Transdermal drug delivery systems are a constant source of interest because of the benefits that they afford in overcoming many drawbacks associated with other modes of drug delivery (i.e. oral, intravenous). Because of the impermeable nature of the skin, designing a suitable drug delivery vehicle that penetrates the skin barrier is challenging. Gels are semisolid formulations, which have an external solvent phase, may be hydrophobic or hydrophilic in nature, and are immobilized within the spaces of a three-dimensional network structure. Gels have a broad range of applications in food, cosmetics, biotechnology, pharmatechnology, etc. Typically, gels can be distinguished according to the nature of the liquid phase, for example, organogels (oleogels) contain an organic solvent, and hydrogels contain water. Recent studies have reported other types of gels for dermal drug application, such as proniosomal gels, emulgels, bigels and aerogels. This review aims to introduce the latest trends in transdermal drug delivery via traditional hydrogels and organogels and to provide insight into the latest gel types (proniosomal gels, emulgels, bigels and aerogels) as well as recent technologies for topical and transdermal drug delivery.
* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.