73-9.
    PMID: 10928618
    Most children with asthma develop their symptoms before the age of 5 years and many preschool wheezers continue to wheeze in the early school years. It is thus important to investigate the factors that predispose young children to wheeze. The objective of this study was to investigate the relevant environmental and family influences on recent wheeze (wheeze within the last 12 months) in preschool children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five primary health clinics in the district of Kota Bharu from April to October 1998. Nurses from these clinics distributed Bahasa Malaysia questionnaires containing questions on asthma symptoms, environmental risk factors, family's social status and family history of atopy and wheeze to preschool children aged 1-5 years during their home visits. The respondents were parent(s) or carer(s) of the children. A total of 2,524 (87.7%) complete questionnaires were available for analysis of risk factors. One hundred and fifty six (6.2%) children had current wheeze. Significant risk factors associated with current wheeze were a family history of asthma (O.R. = 6.36, 95% C.I. = 4.45-9.09), neonatal hospital admission (O.R. = 2.38, 95% C.I. = 1.51 - 3.75), and a maternal (O.R. = 2.12, 95% C.I. = 1.31-3.41) or paternal (O.R. = 1.52, 95% C.I. = 0.95-2.43) history of allergic rhinitis. Among environmental factors examined, namely, household pets, carpeting in bedroom, use of fumigation mats, mosquito coils and aerosol insect repellents, maternal and paternal smoking, and air conditioning, none were associated with an increased risk of wheeze. In conclusion, the strongest association with current wheeze was a family history of asthma. Also significant were neonatal hospital admission and a history of allergic rhinitis in either the mother or father. None of the environmental factors studied were related to current wheeze in preschool children.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Kelantan, Malaysia
  9. Indudharan R, Quah BS, Shuaib IL
    Ann Trop Paediatr, 1999 Mar;19(1):105-8.
    PMID: 10605529
    We describe a 7-year-old child who presented with a soft fluctuant swelling on the neck which became more prominent during the Valsalva manoeuvre. He underwent adeno-tonsillectomy based on a mistaken diagnosis of ballooning of the pharynx secondary to enlarged adenoids and tonsils obstructing the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airways. Investigations revealed the swelling to be a markedly dilated internal jugular vein. We discuss the diagnostic features and mode of treatment of this condition so as to avoid unnecessary and dangerous surgical intervention.
  10. Quah BS, Razak AR, Hassan MH
    Acta Paediatr Jpn, 1997 Jun;39(3):329-35.
    PMID: 9241894
    The prevalence and severity of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in Kelantanese schoolchildren were determined as part of an international study of the epidemiology of asthma and allergic diseases. The international study of asthma and allergies in childhood (ISAAC) written questionnaire was administered to 7055 schoolchildren from February 1995 to August 1995. The respondents were parents or guardians of 5- to 7-year-old children (n = 3939), and schoolchildren aged 12-14 years (n = 3116). The ISAAC video questionnaire (AVQ3.0) was shown to children aged 12-14 years after the written questionnaire. The overall prevalences of 'ever wheezed' and 'wheezing in last 12 months' were 9.4 and 6.0% respectively. The prevalence of 'ever diagnosed with asthma' was 9.4%. Both 'ever wheezed' and 'wheezing in the last 12 months' were significantly higher in 12- to 14-year-old children than in 5- to 7-year-old children, with P values of 0.0006 and 0.014 respectively. No gender differences in the prevalences were observed. For the complete study group, 4.7% of children had sleep disturbed by wheezing but only 1.1% had a severe attack limiting speech in the preceding 12 months. Sleep disturbance was more common in the 12- to 14-year-old children than in 5- to 7-year-old children (P = 0.006). There was no difference between the age groups for severe attacks limiting speech. The overall prevalence of rhinitis and eczema symptoms were 27 and 12%, respectively. The prevalence of rhinitis in the 12-14 year age group (38.2%) was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than in the 5-7 year age group (18.2%). The prevalence of eczema in the 5-7 year age group (13.7%) was significantly higher (P = < 0.0001) than in the 12-14 year age group (9.9%). These prevalence data are comparable with previous reports in Malaysian children, but are considerably lower than those reported for most developed countries.
  11. Quah BS, Indudharan R, Hashim I, Simpson H
    J Pediatr Surg, 1998 Dec;33(12):1817-9.
