Alluvial aquifers can be found in most of the coastal areas of Peninsular Malaysia. Seven tube wells located in such aquifers in the west coast of Selangor state had their performance evaluated by carryingout step drawdown tests. The performance of these wells was evaluated in terms of aquifer loss, well loss, specific capacity and well efficiency. The aquifer loss coefficient and well loss coefficient were found to be in the range of 0.0198 hrm-2 to 0.4014 hrm-2 and from 0.0001 hr2 m-5 to 0.0410 hr2 m-5, respectively. The drawdown in tube wells TW1 and TW7 is mainly influenced by well loss component as compared to the aquifer loss component, while in tube wells TW2, TW3, TW4, and TW5, the drawdown is mainly influenced by aquifer loss component. The drawdown in tube well TW6 is influenced by aquifer loss component at a low discharge rate, but at high discharge rate, it is influenced by well loss component. The specific capacity and efficiency of the tested tube wells varied from 1.329 m2 hr-1 to 40.166 m2 hr-1, and from 11% to 96%, respectively. Tube wells TW2 and TW4 are categorized as high productive wells, while tube wells TW1, TW3, TW5 and TW7 are categorized as moderate productive wells and tube well TW6 as low productive well.
Sustainable water demand management has become a necessity to the world since the immensely growing population and development have caused water deficit and groundwater depletion. This study aims to overcome water deficit by analyzing water demand at Kenyir Lake, Terengganu, using a fuzzy inference system (FIS). The analysis is widened by comparing FIS with the multiple linear regression (MLR) method. FIS applied as an analysis tool provides good generalization capability for optimum solutions and utilizes human behavior influenced by expert knowledge in water resources management for fuzzy rules specified in the system, whereas MLR can simultaneously adjust and compare several variables as per the needs of the study. The water demand dataset of Kenyir Lake was analyzed using FIS and MLR, resulting in total forecasted water consumptions at Kenyir Lake of 2314.38 m3 and 1358.22 m3, respectively. It is confirmed that both techniques converge close to the actual water consumption of 1249.98 m3. MLR showed the accuracy of the water demand values with smaller forecasted errors to be higher than FIS did. To attain sustainable water demand management, the techniques used can be examined extensively by researchers, educators, and learners by adding more variables, which will provide more anticipated outcomes.
Analytical studies for well design adjacent to river banks are the most significant practical task in cases involving the efficiency of riverbank filtration systems. In times when high pollution of river water is joined with increasing water demand, it is necessary to design pumping wells near the river that provide acceptable amounts of river water with minimum contaminant concentrations. This will guarantee the quality and safety of drinking water supplies. This article develops an analytical solution based on the Green's function approach to solve an inverse problem: based on the required level of contaminant concentration and planned pumping time period, the shortest distance to the riverbank that has the maximum percentage of river water is determined. This model is developed in a confined and homogenous aquifer that is partially penetrated by the stream due to the existence of clogging layers. Initially, the analytical results obtained at different pumping times, rates and with different values of initial concentration are checked numerically using the MODFLOW software. Generally, the distance results obtained from the proposed model are acceptable. Then, the model is validated by data related to two pumping wells located at the first riverbank filtration pilot project conducted in Malaysia.
Rapid urbanization and industrial development in the Langat Basin has disturbed the groundwater quality. The populations' reliance on groundwater sources may induce possible risks to human health such as cancer and endocrine dysfunction. This study aims to determine the groundwater quality of an urbanized basin through 24 studied hydrochemical parameters from 45 groundwater samples obtained from 15 different sampling stations by employing integrated multivariate analysis. The abundance of the major ions was in the following order: bicarbonate (HCO3-) > chloride (Cl-) > sodium (Na+) > sulphate (SO42-) > calcium (Ca2+) > potassium (K+) > magnesium (Mg2+). Heavy metal dominance was in the following order: Fe > Mn > Zn > As > Hg > Pb > Ni > Cu > Cd > Se > Sr. Classification of the groundwater facies indicated that the studied groundwater belongs to the Na-Cl with saline water type and Na-HCO3 with mix water type characteristics. The saline water type characteristics are derived from agricultural activities, while the mixed water types occur from water-rock interaction. Multivariate analysis performance suggests that industrial, agricultural, and weathering activities have contributed to groundwater contamination. The study will help in the understanding of the groundwater quality issue and serve as a reference for other basins with similar characteristics.
