Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 119 in total

  1. Mohananaidu K, Chatterjee B, Mohamed F, Mahmood S, Hamed Almurisi S
    AAPS PharmSciTech, 2022 Oct 21;23(8):288.
    PMID: 36271212 DOI: 10.1208/s12249-022-02439-x
    Over the past decade, intranasal (IN) delivery has been gaining attention as an alternative approach to conventional drug delivery routes targeting the brain. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is available as an orally ingestible formulation. The present study aims to develop a thermoreversible in situ gelling system for delivering CBZ via IN route. A cold method of synthesis has been used to tailor and optimize the thermoreversible gel composition, using poloxamer 407 (P407) (15-20% w/v) and iota carrageenan (ɩ-Cg) (0.15-0.25% w/v). The developed in situ gel showed gelation temperatures (28-33°C), pH (4.5-6.5), rheological properties (pseudoplastic, shear thinning), and mucoadhesive strength (1755.78-2495.05 dyne/cm2). The in vitro release study has shown sustained release behavior (24 h) for gel, containing significant retardation of CBZ release. The release kinetics fit to the Korsmeyer-Peppas model, suggesting the non-Fickian diffusion type controlled release behavior. Ex vivo permeation through goat nasal mucosa showed sustained release from the gel containing 18% P407 with the highest cumulative drug permeated (243.94 µg/cm2) and a permeation flux of 10.16 µg/cm2/h. After treatment with CBZ in situ gel, the barrier function of nasal mucosa remained unaffected. Permeation through goat nasal mucosa using in situ gel has demonstrated a harmless nasal delivery, which can provide a new dimension to deliver CBZ directly to the brain bypassing the blood-brain barrier.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels/chemistry
  2. Zhao Y, Lu K, Piao X, Song Y, Wang L, Zhou R, et al.
    Food Chem, 2023 May 01;407:135157.
    PMID: 36529012 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.135157
    Surimi products have unsatisfactory gel properties. Hence, this study evaluates the effect of collagen-adding on surimi gel properties and provides the first observation results regarding collagen type influence. With higher water solubility and more charged amino acids than type II, collagen type I intertwines with surimi myofibrillar proteins better to induce higher exposure of protein functional domains, more sufficient conformational changes of myosin and greater formation of chemical forces among proteins. These enhancements accelerate the gelation rate, leading to a well-stabilized surimi gel. The collagen I-containing surimi gels show more compact structures with uniformly distributed smaller pores than those containing collagen II, thereby providing the final products with higher water holding capacity and better textural profiles. As such, the surimi gel fortification performance of collagen I and the well-elucidated collagen-myofibrillar protein interaction mechanism will guide the further exploitation of collagen as an effective additive in the food industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels/chemistry
  3. Chan SY, Choo WS, Young DJ, Loh XJ
    Carbohydr Polym, 2017 Apr 01;161:118-139.
    PMID: 28189220 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2016.12.033
    Pectins are a diverse family of biopolymers with an anionic polysaccharide backbone of α-1,4-linked d-galacturonic acids in common. They have been widely used as emulsifiers, gelling agents, glazing agents, stabilizers, and/or thickeners in food, pharmaceutical, personal care and polymer products. Commercial pectin is classified as high methoxy pectin (HMP) with a degree of methylation (DM) >50% and low methoxy pectin (LMP) with a DM <50%. Amidated low methoxy pectins (ALMP) can be obtained through aminolysis of HMP. Gelation of HMP occurs by cross-linking through hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic forces between the methyl groups, assisted by a high co-solute concentration and low pH. In contrast, gelation of LMP occurs by the formation of ionic linkages via calcium bridges between two carboxyl groups from two different chains in close proximity, known as the 'egg-box' model. Pectin gels exhibit Newtonian behaviour at low shear rates and shear-thinning behaviour when the shear rate is increased. An overview of pectin from its origin to its physicochemical properties is presented in this review.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels/chemistry
  4. Hamzah N, Sarbon NM, Amin AM
    J Food Sci Technol, 2015 Aug;52(8):4773-84.
