Transdermal preparations for testosterone are becoming popular because of their unique advantages such as avoidance of first-pass effect, convenience, improved bioavailability, and reduction of systemic side effects. A novel testosterone transdermal delivery system (TDDS) was developed using a palm oil base called HAMIN™ (a commercial product) and tested using in vitro and in vivo skin permeability test methods.
Dear editor, We read with great interest the article by Go ZL et al., which was published in your esteemed journal1. The authors had reported an unusual and yet important case of cutaneous manifestations of malignancy. Being the only and initial presentation of Hodgkin’s lymphoma, prurigo nodularis can manifest as a benign dermatological appearance in the underlying sinister condition. We want to again highlight the importance of this bizarre cutaneous presentation which can counterfeit the actual and occult villain.
Dermatomyositis is often presented as paraneoplastic syndrome. The diagnosis of dermatomyositis can prompt clinicians to further investigate the underlying cause, in particular malignancy. This case report illustrates the association of lung adenocarcinoma and dermatomyositis with antecedent presentation of cutaneous and musculoskeletal manifestations, one year prior to the diagnosis of carcinoma.
Rotigotine is a non-ergoline, high lipophilic dopamine agonist. It is indicated as the first-line therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) and Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS). However, the precise mechanism of rotigotine is yet to be known. Rotigotine has similar safety and tolerability to the other oral non-ergolinic dopamine antagonists in clinical trials, which include nausea, dizziness and somnolence. Neupro® was the first marketed transdermal patch formulation having rotigotine. The transdermal delivery system is advantageous as it enables continuous administration of the drug, thus providing steady-state plasma drug concentration for 24-hours. Intranasal administration of rotigotine allows the drug to bypass the blood-brain barrier enabling it to reach the central nervous system within minutes. Rotigotine can also be formulated as an extended-release microsphere for injection. Some challenges remain in other routes of rotigotine administration such as oral, parenteral and pulmonary, whereby resolving these challenges will be beneficial to patients as they are less invasive and comfortable in terms of administration. This review compiles recent work on rotigotine delivery, challenges and its future perspective.
Diabetes mellitus is a severe condition in which the pancreas produces inadequate insulin or the insulin generated is ineffective for utilisation by the body; as a result, insulin therapy is required for control blood sugar levels in patients having type 1 diabetes and is widely recommended in advanced type 2 diabetes patients with uncontrolled diabetes despite dual oral therapy, while subcutaneous insulin administration using hypodermic injection or pump-mediated infusion is the traditional route of insulin delivery and causes discomfort, needle phobia, reduced adherence, and risk of infection. Therefore, transdermal insulin delivery has been extensively explored as an appealing alternative to subcutaneous approaches for diabetes management which not only is non-invasive and easy, but also avoids first-pass metabolism and prevents gastrointestinal degradation. Microneedles have been commonly investigated in human subjects for transdermal insulin administration because they are minimally invasive and painless. The different types of microneedles developed for the transdermal delivery of anti-diabetic drugs are discussed in this review, including solid, dissolving, hydrogel, coated, and hollow microneedles. Numerous microneedle products have entered the market in recent years. But, before the microneedles can be effectively launched into the market, a significant amount of investigation is required to address the numerous challenges. In conclusion, the use of microneedles in the transdermal system is an area worth investigating because of its significant benefits over the oral route in the delivery of anti-diabetic medications and biosensing of blood sugar levels to assure improved clinical outcomes in diabetes management.
This review highlights in vitro drug dissolution/permeation methods available for topical and transdermal nanocarriers that have been designed to modulate the propensity of drug release, drug penetration into skin, and permeation into systemic circulation. Presently, a few of USFDA-approved in vitro dissolution/permeation methods are available for skin product testing with no specific application to nanocarriers. Researchers are largely utilizing the in-house dissolution/permeation testing methods of nanocarriers. These drug release and permeation methods are pending to be standardized. Their biorelevance with reference to in vivo plasma concentration-time profiles requires further exploration to enable translation of in vitro data for in vivo or clinical performance prediction.
Vancomycin has been documented to cause various adverse cutaneous reactions. We present a case report of a man, who developed a large localized erythematous plaque in his forearm following parenteral vancomycin therapy. We believe this to be the first reported case of such cutaneous reaction associated with parenteral vancomycin therapy.