Groundwater is a primary natural water source in the absence of surface water bodies. Groundwater in urban environments experiences unprecedented stress from urban growth, population increase, and industrial activities. This study assessed groundwater quality in terms of arsenic and heavy metal contamination in three industrial areas (Shahdara, Jhilmil, and Patparganj), Delhi, India. The water quality was assessed over a 3-year time interval (i.e., 2015 and 2018). The groundwater constituents investigated were As, Fe, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Pb. Metal index and heavy metal pollution indexes were estimated to assess groundwater pollution. The health risk was evaluated in terms of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk assessment. Patparganj industrial area saw increment in concentration for Cu 0.23 mg/L (2015)-0.85 mg/L (2018), Zn 0.51 mg/L (2015)-7.2 mg/L (2018), Fe 0.32 mg/L (2015)-0.9 mg/L (2018), Cr 0.21 mg/L (2015)-0.26 mg/L (2018), Mn 0.14 mg/L (2015)-0.25 mg/L (2018), Ni 0.04 mg/L (2015)-0.34 mg/L (2018), and As 0.01 mg/L (2015)-0.18 mg/L (2018). Cd and Pb concentrations were observed to decrease by 40-90 % and 85-99% for all the three industrial areas. Metal index and heavy metal index values were found to be >1 for all locations. The risk quotient value > 1 was observed for all locations in the year 2015 but was found to increase further to a range of RQ 10-62 in the year 2018, inferring increased non-carcinogenic risk to consumers. The carcinogenic risk was significant with respect to Fe (0.2-0.7), Zn (0.001-0.007), and As (0.002-0.003) for all locations in the year 2015. This study concludes that groundwater in the three industrial areas is highly polluted and is not fit for human consumption. Further studies are required to explore possible control measures and develop methods to mitigate groundwater pollution, sustainable management, and optimized use to conserve it for future generations.
The dynamics of the coastal aquifers are well-expressed by geochemical and isotopic signatures. Coastal regions often exhibit complex groundwater recharge pattern due to the influence of depression in the Bay of Bengal, tidal variations on surface waters, saline water intrusion and agricultural return flows. In this research, groundwater recharge processes occurring in coastal Tamil Nadu, South India were evaluated using major ion chemistry and environmental isotopes. A total of 170 groundwater samples were collected from shallow and deep aquifers during both post-monsoon (POM) and pre-monsoon (PRM) seasons. The isotopic results showed a wide variation in the shallow groundwater, suggesting contribution from multiple recharge sources. But, the deeper groundwater recharge is mainly from precipitation. The northern part of the study area showed more depleted isotopic values, which rapidly changed towards south from -6.8 to -4.4‰. Alternatively, central and southern parts exhibited relatively enriched isotopic content with variation from -0.58 to -2.7‰. Groundwater was discerned to be brackish to saline with chloride content, 600-2060 mgL-1 and δ18O ranging from -5.8 to -4.5‰, suggesting influence of the saline water sources. A minor influence of anthropogenic activities was also observed in the deeper groundwater during PRM, which was confirmed by tritium and Cl- trends. The old groundwater with depleted isotopic content infer recharged by distant sources while modern groundwater with enriched isotopes points to the influence of evaporated recharge.
A reedbed system planted with Phragmites australis was implemented to treat chlorinated hydrocarbon-contaminated groundwater in an industrial plant area. Reedbed commissioning was conducted from July 2016 to November 2016 to treat contaminated groundwater via a pump-and-treat mechanism. Combination of horizontal and vertical reedbed systems was applied to treat 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2 DCA) under four parallel installations. The 2-acre horizontal and vertical reedbed systems were designed to treat approximately 305 m3/day of pumped groundwater. Initial concentration of 1,2 DCA was observed at 0.362 mg/L to 4320 mg/L, and the reedbed system successfully reduced the concentration up to 67.9%. The average outlet concentration was measured to be 2.08 mg/L, which was lower than the site-specific target level of 156 mg/L. Natural attenuation analysis was conducted using first-order decay kinetics, showing an average natural attenuation rate of 0.00372/year. Natural attenuation of 1,2 DCA was observed in shallow monitoring wells, which was indicated by the reduction trend of 1,2 DCA concentration, thereby confirming that the reedbed system worked well to remove 1.2 DCA from contaminated groundwater at the shallow profile.