    PMID: 26243898 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-014-1622-1
    This study aimed to determine the effects of 2-5 wash cycles and the addition of tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) (0 %, 0.05 Surimi% and 0.1 % w/w)-with or without the addition of 0.4 % calcium chloride (CaCl2)-on the physical properties such as texture, colour, expressible moisture and microstructure of Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) surimi gel. The highest breaking force (484.85 g) was obtained with the addition 0.1 % TSPP alone on the fifth wash. However, a combination of 0.1 and 0.4 % CaCl2 in surimi gels at wash cycle 5 resulted in the highest degree of whiteness (86.8 %), as well as total expressible moisture (2.785 %) and deformation (17.11 mm). The highest surimi gel strength (6,923 g.mm) was obtained after three wash cycles with the addition of 0.1 % TSPP +0.4 % CaCl2. The physical properties of Cobia fish surimi gels were affected by the number of wash cycles and treatments with TSPP and CaCl2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels
  5. Ng, X.Y., Huda, N.
    The effects of washing treatments and washing cycles on the thermal gelation properties and quality
    characteristics of duckrimi (duck-base surimi-like material) were evaluated. Minced spent layer duck (4.5 mm orifice diameter) were washed by using either tap water, 0.1M NaCl, 0.5% NaHCO3 and 0.04M sodium phosphate in one, two or three washing cycles, respectively. Washing with 0.04M sodium phosphate in three washing cycles significantly increased (P
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels
  6. Lee JS, Lo YL, Chye FY
    This study was carried out to elucidate the effect of three types of cation (K+, Ca2+ and Na+) at various concentrations on the gelling properties of untreated Eucheuma cottoni, with the ultimate aim to explore the possibility of utilizing the seaweed in its natural form as gelling agent. Results obtained suggest that E. cottonii also exhibited the dramatic cation specificity of k-carrageenan, in which the dependence of gel strength follows the order: K+ > Ca2+ > Na+. As expected, cations addition exerts adverse effect on the syneresis, water holding capacity and freeze-thaw stability of the seaweed gel. Water holding capcity of the gel is however independent of the increased concentrations of K+(p>0.05). Storage duration and storage temperature significantly (p<0.05) affect the syneresis and water holding capacity of the gel. Among the cations, K+ appears to be better in improving the gel properties of the seaweed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels
  7. Wei S, Ching YC, Chuah CH
    Carbohydr Polym, 2020 Mar 01;231:115744.
    PMID: 31888854 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.115744
    Chitosan with abundant functional groups is regarded as important ingredients for preparing aerogel materials in life science. The biocompatibility and biodegradability of chitosan aerogels, coupled to the variety of chemical functionalities they include, result in them promising carriers for drug delivery. Moreover, chitosan aerogels as drug delivery vehicles can offer improved drug bioavailability and drug loading capacity due to their highly porous network, considerably large specific surface area and polycationic feature. The major focus of this review lies in preparation methods of chitosan aerogels from acidic aqueous solution and chitosan solution in Ionic Liquids (ILs). In addition, chitosan aerogels as drug delivery carriers are introduced in detail and expected to inspire readers to create new kind of drug delivery system based on chitosan aerogels. Finally, growing points and perspectives of chitosan aerogels in drug delivery system are given.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels/chemical synthesis; Gels/therapeutic use; Gels/chemistry*
  8. Dabbagh A, Abdullah BJ, Ramasindarum C, Abu Kasim NH
    Ultrason Imaging, 2014 Oct;36(4):291-316.
    PMID: 24626566 DOI: 10.1177/0161734614526372
    Tissue-mimicking phantoms that are currently available for routine biomedical applications may not be suitable for high-temperature experiments or calibration of thermal modalities. Therefore, design and fabrication of customized thermal phantoms with tailored properties are necessary for thermal therapy studies. A multitude of thermal phantoms have been developed in liquid, solid, and gel forms to simulate biological tissues in thermal therapy experiments. This article is an attempt to outline the various materials and techniques used to prepare thermal phantoms in the gel state. The relevant thermal, electrical, acoustic, and optical properties of these phantoms are presented in detail and the benefits and shortcomings of each type are discussed. This review could assist the researchers in the selection of appropriate phantom recipes for their in vitro study of thermal modalities and highlight the limitations of current phantom recipes that remain to be addressed in further studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels/chemistry*
  9. Ravindra P, Chan ES, Reddy KU
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2007 Nov;58(7):542-7.
    PMID: 17852467
    Extensive studies have been carried out on the effect of temperature and salt concentration on the theological behavior of whey proteins and different starches individually, but not on mixed dispersions of whey protein isolates and starches. In the present studies, the rheological behavior of cross-linked waxy maize starch and whey protein isolate mixed dispersions during heating at 60-85 degrees C was investigated. Further, the effect of CaCl2 (25-100 mM ionic strengths) on the gelatinization of these dispersions was determined. It was found that at a 2:3 ratio and a 3:2 ratio of cross-linked waxy maize starch to whey protein isolate mixed gels form a compatible networkmM concentration the solution viscosity was higher.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels/chemistry*
  10. Lai KC, Hiew BYZ, Lee LY, Gan S, Thangalazhy-Gopakumar S, Chiu WS, et al.
    Bioresour Technol, 2019 Feb;274:134-144.