Drug crystallisation in the skin is recognised as a significant problem in topical and transdermal drug delivery. Our recent investigations provided new evidence of drug crystallisation in the skin, however, confirming the precise location of crystals remains challenging. Of note, most approaches used have required disruption of the membrane by tape stripping, with crystal detection limited to the superficial skin layers. Hence, a non-destructive method for complete spatial resolution of crystallised drug in skin is still lacking. In this communication, we report the application of X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) to examine drug crystallisation in mammalian skin ex vivo. Permeation studies of a saturated solution of diclofenac sodium were conducted in porcine skin; subsequently, tissue samples were scanned using microCT to generate 2D and 3D maps. A layer of drug crystals was observed on the skin surface; microCT maps also confirmed the distribution of drug crystals up to a skin depth of 0.2 - 0.3 mm. MicroCT also allowed the identification of drug crystallisation as a distinct and confirmed event in the skin and as an extension from drug crystals formed on the skin. These preliminary results confirm the potential of microCT to study this important phenomenon in topical and transdermal drug delivery.
Microneedle (MN) delivery devices are more accepted by people than regular traditional needle injections (e.g. vaccination) due to their simplicity and adaptability. Thus, patients of chronic diseases like diabetes look for alternative pain-free treatment regimens circumventing regular subcutaneous injections. Insulin microneedles (INS-MNs) are a thoughtfully researched topic (1) to overcome needle phobia in patients, (2) for controlled delivery of the peptide, (3) decreasing the frequency of drug administration, (4) to ease the drug administration procedure, and (5) thus increasing patient adherence to the treatment dosage regimes. MNs physically disrupt the hard outer skin layer to create minuscule pores for insulin (INS) to pass through the dermal capillaries into the systemic circulation. Biodegradable polymeric MNs are of greater significance for INS and vaccine delivery than silicon, metal, glass, or non-biodegradable polymeric MNs due to their ease of fabrication, mass production, cost-effectiveness, and bioerodability. In recent years, INS-MNs have been researched to deliver INS through the transdermal implants, buccal mucosa, stomach wall, intestinal mucosal layers, and colonic mucosa apart from the usual transdermal delivery. This review focuses on the design characteristics and the applications of biodegradable/dissolvable polymeric INS-MNs in transdermal, intra-oral, gastrointestinal (GI), and implantable delivery. The prospective approaches to formulate safe, controlled-release INS-MNs were highlighted. Biodegradable/dissolvable polymers, their significance, their impact on MN morphology, and INS release characteristics were outlined. The developments in biodegradable polymeric INS-MN technology were briefly discussed. Bio-erodible polymer selection, MN fabrication and evaluation factors, and other design aspects were elaborated.
Glycols stand out as one of the most commonly employed safe and effective excipients for pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. Their widespread adoption can be attributed to their exceptional solvency characteristics and their ability to interact effectively with skin lipids and keratin for permeation enhancement. Notably, propylene glycol enjoys significant popularity in this regard. Ongoing research endeavours have been dedicated to scrutinising the impact of glycols on dermal drug delivery and shedding light on the intricate mechanisms by which glycols enhance skin permeation. This review aims to mitigate the discordance within the existing literature, assemble a holistic understanding of the impact of glycols on the percutaneous absorption of active compounds and furnish the reader with a profound comprehension of the foundational facets pertaining to their skin permeation enhancement mechanisms, while simultaneously delving deeper into the intricacies of these processes.
Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors (PEComas) are a family of rare mesenchymal tumors with discrete histological and immunohistochemical characteristics. Even rarer among them are cutaneous and subcutaneous PEComas. We describe a 34-year-old woman who presented with a large anterior abdominal subcutaneous lesion showing intact overlying skin and no obvious invasion of the abdominal musculature. A wide local excision was performed. Histopathology revealed a solitary tumor measuring 75 × 55 × 90 mm with epithelioid cells in nests with thin fibrovascular septa and spindle cells. Resection margins were clear with no invasion to the skin or rectus sheath. Tumor cells were positive for HMB-45 but negative for other markers. This is the largest subcutaneous PEComa reported to date.
