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  1. Vattam KK, Raghavendran H, Murali MR, Savatey H, Kamarul T
    Hum Exp Toxicol, 2016 Aug;35(8):893-901.
    PMID: 26429928 DOI: 10.1177/0960327115608246
    In the present study, thirty six male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups and were injected with varying doses of alloxan (Ax) and nicotinamide (NA). The serum levels of glucose, insulin, and adiponectin were measured weekly up to 4 weeks.
  2. Murali MR, Naveen SV, Son CG, Raghavendran HRB
    Integr Med Res, 2014 Sep;3(3):111-118.
    PMID: 28664086 DOI: 10.1016/j.imr.2014.04.001
    Helicobacter pylori, a spiral-shaped Gram-negative bacterium, has been classified as a class I carcinogen by the World Health Organization and recognized as the causative agent for peptic ulcers, duodenal ulcer, gastritis, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas, and gastric cancer. Owing to their alarming rate of drug resistance, eradication of H. pylori remains a global challenge. Triple therapy consisting of a proton pump inhibitor, clarithromycin, and either amoxicillin or metronidazole, is generally the recommended standard for the treatment of H. pylori infection. Complementary and alternative medicines have a long history in the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments and various compounds has been tested for anti-H. pylori activity both in vitro and in vivo; however, their successful use in human clinical trials is sporadic. Hence, the aim of this review is to analyze the role of some well-known natural products that have been tested in clinical trials in preventing, altering, or treating H. pylori infections. Whereas some in vitro and in vivo studies in the literature have demonstrated the successful use of a few potential natural products for the treatment of H. pylori-related infections, others indicate a need to consider natural products, with or without triple therapy, as a useful alternative in treating H. pylori-related infections. Thus, the reported mechanisms include killing of H. pylori urease inhibition, induction of bacterial cell damage, and immunomodulatory effect on the host immune system. Furthermore, both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the successful use of some potential natural products for the treatment of H. pylori-related infections. Nevertheless, the routine prescription of potential complementary and alternative medicines continues to be restrained, and evidence on the safety and efficacy of the active compounds remains a subject of ongoing debate.
  3. Karunanithi P, Murali MR, Samuel S, Raghavendran HRB, Abbas AA, Kamarul T
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 08 20;147:294-303.
    PMID: 27178935 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.03.102
    Presence of sulfated polysaccharides like heparan sulphate has often been implicated in the regulation of chondrogenesis. However, recently there has been a plethora of interest in the use of non-animal extracted analogs of heparan sulphate. Here we remodeled alginate (1.5%) by incorporating fucoidan (0.5%), a natural sulphated polysaccharide extracted from seaweeds to form a composite hydrogel (Al-Fu), capable of enhancing chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). We confirmed the efficiency of fucoidan incorporation by FTIR and EDX analysis. Further, its ability to support hMSC attachment and chondrogenic differentiation was confirmed by SEM, biochemical glycosaminoglycan quantification, real-time quantitative PCR and immunocytochemical analyses of chondrogenic markers Sox-9, Collagen II, Aggrecan and COMP. Effect of Al-Fu hydrogel on hMSC hypertrophy was also confirmed by the downregulation of hypertrophic genes Collagen X and Runx2. This composite scaffold can hence be used as a cartilage biomimetic biomaterial to drive hMSC chondrogenesis and for other cartilage repair based therapies.
  4. Choudhary R, Vecstaudza J, Krishnamurithy G, Raghavendran HRB, Murali MR, Kamarul T, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Nov 01;68:89-100.
    PMID: 27524000 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.04.110
    Diopside was synthesized from biowaste (Eggshell) by sol-gel combustion method at low calcination temperature and the influence of two different fuels (urea, l-alanine) on the phase formation temperature, physical and biological properties of the resultant diopside was studied. The synthesized materials were characterized by heating microscopy, FTIR, XRD, BET, SEM and EDAX techniques. BET analysis reveals particles were of submicron size with porosity in the nanometer range. Bone-like apatite deposition ability of diopside scaffolds was examined under static and circulation mode of SBF (Simulated Body Fluid). It was noticed that diopside has the capability to deposit HAP (hydroxyapatite) within the early stages of immersion. ICP-OES analysis indicates release of Ca, Mg, Si ions and removal of P ions from the SBF, but in different quantities from diopside scaffolds. Cytocompatability studies on human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) revealed good cellular attachment on the surface of diopside scaffolds and formation of extracellular matrix (ECM). This study suggests that the usage of eggshell biowaste as calcium source provides an effective substitute for synthetic starting materials to fabricate bioproducts for biomedical applications.
  5. Nam HY, Murali MR, Ahmad RE, Pingguan-Murphy B, Raghavendran HRB, Kamarul T
    Stem Cells Int, 2020;2020:5385960.