    PMID: 30502604 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.11.048
    Graphene oxide/chitosan aerogel (GOCA) was prepared by a facile ice-templating technique without using any cross-linking reagent for metanil yellow dye sequestration. The adsorption performance of GOCA was investigated by varying the adsorbent mass, shaking speed, initial pH, contact time, concentration and temperature. The combined effects of adsorption parameters and the optimum conditions for dye removal were determined by response surface methodology. GOCA exhibited large removal efficiencies (91.5-96.4%) over a wide pH range (3-8) and a high adsorption capacity of 430.99 mg/g at 8 mg adsorbent mass, 400 mg/L concentration, 35.19 min contact time and 175 rpm shaking speed. The adsorption equilibrium was best represented by the Langmuir model. GOCA could be easily separated after adsorption and regenerated for re-use in 5 adsorption-desorption cycles thereby maintaining 80% of its adsorption capability. The relatively high adsorption and regeneration capabilities of GOCA render it an attractive adsorbent for treatment of azo dye-polluted water.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels/chemistry
  11. Bin Sintang MD, Danthine S, Patel AR, Rimaux T, Van De Walle D, Dewettinck K
    J Colloid Interface Sci, 2017 Oct 15;504:387-396.
    PMID: 28586736 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcis.2017.05.114
    In order to modify the self-assembly of sucrose esters (SEs) in sunflower oil, we added sunflower lecithin (SFL) as co-surfactant. It is hypothesized that SFL modifies the self-assembly of SEs by interrupting the extensive hydrogen bonding between SEs monomers. The addition of SFL into SEs induced gelation of the mixed surfactant system oleogels at all studied ratios. The 7:3 SEs:SFL combination showed enhanced rheological properties compared to the other studied ratios, which suggests better molecular ordering induced by SFL. The modifications might have been caused by interference in the hydrogen bonding, connecting the polar heads of SEs molecules in the presence of SFL. This effect was confirmed by thermal behavior and small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD) analysis. From the crystallization and melting analyses, it was shown that the peak temperature, shape and enthalpy decreased as the SFL ratio increases. Meanwhile, the bi-component oleogels exhibited new peaks in the SAXD profile, which imply a self-assembly modification. The microscopic study through polarized and electrons revealed a change in the structure. Therefore, it can be concluded that a synergistic effect between SEs and SFL, more particularly at 7:3 ratio, towards sunflower oil structuring could be obtained. These findings shed light for greater applications of SEs as structuring and carrier agent in foods and pharmaceutical.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels/chemistry*
  12. Hsin YK, Thangarajoo T, Choudhury H, Pandey M, Meng LW, Gorain B
    J Pharm Sci, 2023 Feb;112(2):562-572.
    PMID: 36096286 DOI: 10.1016/j.xphs.2022.09.002
    Vaginal candidiasis is a common form of infection in women caused by Candida species. Due to several drawbacks of conventional treatments, the current research is attempted to formulate and optimize a miconazole nitrate-loaded in situ spray gel for vaginal candidiasis. The stimuli-responsive (pH and thermo-responsive) polymers selected for the in situ gel were chitosan and poloxamer 407, respectively, whereas hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) was introduced in the formulation to further improve the mucoadhesive property. The dispersion of each polymer was carried out using the cold method, whereas the optimization of the formulation was achieved using Box-Behnken statistical design considering viscosity and gelation temperature as dependent variables. Present design achieved the optimized outcome with HPMC, poloxamer and chitosan at 0.52% (w/v), 18.68% (w/v) and 0.41% (w/v), respectively. Evaluation of drug-excipients compatibility was performed using differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis where the results showed the absence of any chemical interaction between the polymers and drug component. The optimized formulation showed gelation temperature at 31°C allowing in situ phase transition in a vaginal environment; pH of 4.21 is suitable for use in the vaginal cavity, and appropriate viscosity (290 cP) at storage temperature (below 30°C) would allow spraying at ease, whereas strong mucoadhesive force (22.4±0.513 g) would prevent leaking of the formulation after application. The drug release profile showed sustained release up to 24 h with a cumulative drug release of 81.72%, which is significantly better than the marketed miconazole nitrate cream. In addition, an improved antifungal activity could be correlated to the sustained release of the drug from the formulation. Finally, the safety of the formulation was established while tested on HaCaT cell lines. Based on our findings, it could be concluded that the in situ hydrogel formulation using stimuli-responsive polymers could be a viable alternative to the conventional dosage form that can help to reduce the frequency of administration with ease of application to the site of infection, thus will provide better patient compliance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels/chemistry
  13. Ashraf MA, Khan AM, Ahmad M, Sarfraz M
    Front Chem, 2015;3:42.