The advanced stimuli-responsive approaches for on-demand drug delivery systems have received tremendous attention as they have great potential to be integrated with sensing and multi-functional electronics on a flexible and stretchable single platform (all-in-one concept) in order to develop skin-integration with close-loop sensation for personalized diagnostic and therapeutic application. The wearable patch pumps have evolved from reservoir-based to matrix patch and drug-in-adhesive (single-layer or multi-layer) type. In this review, we presented the basic requirements of an artificial pancreas, surveyed the design and technologies used in commercial patch pumps available on the market and provided general information about the latest wearable patch pump. We summarized the various advanced delivery strategies with their mechanisms that have been developed to date and representative examples. Mechanical, electrical, light, thermal, acoustic and glucose-responsive approaches on patch form have been successfully utilized in the controllable transdermal drug delivery manner. We highlighted key challenges associated with wearable transdermal delivery systems, their research direction and future development trends.
The search for effective and non-invasive delivery modules to transport therapeutic molecules across skin has led to the discovery of a number of nanocarriers (viz.: liposomes, ethosomes, dendrimers, etc.) in the last few decades. However, available literature suggests that these delivery modules face several issues including poor stability, low encapsulation efficiency, and scale-up hurdles. Recently, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) emerged as a versatile tool to deliver therapeutics across skin. Superior stability, high loading capacity, well-developed synthesis protocol as well as ease of scale-up are some of the reason for growing interest in CNTs. CNTs have a unique physical architecture and a large surface area with unique surface chemistry that can be tailored for vivid biomedical applications. CNTs have been thus largely engaged in the development of transdermal systems such as tuneable hydrogels, programmable nonporous membranes, electroresponsive skin modalities, protein channel mimetic platforms, reverse iontophoresis, microneedles, and dermal buckypapers. In addition, CNTs were also employed in the development of RNA interference (RNAi) based therapeutics for correcting defective dermal genes. This review expounds the state-of-art synthesis methodologies, skin penetration mechanism, drug liberation profile, loading potential, characterization techniques, and transdermal applications along with a summary on patent/regulatory status and future scope of CNT based skin therapeutics.
The anti-inflammatory property of ratite oils as well as its ability to act as a penetration enhancer makes it an ideal agent to be used in transdermal formulations. The present study aims to develop an effective transfersomal delivery of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT), an anti-cancer drug, using ratite oil as a carrier agent for the treatment of breast cancer (BC). The 4-OHT transfersomes were prepared with and without ratite oils using soy phosphatidylcholine and three different edge activators (EAs) in five different molar ratios using the rotary evaporation-ultrasonication method. Optimal transfersome formulations were selected using physical-chemical characterization and ex vivo studies. Results from physical-chemical characterization of the developed formulations found sodium taurocholate to be the most suitable EA, which recorded highest entrapment efficiency of 95.1 ± 2.70% with 85:15, (w/w) and lowest vesicle size of 82.3 ± 0.02 nm with 75:25, (w/w) molar ratios. TEM and DSC studies showed that the vesicles were readily identified and present in a nearly perfect spherical shape. In addition, formulations with emu oil had better stability than formulations with ostrich oil. Physical stability studies at 4 °C showed that ratite oil transfersomes were stable up to 4 weeks, while transfersomes without ratite oils were stable for 8 weeks. Ex vivo permeability studies using porcine skin concluded that 4-OHT transfersomal formulations with (85:15, w/w) without emu oil have the potential to be used in transdermal delivery approach to enhance permeation of 4-OHT, which may be beneficial in the treatment of BC.
Transdermal drug delivery using microneedles is increasingly gaining interest due to the issues associated with oral drug delivery routes. Gastrointestinal route exposes the drug to acid and enzymes present in the stomach, leading to denaturation of the compound and resulting in poor bioavailability. Microneedle transdermal drug delivery addresses the problems linked to oral delivery and to relieves the discomfort of patients associated with injections to increase patient compliance. Microneedles can be broadly classified into five types: solid microneedles, coated microneedles, dissolving microneedles, hollow microneedles, and hydrogel-forming microneedles. The materials used for the preparation of microneedles dictate the different applications and features present in the microneedle. Polymeric microneedle arrays present an improved method for transdermal administration of drugs as they penetrate the skin stratum corneum barrier with minimal invasiveness. The review summarizes the importance of polymeric microneedle and discussed some of the most important therapeutic drugs in research, mainly protein drugs, vaccines and small molecule drugs in regenerative medicine.