    PMID: 32908542 DOI: 10.1155/2020/5385960
    It has been suggested that mechanical strain may elicit cell differentiation in adult somatic cells through activation of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC). However, such phenomenon has not been previously demonstrated in mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). The present study was thus conducted to investigate the role of ENaC in human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hMSCs) tenogenic differentiation during uniaxial tensile loading. Passaged-2 hMSCs were seeded onto silicone chambers coated with collagen I and subjected to stretching at 1 Hz frequency and 8% strain for 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Analyses at these time points included cell morphology and alignment observation, immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence staining (collagen I, collagen III, fibronectin, and N-cadherin), and gene expression (ENaC subunits, and tenogenic markers). Unstrained cells at similar time points served as the control group. To demonstrate the involvement of ENaC in the differentiation process, an ENaC blocker (benzamil) was used and the results were compared to the noninhibited hMSCs. ENaC subunits' (α, β, γ, and δ) expression was observed in hMSCs, although only α subunit was significantly increased during stretching. An increase in tenogenic genes' (collagen1, collagen3, decorin, tenascin-c, scleraxis, and tenomodulin) and proteins' (collagen I, collagen III, fibronectin, and N-cadherin) expression suggests that hMSCs underwent tenogenic differentiation when subjected to uniaxial loading. Inhibition of ENaC function resulted in decreased expression of these markers, thereby suggesting that ENaC plays a vital role in tenogenic differentiation of hMSCs during mechanical loading.
  6. Baig S, Azizan AHS, Raghavendran HRB, Natarajan E, Naveen S, Murali MR, et al.
    Stem Cells Int, 2019;2019:5142518.
    PMID: 30956670 DOI: 10.1155/2019/5142518
    We have determined the protective effects of Thymus serpyllum (TS) extract and nanoparticle-loaded TS on hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in vitro. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy confirmed the spectrum of active components in the extract. Out of the three different extracts, the hexane extract showed significant free radical scavenging activity. Treatment of MSCs with H2O2 (hydrogen peroxide) significantly increased intracellular cell death; however, pretreatment with TS extract and nanoparticle-loaded TS (200 μg/ml) suppressed H2O2-induced elevation of Cyt-c and MMP13 and increased the survival rates of MSCs. H2O2-induced (0.1 mM) changes in cytokines were attenuated in the extract and nanoparticles by pretreatment and cotreatment at two time points (p < 0.05). H2O2 increased cell apoptosis. In contrast, treatment with nanoparticle-loaded TS suppressed the percentage of apoptosis considerably (p < 0.05). Therefore, TS may be considered as a potential candidate for enhancing the effectiveness of MSC transplantation in cell therapy.
  7. Krishnamurithy G, Mohan S, Yahya NA, Mansor A, Murali MR, Raghavendran HRB, et al.
    PLoS One, 2019;14(3):e0214212.
    PMID: 30917166 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0214212
    It has been demonstrated that nanocrystalline forsterite powder synthesised using urea as a fuel in sol-gel combustion method had produced a pure forsterite (FU) and possessed superior bioactive characteristics such as bone apatite formation and antibacterial properties. In the present study, 3D-scaffold was fabricated using nanocrystalline forsterite powder in polymer sponge method. The FU scaffold was used in investigating the physicochemical, biomechanics, cell attachment, in vitro biocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation properties. For physicochemical characterisation, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectrometer (XPS) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) were used. FTIR, EDX, XRD peaks and Raman spectroscopy demonstrated correlating to FU. The XPS confirmed the surface chemistry associating to FU. The BET revealed FU scaffold surface area of 12.67 m2/g and total pore size of 0.03 cm3/g. Compressive strength of the FU scaffold was found to be 27.18 ± 13.4 MPa. The human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) characterisation prior to perform seeding on FU scaffold verified the stromal cell phenotypic and lineage commitments. SEM, confocal images and presto blue viability assay suggested good cell attachment and proliferation of hBMSCs on FU scaffold and comparable to a commercial bone substitutes (cBS). Osteogenic proteins and gene expression from day 7 onward indicated FU scaffold had a significant osteogenic potential (p<0.05), when compared with day 1 as well as between FU and cBS. These findings suggest that FU scaffold has a greater potential for use in orthopaedic and/or orthodontic applications.
  8. Venkatraman SK, Choudhary R, Krishnamurithy G, Raghavendran HRB, Murali MR, Kamarul T, et al.
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2021 Jan;118:111466.
    PMID: 33255048 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2020.111466
    This work is aimed to develop a biocompatible, bactericidal and mechanically stable biomaterial to overcome the challenges associated with calcium phosphate bioceramics. The influence of chemical composition on synthesis temperature, bioactivity, antibacterial activity and mechanical stability of least explored calcium silicate bioceramics was studied. The current study also investigates the biomedical applications of rankinite (Ca3Si2O7) for the first time. Sol-gel combustion method was employed for their preparation using citric acid as a fuel. Differential thermal analysis indicated that the crystallization of larnite and rankinite occurred at 795 °C and 1000 °C respectively. The transformation of secondary phases into the desired product was confirmed by XRD and FT-IR. TEM micrographs showed the particle size of larnite in the range of 100-200 nm. The surface of the samples was entirely covered by the dominant apatite phase within one week of immersion. Moreover, the compressive strength of larnite and rankinite was found to be 143 MPa and 233 MPa even after 28 days of soaking in SBF. Both samples prevented the growth of clinical pathogens at a concentration of 2 mg/mL. Larnite and rankinite supported the adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs. The variation in chemical composition was found to influence the properties of larnite and rankinite. The results observed in this work signify that these materials not only exhibit faster biomineralization ability, excellent cytocompatibility but also enhanced mechanical stability and antibacterial properties.
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