    PMID: 9869060
    Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) without atresia is rare and usually presents with symptoms from birth. In this report, a 9-year-old boy presented with productive cough of 4 month's duration and was shown to have a right lung abscess seen on chest radiograph. His parents denied earlier respiratory symptoms or illnesses. Rigid bronchoscopy showed a fistulous opening of about 1 mm in diameter in the posterior wall of the trachea about 16 cm from the upper incisor teeth. Cannulation with a ureteral catheter demonstrated that the fistulous opening communicated with the esophageal lumen. The tracheoesophageal fistula was 1 cm long and was divided through a right supraclavicular incision. The postoperative period was uneventful, and the patient was discharged on the third postoperative day. This case demonstrated that TEF should be considered in any patient presenting with chronic respiratory problems even after a prolonged symptom-free period.
  12. Quah BS, Malik AS, Simpson H
    Malays J Med Sci, 2000 Jan;7(1):27-32.
    PMID: 22844212 MyJurnal
    Experience of acute medical, surgical conditions, and clinical procedures of undergraduate students were assessed via a questionnaire survey during the final week of the 1993/1998 programme at the School of Medical Sciences, Univestiti Sains Malaysia. Individual performances were assessed by a scoring system. One hundred and twenty four students responded, (response rate 97%). More than 90% had seen myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, pneumonia, respiratory distress, gastroenteritis, coma, and snake bite. Less than 33% had witnessed acute psychosis, diabetic ketoacidosis, acute hepatic failure, status epilepticus, near drowning, hypertensive encephalopathy, acute haemolysis or child abuse.Acute surgical/obstetrics cases, seen by >90% students, included fracture of long bones, head injury, acute abdominal pain, malpresentation and foetal distress. Less than 33% had observed epistaxis, sudden loss of vision, peritonitis or burns. Among operations only herniorrhaphy, Caesarian section, internal fixation of fracture and cataract extraction were seen by >80% students. The main deficits in clinical procedures are in rectal and vaginal examinations, urine collection and microscopic examinations. The performance of individual students, assessed by a scoring system, showed 15 students had unacceptably low scores (<149/230, 50%), 37 had good scores (>181.4/230, 70%) and 5 had superior scores (197.6/230, 80%).
  13. Quah BS, Mazidah AR, Hamzah AM, Simpson H
    Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol, 2000 Mar;18(1):15-21.
    PMID: 12546053
    While many studies of the prevalence of wheeze have been conducted in schoolchildren, there have been few in pre-school children. Most children with asthma develop symptoms before the age of 5 years and many pre-school wheezers continue to wheeze in the early school years. Among the latter, those children who continue to wheeze at school age have poorer lung function than those who don't. It is thus appropriate to enquire more fully about wheeze in this age-group where its incidence is high and its relation with asthma less well defined. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalences of wheeze, night cough and doctor diagnosed asthma in pre-school children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in five primary health clinics in the district of Kota Bharu from April to October 1998. Nurses from these clinics distributed Bahasa Malaysia questionnaires containing questions on asthma symptoms to preschool children aged 1-5 years during their home visits. The respondents were parent(s) or carer(s) of the child. The response rate was 100% and a total of 2,878 responses were analysed. The prevalence of symptoms and doctor diagnosed asthma were as follows: ever wheezed 9.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.3-10.4%); current wheeze 6.2% (95% CI 5.2 to 7.0%); night cough 10.2% (95% CI 9.1 to 11.4%); and doctor diagnosed asthma 7.1% (95% CI 6.2 to 8.0%). There were no significant differences in prevalence between males and females, or among age groups. The prevalence of night cough in children with no history of wheeze was 6.9%. The cumulative and current prevalences of wheeze were similar to, and those of night cough and doctor-diagnosed asthma significantly lower than, those reported for Kelantan schoolchildren. These findings provide a baseline for assessing future symptoms trends, and perhaps also the validity of diagnosing asthma in this age group.
  14. Quah BS, Anuar AK, Rowani MR, Pennie RA
    Ann Trop Paediatr, 1997 Mar;17(1):77-81.