This paper investigates the use of a neural-network-based intelligent learning system for the prediction of drug release profiles. An experimental study in transdermal iontophoresis (TI) is employed to evaluate the applicability of a particular neural network (NN) model, i.e. the Gaussian mixture model (GMM), in modeling and predicting drug release profiles. A number of tests are systematically designed using the face-centered central composite design (CCD) approach to examine the effects of various process variables simultaneously during the iontophoresis process. The GMM is then applied to model and predict the drug release profiles based on the data samples collected from the experiments. The GMM results are compared with those from multiple regression models. In addition, the bootstrap method is used to assess the reliability of the network predictions by estimating confidence intervals associated with the results. The results demonstrate that the combination of the face-centered CCD and GMM can be employed as a useful intelligent tool for the prediction of time-series profiles in pharmaceutical and biomedical experiments.
A sequential algorithm is developed for the non-linear dual-sorption model developed by Chandrasekaran et al. [1,2] which monitors pharmacokinetic profiles in percutaneous drug absorption. In the experimental study of percutaneous absorption, it is often observed that the lag-time decreases with the increase in the donor concentration when two or more donor concentrations of the same compound are used. The dual-sorption model has sometimes been employed to explain such experimental results. In this paper, it is shown that another feature observed after vehicle removal may also characterize the dual-sorption model. Soon after vehicle removal, the plots of the drug flux versus time become straight lines on a semilogarithmic scale as in the linear model, but the half-life is prolonged thereafter when the dual-sorption model prevails. The initial half-life after vehicle removal with a low donor concentration is longer than that with a higher donor concentration. These features, if observed in experiments, may be used as evidence to confirm that the dual-sorption model gives an explanation to the non-linear kinetic behaviour of a permeant.
Hyaluronic acid (HA), a major component of extracellular matrix has been widely applied in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries due to its reported pharmacological properties. Various types of HA drug delivery system including nanoparticles, cryogel-based formulations, microneedle patches, and nano-emulsions were developed. There are studies reporting that several HA-based transdermal delivery systems exhibit excellent biocompatibility, enhanced permeability and efficient localized release of anti-psoriasis drugs and have shown to inhibit psoriasis-associated skin inflammation. Similarly HA is found in abundant at epidermis of atopic dermatitis (AD) suggesting its role in atopic AD pathology. Anti-allergenic effect of atopic eczema can be achieved through the inhibition of CD44 and protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) interaction by HA. Herein, we aim to evaluate the current innovation on HA drug delivery system and the other potential applications of HA in inflammatory skin diseases, focusing on atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. HA is typically integrated into different delivery systems including nanoparticles, liposomes, ethosomes and microneedle patches in supporting drug penetration through the stratum corneum layer of the skin. For instance, ethosomes and microneedle delivery system such as curcumin-loaded HA-modified ethosomes were developed to enhance skin retention and delivery of curcumin to CD44-expressing psoriatic cells whereas methotrexate-loaded HA-based microneedle was shown to enhance skin penetration of methotrexate to alleviate psoriasis-like skin inflammation. HA-based nanoparticles and pluronic F-127 based dual responsive (pH/temperature) hydrogels had been described to enhance drug permeation through and into the intact skin for AD treatment.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease in which there is an insufficient production of insulin by the pancreas, or the insulin produced is unable to be utilized effectively by the body. Diabetes affects more than 415 million people globally and is estimated to strike about 642 million people in 2040. The WHO reported that diabetes will become the seventh biggest cause of mortality in 2030. Insulin injection and oral hypoglycemic agents remain the primary treatments in diabetes management. These often present with poor patient compliance. However, over the last decade, transdermal systems in diabetes management have gained increasing attention and emerged as a potential hope in diabetes management owing to the advantages that they offer as compared to invasive injection and oral dosage forms. This review presents the recent advances and developments in transdermal research to achieve better diabetes management. Different technologies and approaches have been explored and applied to the transdermal systems to optimize diabetes management. Studies have shown that these transdermal systems demonstrate higher bioavailability compared to oral administration due to the avoidance of first-pass hepatic metabolism and a sustained drug release pattern. Besides that, transdermal systems have the advantage of reducing dosing frequency as drugs are released at a predetermined rate and control blood glucose level over a prolonged time, contributing to better patient compliance. In summary, the transdermal system is a field worth exploring due to its significant advantages over oral route in administration of antidiabetic drugs and biosensing of blood glucose level to ensure better clinical outcomes in diabetes management.