Some regions of Argentina are affected by high concentrations of molybdenum, arsenic and vanadium from natural sources in their groundwater. In particular, Mo levels in groundwater from Eduardo Castex (La Pampa, Argentina) typically exceed the guidelines for drinking water formerly established by WHO at 70 μg/L. Therefore, this study investigated the uptake of Mo in plants, using cress (Lepidium sativum L.) as a model using hydroponic experiments with synthetic solutions and groundwater from La Pampa. Cress grown from control experiments (150 μg/L Mo, pH 7) presented an average Mo concentration of 35.2 mg/kg (dry weight, d.w.), higher than the typical total plant range (0.7-2.5 mg/kg d.w.) in the literature. Using pooled groundwater samples (65.0-92.5 μg/L Mo) from wells of La Pampa (Argentina) as growth solutions resulted in significantly lower cress Mo levels (1.89-4.59 mg/kg d.w.) than were obtained for synthetic solutions of equivalent Mo concentration. This may be due to the high levels in these groundwater samples of As, V, Fe and Mn which are known to be associated with volcanic deposits. This research addressed the hitherto scarcity of data about the effect of various physicochemical parameters on the uptake of Mo in plants.
Hydrogeochemical investigations had been carried out at the Amol-Babol Plain in the north of Iran. Geochemical processes and factors controlling the groundwater chemistry are identified based on the combination of classic geochemical methods with geographic information system (GIS) and geostatistical techniques. The results of the ionic ratios and Gibbs plots show that water rock interaction mechanisms, followed by cation exchange, and dissolution of carbonate and silicate minerals have influenced the groundwater chemistry in the study area. The hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater show a shift from low mineralized Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3, and Ca-Cl water types to high mineralized Na-Cl water type. Three classes, namely, C1, C2, and C3, have been classified using cluster analysis. The spatial distribution maps of Na(+)/Cl(-), Mg(2+)/Ca(2+), and Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) ratios and electrical conductivity values indicate that the carbonate and weathering of silicate minerals played a significant role in the groundwater chemistry on the southern and western sides of the plain. However, salinization process had increased due to the influence of the evaporation-precipitation process towards the north-eastern side of the study area.
Hard rock formations consisting of granite and metasedimentary rocks in Peninsular Malaysia, have beenconsidered to be of poor aquifers. The map of shows the area underlain by hard rock as having poorto moderate potential for groundwater production (
Groundwater provides critical freshwater supply, particularly in dry regions where surface water availability is limited. Climate change impacts on GWS (groundwater storage) could affect the sustainability of freshwater resources. Here, we used a fully-coupled climate model to investigate GWS changes over seven critical aquifers identified as significantly distressed by satellite observations. We assessed the potential climate-driven impacts on GWS changes throughout the 21st century under the business-as-usual scenario (RCP8.5). Results show that the climate-driven impacts on GWS changes do not necessarily reflect the long-term trend in precipitation; instead, the trend may result from enhancement of evapotranspiration, and reduction in snowmelt, which collectively lead to divergent responses of GWS changes across different aquifers. Finally, we compare the climate-driven and anthropogenic pumping impacts. The reduction in GWS is mainly due to the combined impacts of over-pumping and climate effects; however, the contribution of pumping could easily far exceed the natural replenishment.
Landfills are one of the main point sources of groundwater pollution. This research mainly aims to assess the risk of nitrate [Formula: see text] transport from the unlined landfill to subsurface layers and groundwater using experimental results and the SESOIL model. Samples from 12 groundwater wells downstream of the landfill were collected and analyzed in 2008, 21 years after the landfill construction. The average [Formula: see text] concentration in the wells was 54 mg/L, slightly higher than the World Health Organization ([Formula: see text] 50 mg/L) standards. SESOIL model was used to predict the [Formula: see text] concentration at the bottom of the unsaturated zone. Results indicated that the current mean [Formula: see text] concentration at the bottom of the unsaturated zone is 75 mg/L. the model predicted that the level of NO3 will increased up to 325 mg/L within 30 years. Accordingly, the [Formula: see text] concentration in groundwater wells near the landfill area is expected to gradually increase with time. Although the current risk associated with the [Formula: see text] level might not be harm to adults, however, it might pose severe risks to both adults and infants in the near future due to [Formula: see text] leaching. Urgent mitigation measures such as ﬁnal cell cover (cap), lining system and vertical expansion should be considered at the landfill to protect the public health in the area.
This article provides an analytical solute transport model to investigate the potential of groundwater contamination by polluted surface water in a two dimensional domain. The clogging of streambed which makes the aquifer partially penetrated by the stream, is considered in the model. The impacts of pumping process, hydraulic conductivity and clogging layer on the quality of water produced from nearby drinking water wells are evaluated. It is found that results are consistent with numerical simulation conducted by MODFLOW software. Moreover, the model is applied using data of contamination occurrence in Malaysia, where high contaminants concentrations are found close to streams. Results show that the pumping activities (rate and time period) are crucial factors when evaluating the risk of groundwater contamination from surface water. Additionally, this study illustrates that the increase in either hydraulic conductivity or leakance coefficient parameters due to the clogging layer will enlarge the area of contamination. The model is able to determine the suitable pumping rate and location of the well so that the contamination plume never reaches the extraction well, which is useful in constructing riverbank filtration sites.