    PMID: 9176582
    Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (TPE) is considered to be a variant of human filarial infection. The pulmonary manifestations of TPE have been well described. Extra-pulmonary features of the disease, although not commonly seen, have been reported previously. A 9-year-old Malay girl with a history of recurrent cough and wheezing was admitted because of cardiac failure. Physical examination revealed a very sick girl with tachypnoea, central cyanosis, finger clubbing, elevated jugular venous pulse, generalized crackles and rhonchi in the chest, a loud second heart sound and hepatosplenomegaly. A chest radiograph showed cardiomegaly and right pleural effusion. Laboratory investigations revealed hypochromic, microcytic anaemia with persistent blood eosinophilia (absolute eosinophil counts varied from 1.9 to 5.5 x 10(9)/1). The ELISA test for antifilarial IgG antibodies was strongly positive. She responded promptly to treatment with diethylcarbamazine. In summary, this is a patient with TPE who presented with cor pulmonale, probably due to late-stage interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. In order to prevent the long term morbidity of cardiorespiratory disability, the early signs of TPE should be recognized and the infection treated.
  15. Halder D, Quah BS, Malik AS, Choo KE
    PMID: 9185277
    Neonatal septic arthritis has always been considered as separate from its counterpart in older children. The condition is uncommon but serious. Affected neonates usually survive, but with permanent skeletal deformities. Ten cases of neonatal septic arthritis were diagnosed between January 1989 and December 1993 in the neonatal intensive care units of two referral hospitals in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. All except one neonate was born prematurely. The mean age of presentation was 15.6 days. Joint swelling (10/10), increased warmth (7/10) and erythema of the overlying skin (7/10) were the common presenting signs. Vague constitutional symptoms preceded the definitive signs of septic arthritis in all cases. The total white cell counts were raised with shift to the left. The knee (60%) was not commonly affected, followed by the hip (13%) and ankle (13%). Three neonates had multiple joint involvement. Coexistence of arthritis with osteomyelitis was observed in seven neonates. The commonest organism isolated was methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (9/10). Needle aspiration was performed in nine neonates and one had incision with drainage. Follow up data was available for five neonates and two of these had skeletal morbidity. Early diagnosis by frequent examination of the joints, prompt treatment and control of nosocomial infection are important for management.
  16. Quah BS, Selladurai BM, Jayakumar CR, Mahendra Raj S
    Singapore Med J, 1993 Apr;34(2):172-4.
    PMID: 8266164
    A 10-year-old girl with mild aortic regurgitation presented with cerebral infarction. Two-dimensional echocardiography showed vegetations on the septal wall of the left ventricular outflow tract without involvement of the aortic valve itself. After successful antibiotic treatment the patient developed an intra-cranial haemorrhage due to rupture of a large intracranial mycotic aneurysm. Consent for surgical treatment of the mycotic aneurysm was not obtained. Twelve months later repeat angiography showed that the aneurysm had undergone spontaneous obliteration.
  17. Wong AR, Noor AS, Rasool AH, Quah BS, Roberton D
    Med J Malaysia, 2007 Oct;62(4):352-4.
    PMID: 18551948 MyJurnal
    A rare case of childhood pulmonary haemosiderosis with juvenile idiopathic arthritis is discussed, with particular reference to treatment with hydroxychloroquine and sildenafil for pulmonary hypertension which occurs secondary to this disease.
  18. Djokomuljanto S, Quah BS, Surini Y, Noraida R, Ismail NZ, Hansen TW, et al.
    Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed., 2006 Nov;91(6):F439-42.
    PMID: 16877479
    To determine whether the addition of low-cost reflecting curtains to a standard phototherapy unit could increase effectiveness of phototherapy for neonatal jaundice.
  19. Wong AR, Rasool AH, Abidin NZ, Noor AR, Quah BS
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2006 Mar;42(3):147-8.
    PMID: 16509918
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-related pulmonary hypertension is a relatively rare disease that can affect HIV sufferers. This is almost always associated with a poor outcome and death. An 18 month-old girl, probably the youngest on record, was diagnosed to have pulmonary hypertension (PHT) and retrospectively found to have HIV infection. Sildenafil was used to control her PHT and she remains alive even after 2 years.
  20. Mohamad Ikram I, Quah BS, Noraida R, Djokomuljanto S, Faris Irfan CY, Van Rostenberghe H
    Singapore Med J, 2011 May;52(5):356-60.
    PMID: 21633770
    The addition of glutamine to parenteral nutrition (PN) in neonates has not shown significant benefits as compared to adults thus far. This study aimed to determine the potential benefits of the addition of glutamine to neonatal PN in a tertiary hospital in a middle-income country.
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