    PMID: 26322304 DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2015.00042
    Microencapsulation has become a hot topic in chemical research. Technology mainly used for control release and protection purposes. The sol-gel micro encapsulation approach for fragrance and aroma in porous silica-based materials leads to sustainable odorant and flavored materials with novel and unique beneficial properties. Sol-gel encapsulation of silica based micro particles considered economically cheap as capital investment in manufacturing is very low and environmentally friendly. Amorphous sol-gel SiO2 is non-toxic and safe, whereas the sol-gel entrapment of delicate chemicals in its inner pores results in pronounced chemical and physical stabilization of the entrapped active agents, thereby broadening the practical utilization of chemically unstable essential oils (EOs). Reviewing progress in the fabrication of diverse odorant and flavored sol-gels, shows us how different synthetic strategies are appropriate for practical application with important health and environmental benefits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels
  14. Talib, R.A., Nor, M.Z.M., Noranizan, M.A., Chin, N.L., Hashim, K.
    This work describes the effects of different cooking temperatures in repetitive cooking-chilling (RCC) process on resistant starch (RS) content in fish crackers prepared in a ratio of 1:1 fish to sago starch formulation. In this work, three sets of four RCC cycles were performed on fish crackers, in which each set was cooked at fixed temperatures of 100, 115 and 121°C, respectively. The chilling temperature was fixed at 4°C in all cases. Subjecting the fish crackers to a higher cooking temperature for up to 4 cycles of RCC can increase the RS content. However, quality degradation was observed in the characteristics of the fish crackers. During the first RCC cycle, cooking at a higher temperature had caused the crackers to crack and burst. Besides, defragmentation to the shape of the fish cracker gels was also observed during the first RCC cycle, coupled with softer texture and high moisture content. When the products were subjected to frying, their linear expansion decreased, the texture became harder and the colour turned darker. This work demonstrated that the application of higher cooking temperature up to 4 RCC cycles was able to enhance the RS content in the fish crackers, but it was less able to attain the product's perfect shape. On the contrary, fish crackers that were exposed to lower cooking temperatures contained lower RS but with less shape damage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels
  15. Elsie Yee, Y. S., Zainal Zahari, AHMAD ISMAIL, YAP, C.K., TAN, S. G
    Electrophoresis is a crucial step for the studies of proteins, allozymes, DNAs and RNAs. Two commonly used electrophoresis systems are agarose gel and polyacrylmide gel. Agarose gel is frequently used for DNAs and RNAs studies whereas polyacrylmide gel is widely used for the studies of other macromolecules such as proteins, allozymes (isozymes), DNAs and RNAs. The banding patterns of the gels, rather than the numbers of bands appearing on the gels are important for scoring in fingerprinting, footprinting and in population genetic studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels
  16. Karim AA, Toon LC, Lee VP, Ong WY, Fazilah A, Noda T
    J Food Sci, 2007 Mar;72(2):C132-8.
    PMID: 17995828
    Effects of phosphorus content (510 to 987 ppm) on the gelatinization and retrogradation of 6 potato cultivars (Benimaru, Hokkaikogane, Irish Cobbler, Konafubuki, Sakurafubuki, and Touya) were studied. Pasting properties were analyzed by RVA, thermal properties by DSC, and mechanical properties of the starch gels by TA. Phosphorus was positively correlated with swelling power (r= 0.84) and negatively correlated with solubility (r= 0.83). Phosphorus content showed significant effect on certain pasting properties of potato starch such as peak viscosity, breakdown, and setback. Phosphorus content showed a significant positive correlation with peak viscosity (r= 0.95) and breakdown (r= 0.90). Increasing concentration of phosphorus tends to decrease the setback. Phosphorus content had no influence on thermal properties and mechanical properties of potato starch gel.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels/analysis; Gels/chemistry
  17. Rajabalaya R, David SR, Chellian J, Xin Yun G, Chakravarthi S
    Drug Deliv, 2016 Jun;23(5):1578-87.