In an effort to determine the reason behind excellent nitrate remediation capacity at Kelantan region, a multivariate approach is employed to evaluate extent to which the influence of sea on soil geochemical composition affect variation pattern of groundwater quality. The results obtained from geochemical analysis of paleo-beach soil in coastal site at Bachok revealed multiple redox activity at different soil strata, involving both heterotrophic and autotrophic denitrification. In soil and water analysis, eight of the fourteen hydro-geochemical parameters (conductivity, temperature, soil texture, oxidation reduction potential, pH, total organic carbon, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cl-, SO42-, NO2-, NO3- and PO43-) measured using standard procedures were subjected to multivariate analysis. Evaluation of general variation pattern across the area reveals that the principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are in consonance with one another on apportioning three parameters (SO42-, Cl- and conductivity) to the coastal sites and two parameters (Fe and NH4+ or NO3-) to inland sites. The step forward analysis of LDA reveals four parameters in order of decreasing significance as Cl-, Fe and SO42-, while the two-way HCA identifies three clusters on location basis, respectively. In addition to the significant data reduction obtained, the results indicate that proximity to sea and location/geological-based influence are more significant than temporal-based influence in denitrification. By extension, the research reveals that influence of labile portion of natural resources is explorable for broader application in other remediation strategies.
Hydrogeochemical understanding of groundwater is essential for the effective management of groundwater. This study has been carried out to have concrete data for the seasonal variations in hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in central Tamilnadu forming a complex geological terrain with a varied lithology. A total of 244 groundwater samples were collected during four different seasons, viz, southwest monsoon (SWM), summer (SUM), postmonsoon (POM), and northeast monsoon (NEM) from bore wells. The physical parameters such as pH, temperature, TDS, ORP, humidity, and electrical conductivity (EC) were measured insitu, whereas major ions were analyzed in the lab adopting standard procedures. Overall, higher EC and NO3 values were observed and exceeded the WHO permissible limit irrespective of seasons, except for NO3 in SWM. Na and HCO3 are the dominant cation and anion in the groundwater irrespective of seasons. The highest average values of Na (65.06 mg L-1) and HCO3 (350.75 mg L-1) were noted during SWM. Statistical analysis was carried out to elucidate the hydrogeochemistry of the region. Initially, to understand the ionic relationship, correlation matrix was used followed by factor analysis for determination of major geochemical control and later factor scores were derived to understand the regional representations. An attempt has also been made to identify the samples influenced by multiple geochemical processes and to understand their spatial variation in the study period. Correlation of geochemical parameters reveals a excellent positive correlation between Ca and NO3 in SUM, SWM, and NEM due to the dominant of anthropogenic sources and minor influence of weathering process. Strongly loaded factor scores are found to be mostly in the following order POM > NEM > SWM > SUM. Principal component analysis of different seasons indicates the interplay of natural weathering and anthropogenic factors. Overall, the predominant geochemical processes in this region, irrespective of seasons are weathering and, ion exchange and anthropogenic activities.
The aim of this study was to propose a groundwater quality index (GWQI) that presents water quality data as a single number and represents the water quality level. The development of the GWQI in agricultural areas is vital as the groundwater considered as an alternative water source for domestic purposes. The insufficiency of the groundwater quality standard in Malaysia revealed the importance of the GWQI development in determining the quality of groundwater. Groundwater samples were collected from thirteen groundwater wells in the Northern Kuala Langat and the Southern Kuala Langat regions from February 2018 to January 2019. Thirty-four parameters that embodied physicochemical characteristics, aggregate indicator, major ions, and trace elements were considered in the development of the GWQI. Multivariate analysis has been used to finalize the important parameters by using principal component analysis (PCA). Notably, seven parameters-electrical conductivity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, and chloride were chosen to evaluate the quality of groundwater. The GWQI was then verified by comparing the groundwater quality in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. A sensitivity analysis was performed on this index to verify its reliability. The sensitivity GWQI has been analyzed and showed high sensitivity to any changes of the pollutant parameters. The development of GWQI should be beneficial to the public, practitioners, and industries. From another angle, this index can help to detect any form of pollution which ultimately could be minimized by controlling the sources of pollutants.
