METHODS: Imiquimod-loaded fish oil bigel colloidal system was prepared using a blend of carbopol hydrogel and fish oil oleogel. Bigels were first characterized for their mechanical properties and compared to conventional gel systems. Ex vivo permeation studies were performed on murine skin to analyze the ability of the bigels to transport drug across skin and to predict the release mechanism via mathematical modelling. Furthermore, to analyze pharmacological effectiveness in skin cancer and controlling imiquimod-induced inflammatory side effects, imiquimod-fish oil combination was tested in vitro on epidermoid carcinoma cells and in vivo in Swiss albino mice cancer model.
RESULTS: Imiquimod-loaded fish oil bigels exhibited higher drug availability inside the skin as compared to individual imiquimod hydrogel and oleogel controls through quasi-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Imiquimod-fish oil combination in bigel enhanced the antitumor effects and significantly reduced serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, and reducing tumor progression via inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor. Imiquimod-fish oil combination also resulted in increased expression of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, which could also aid anti-tumor activity against skin cancer.
CONCLUSION: Imiquimod administration through a bigel vehicle along with fish oil could be beneficial for controlling imiquimod-induced inflammatory side effects and in the treatment of skin cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This quality improvement project was undertaken at a private university. Guided by the PDSA model, rubber dam application tasks were conducted in the simulation lab in 2 phases. Phase 1 included TBSL and phase 2 included EBSL comprising of 2 PDSA cycles. 'Plan' stage involved obtaining feedback from students and the concerned staff. 'Do' stage included implementation of EBSL in eight steps adopted from Higgins's framework. 'Study' stage evaluated the outcomes and in 'Act' stage amendments were made to the first EBSL cycle. In the second PDSA cycle re-implementation and evaluation of the rubber dam application exercises were carried out. Descriptive data were presented as percentages and mean scores were compared using paired t-test.
RESULTS: Thirty-seven year 2 students participated in this study. A significant improvement in the mean scores was observed between TBSL and EBSL (3.02 + 0.16 and 3.91 + 0.27, respectively, p
METHODOLOGY: Several databases, including PubMed (Medline), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), BioMed Central, and Google Scholar, were used to review the literature. Information was retrieved using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and documents were selected according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). To assess the quality of the selected articles, the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) technique was utilized.
RESULTS: A total of 29 papers were selected for final review based on PRISMA guidelines and the NOS quality assessment. Studies have shown that many forms of SimEx commonly used in disaster management including tabletop exercises, functional exercises, and full-scale exercises have their benefits and limitations. There is no doubt that SimEx is an excellent tool for improving disaster planning and response. It is still necessary to give SimEx programs a more rigorous evaluation and to standardize the processes more thoroughly.
CONCLUSIONS: Drills and training can be improved for disaster management, which will enable medical professionals to face the challenges of disaster management in the 21st century.