    PMID: 26634274 DOI: 10.3109/10717544.2015.1116027
    CONTEXT: Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common problem and anticholinergic drugs are first-line therapy, but they have side effects.

    OBJECTIVE: Development of oxybutynin chloride (OC) proniosomal gels and analyses of its efficacy for OAB treatment.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phase separation coacervation was used to prepare proniosomal gels using various non-ionic surfactants, lipids, soy lecithin and isopropyl alcohol. Gels were characterized with regard to entrapment efficiency (EE), vesicle size, surface morphology (using environmental scanning electron microscopy [E-SEM]), stability, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, in vitro skin permeation, in vivo animal studies and histopathology.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: EE was 87-92%, vesicle size was 0.38-5.0 μm, and morphology showed some loosened pores in proniosomes after hydration. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy showed no significant shifts in peaks corresponding to OC and excipients. Most formulations exhibited >50% permeation but the cholesterol-containing formulations P3 (Span 20:Span 60 [1:1]) and P4 [Tween 20:Tween 80 (1:1)] had the highest percent cumulative permeation. P3 and P4 also showed faster recovery of cholinergic effects on salivary glands than oral formulations. P3 and P4 had pronounced therapeutic effects in reduction of urinary frequency and demonstrated improvements in bladder morphology (highly regenerative surface of the transitional epithelium).

    CONCLUSION: These results suggest that OC could be incorporated into proniosomal gels for transdermal delivery in the treatment of OAB.

    Matched MeSH terms: Gels/administration & dosage*; Gels/chemistry
  18. Choudhury H, Gorain B, Pandey M, Chatterjee LA, Sengupta P, Das A, et al.
    J Pharm Sci, 2017 07;106(7):1736-1751.
    PMID: 28412398 DOI: 10.1016/j.xphs.2017.03.042
    Being an emerging transdermal delivery tool, nanoemulgel, has proved to show surprising upshots for the lipophilic drugs over other formulations. This lipophilic nature of majority of the newer drugs developed in this modern era resulting in poor oral bioavailability, erratic absorption, and pharmacokinetic variations. Therefore, this novel transdermal delivery system has been proved to be advantageous over other oral and topical drug delivery to avoid such disturbances. These nanoemulgels are basically oil-in-water nanoemulsions gelled with the use of some gelling agent in it. This gel phase in the formulation is nongreasy, which favors user compliance and stabilizes the formulation through reduction in surface as well as interfacial tension. Simultaneously, it can be targeted more specifically to the site of action and can avoid first-pass metabolism and relieve the user from gastric/systemic incompatibilities. This brief review is focused on nanoemulgel as a better topical drug delivery system including its components screening, formulation method, and recent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic advancement in research studies carried out by the scientists all over the world. Therefore, at the end of this survey it could be inferred that nanoemulgel can be a better and effective drug delivery tool for the topical system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels/metabolism; Gels/chemistry*
  19. Mardziah CM, Sopyan I, Hamdi M, Ramesh S
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Jul;63 Suppl A:79-80.
    PMID: 19024993
    Improvement of the mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite (HA) can be achieved by the incorporation of metal. In addition, incorporation of strontium ion into HA crystal structures has been proved effective to enhance biochemical properties of bone implant. In this research, strontium-doped HA powder was developed via a sol-gel method to produce extraordinarily fine strontium-doped HA (Sr-doped HA) powder. XRD measurement had shown that the powder contained hydroxyapatite phase only for all doping concentration except for 2%, showing that Sr atoms have suppressed the appearance of beta-TCP as the secondary phase. Morphological evaluation by FESEM measurement shows that the particles of the Sr-doped HA agglomerates are globular in shape with an average size of 1-2 microm in diameter while the primary particles have a diameter of 30-150 nm in average.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels
  20. Santana, P., Huda, N., Yang, T.A.
    Surimi refers to concentrated myofibrial protein extracted from fish flesh by washing process. Surimi powder, is normally prepared in a dried form, and potentially useful as a raw material for preparation of seafood products. Surimi powder offers many advantages in industrial application, such as easy handling, low distribution cost, and physically convenient for addition to dry mixtures. In order to prevent the denaturation of the protein during drying, dryoprotectants such as sucrose and polyols can be added. Surimi powder is classified as fish protein concentrate type A because its protein content is higher than 65%. Surimi powder has good functional properties, such as gelation, water holding capacity, and emulsifying and foaming properties. Gel-based fish products and fish snacks are common products that can be made from surimi powder.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gels
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