METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on consecutive adults with non-allergic rhinitis. The reflux symptom index (score of more than 13 = laryngopharyngeal reflux) and nasal symptoms (categorised as mild (total score of 0-3), moderate (4-7) or severe (8-12)) were assessed.
RESULTS: The study included 227 participants (aged 58.64 ± 12.39 years, 59.5 per cent female). The reflux symptom index scores increased with total nasal symptom scores (mild vs moderate vs severe, 8.61 ± 6.27 vs 12.94 ± 7.4 vs 16.40 ± 8.10; p < 0.01). Logistic regression indicated that laryngopharyngeal reflux is more likely in patients with severe nose block (odds ratio 5.47 (95 per cent confidence interval = 2.16-13.87); p < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: Laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms are associated with nasal symptom severity, and nasal symptoms should be primarily treated. Those with predominant nose block and laryngopharyngeal reflux symptoms are more likely to have laryngopharyngeal reflux.
OBJECTIVE: This study is aimed at determining the impact of sociological and environmental factors contributing to dengue cases.
METHODS: The study surveyed 379 respondents with dengue history. The socio-environmental factors were evaluated by chi-square and binary regression.
RESULT: The chi-square results revealed sociological factors associated between family with dengue experience such as older age (p =0.012), fewer than four people in the household (p= 0.008), working people (p= 0.004) and apartment/terrace houses (p=0.023). Similarly, there is a significant association between respondent's dengue history and houses that are shaded with vegetation (p= 0.012) and the present of public playground areas near the residential (p = 0.011).
CONCLUSION: The study identified socio-environmental factors that play an important role in the abundance of Aedes mosquitoes and also for the local dengue control measures.