The current novel work presents the optimization of factors affecting defluoridation by Al doped ZnO nanoparticles using response surface methodology (RSM). Al doped ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method and validated by FTIR, XRD, TEM/EDS, TGA, BET, and particle size analysis. Moreover, a central composite design (CCD) was developed for the experimental study to know the interaction between Al doped ZnO adsorbent dosage, initial concentration of fluoride, and contact time on fluoride removal efficiency (response) and optimization of the process. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was achieved to discover the importance of the individual and the effect of variables on the response. The model predicted that the response significantly correlated with the experimental response (R2 = 0.97). Among the factors, the effect of adsorbent dose and contact time was considered to have more influence on the response than the concentration. The optimized process parameters by RSM presented the adsorbent dosage: 0.005 g, initial concentration of fluoride: 1.5 g/L, and contact time: 5 min, respectively. Kinetic, isotherm, and thermodynamic studies were also investigated. The co-existing ions were also studied. These results demonstrated that Al doped ZnO could be a promising adsorbent for effective defluoridation for water.
This study was focused on identifying the region suitable for agriculture-based, using new irrigation groundwater quality plot and its spatio-temporal variation with fuzzy logic technique in a geographic information system (GIS) platform. Six hundred and eighty groundwater samples were collected during pre, southwest, northeast, and post monsoon periods. A new ternary plot was also attempted to determine the irrigation suitability of water by considering four essential parameters such as sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), permeability index (PI), Sodium percentage (Na %), and electrical conductivity (EC). The derived ternary plot was the most beneficial over other available plots, as it incorporated four parameters, and it differs from the US Salinity Laboratory (USSL) plot, such that the groundwater with higher EC could also be used for irrigation purposes, depending on the Na%. The ternary plot revealed that the groundwater predominantly manifested good to moderate category during post, northeast, and southwest monsoons. The assessment with the amount of fertilizer used during the study period showed that the NPK fertilizers were effectively used for irrigation during monsoon periods. Spatial maps on EC, Kelly's ratio, Mg hazard, Na%, PI, potential salinity (PS), SAR, residual sodium carbonate (RSC), and soluble sodium percentage (SSP) were prepared for each season using fuzzy membership values, integrated for each season. A final suitability map derived by an overlay of all the seasonal outputs has identified that the groundwater in the western and the eastern part of the study area are suitable for agriculture. The study recommends cultivation of groundwater-dependent short-term crops, along the western and northern regions of the study area during the pre-monsoon season.
Contaminated groundwater is a priority issue on the environmental agendas of developed countries. Therefore, there is an obvious need to develop instruments and decision-making mechanisms that allow the estimation of the risk to human health due to the presence of contaminants in soils and groundwater, in a fast and reliable manner. Thus, this study aims to assess whether the spilling of hydraulic fracturing fluids prior to injection has a potential risk to groundwater quality in the Kern County Sub-basin, California, by identifying the hydrological factors and solute transport characteristics that control these risks while taking into consideration the temperature rises due to climate change. The approach uses the concept of the groundwater pollution risk based on comparing the concentration of pollutants within the water table by using a predetermined permissible level. The current average annual temperature and that by the end of the 21st century was used to estimate the diffusion of benzene through three types of soil by using HYDRUS-1D software. The software was used to predict the contaminant concentration profile of benzene in the water table with special reference to the impact of surface temperatures. The results showed that an expected rise of the surface temperature by 4.3 °C led to an increase in the concentration of benzene by 2.3 μg/l in sandy loam soil, 6.8 μg/l in silt loam soil, and finally, 2.6 μg/l in loam soil. The results show that climate change can substantially affect soil properties and their chemical constituents, which then play a major role in absorbing pollutants.
In recent years, groundwater quality has become a global concern due to its effect on human life and natural ecosystems. To assess the groundwater quality in the Amol-Babol Plain, a total of 308 water samples were collected during wet and dry seasons in 2009. The samples were analysed for their physico-chemical and biological constituents. Multivariate statistical analysis and geostatistical techniques were applied to assess the spatial and temporal variabilities of groundwater quality and to identify the main factors and sources of contamination. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that seven factors explained around 75% of the total variance, which highlighted salinity, hardness and biological pollution as the dominant factors affecting the groundwater quality in the Plain. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted on the dataset to evaluate the spatio-temporal variation. The results showed that there were no significant temporal variations between the two seasons, which explained the similarity between six component factors in dry and wet seasons based on the PCA results. There are also significant spatial differences (p > 0.05) of the parameters under study, including salinity, potassium, sulphate and dissolved oxygen in the plain. The least significant difference (LSD) test revealed that groundwater salinity in the eastern region is significantly different to the central and western side of the study area. Finally, multivariate analysis and geostatistical techniques were combined as an effective method for demonstrating the spatial structure of multivariate spatial data. It was concluded that multiple natural processes and anthropogenic activities were the main sources of groundwater salinization, hardness and microbiological contamination of the study area.