Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 25 in total

  1. Tan, B.S., Rosman, A., Ng, K.H., Ahmad, N.
    Ann Dent, 2000;7(1):-.
    The aim of the study was to determine the characteristics and pattern of the betel/tobacco quid chewing habit in the estate Indian community. The study was conducted in 6 randomly selected estates. It involved oral mucosal examination and an interview to solicit personal data as well as history and details of oral habits. Of a total of 618 subjects studied, 19.3 % (n= 119; 89 females and 30 males) were betel !tobacco quid chewers. The youngest age of onset of betel quid chewing is 10 years. The mean frequency of chewing quid is 4.3 times/day and the mean duration of chewing is 8.1 minutes. Initiation to the habit occur at a young age and a major role is played by family and friends in initiation to the habit. Practises of adding tobacco and lime appear to have adverse effects and are associated with higher occurrences of precancer lesions in this study (p
  2. Abdullah H, Asmahan MI, Rosman A
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Feb;67(1):125-6.
    PMID: 22582566 MyJurnal
    Urate lowering therapy in this country has mainly been achieved by the use of allopurinol and probenecid. A new xanthine oxidase inhibitor called febuxostat has been approved in 2009 for treatment of hyperuricaemia in gout. In this report, we describe the management of a patient with chronic tophaceous gout using febuxostat. The reduction in serum uric acid to target levels was rapid, and the tophi size had also reduced significantly while on therapy. There was no unwanted side effect observed during the therapy. Therefore, febuxostat would be a useful alternative drug in the treatment of hyperuricaemia in gout patients who have contraindications to allopurinol and probenecid.
    Study site: Rheumatology clinic, Selayang Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  3. Ng TK, Tee ES, Rosman A
    Malays J Nutr, 1995 Sep;1(2):129-39.
    PMID: 22692058 MyJurnal
    This paper highlights the marked presence of nutritional disorders in a sample (190 males, 237 females, aged 18-80 years) obtained from the adult population in three kampungs i.e. Pasang Api, Sungai Nipah Baroh and Sungai Balai Darat, in the Mukim of Bagan Datoh, Perak in 1992. All subjects (except pregnant females) were measured for blood pressure, weight, height, waist circumference, and hip circumference from which the body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratios (WHR) were calculated. A random blood sample was obtained by finger-prick from each subject and analysed for total cholesterol (TC) and glucose, using the Reflotron compact analyser. Elevated means for BMI and WHR indicated that obesity (BMI ≥30.0) was a serious public health problem in these three kampungs, affecting about 5% of males and 14% of females. Another 24% of males and 46% of females had an overweight problem (BMI 25.0-29.9), indicating that on the average, about half the adult population in these kampungs were either overweight or obese. This contrasted with the situation a decade ago in similar-type kampungs in the Peninsula where underweight was the major nutritional disorder in adults, especially males. Overall, there was a shift of an underweight problem to one of overweight, as exemplified by increments of 2.0 to 3.0 BMI units in the adult population, with the phenomenon being more marked in the females. Hypertension (21%) and hyperglycaemia (6.5%) affected the males and females approximately equally. Female adults had higher mean plasma TC compared to males (204 versus 199 mg/dl); these means were some 20 mg/dl (0.52 mmol/L) higher than the corresponding means for adults in similar rural communitites in the early eighties, and approximate the corresponding means for present-day urban adults. The above findings serve to emphasise the nutritional transition undergoing in the rural communities in the Peninsula, viz, the marked emergence in these rural communities of nutritional disorders normally associated with affluent populations.
  4. Ahmad N, Cheong SM, Ibrahim N, Rosman A
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2014 Sep;26(5 Suppl):63S-9S.
    PMID: 25005932 DOI: 10.1177/1010539514540746
    Adolescence is the time of greatest risk for the first onset of suicidal behaviors. This study aimed to identify the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation among Malaysian adolescents. Data from the 2012 Malaysia Global School-based Student Health Survey, a nationwide study using a 2-stage cluster sampling design, were analyzed. The survey used a self-administered validated bilingual questionnaire and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 7.9%. Analysis revealed that suicidal ideation was positively associated with depression, anxiety, stress, substance use, being bullied, and being abused at home, either physically or verbally. In addition, suicidal ideation was significantly higher among females and among the Indians and Chinese. Having close friends and married parents were strongly protective against suicidal ideation. Understanding the risk and protective factors is important in providing comprehensive management for suicidal ideation.
    Study name: Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS)
  5. Cavalli-Sforza LT, Rosman A, de Boer AS, Darnton-Hill I
    Bull World Health Organ, 1996;74(3):307-18.
    PMID: 8789929
    One impact of socioeconomic progress on populations has been to reduce the number of cases due to diseases of undernutrition and microbial contamination of food, which affected mostly infants and young children, and to increase those due to diseases of excessive food consumption, which are affecting adults and a growing number of children. This article reviews the main dietary factors which have an influence on cardiovascular disease and cancer, and discusses the link between economic development and increased rates of chronic diseases. There is evidence that the noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors have risen rapidly in countries of the WHO Western Pacific Region. Data from 29 countries and areas in the region indicate that 70% of them show lifestyle diseases in three or more of the top five causes of death. While public health measures have been implemented by some countries to prevent and control nutrition-related chronic diseases, further action is needed.
  6. Baharuddin H, Mohd Zim MA, Rosman A, Mohd Zain M
    Here we present a 24-year-old lady with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) whom we diagnosed with shrinking lung syndrome (SLS), a rare manifestation of SLE. The initial SLE manifestation was alopecia, thrombocytopenia, serositis and vasculitis. Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-double stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibody, anti-ribonucleic (RNP) and anti-Ro antibody were positive. A year after diagnosis, she started to develop intermittent dyspnea and was hospitalised on three occasions. Lung examinations revealed reduced breath sounds at both bases and dullness at the right base. Multiple chest radiographs showed bilateral raised hemi-diaphragms. Other investigations including CT pulmonary angiogram, high resolution CT of the thorax, ventilation-perfusion scan and echocardiogram were not significant. On the third hospital admission, we noticed bilateral small lung volumes in the previous high resolution CT scan. Inspiratory and expiratory chest radiographs were performed and showed minimal change in lung volumes and a diagnosis of shrinking lung syndrome (SLS) was made. Her SLE remained active with lupus nephritis despite multiple immunosuppression and she passed away two years later due to sepsis with multi-organ failure.
  7. Othman AS, Othman NI, Rosman A, Nudin SS, Rahman AR
    J Hypertens, 2012 Aug;30(8):1552-5.
    PMID: 22635140 DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e328355207b
    OBJECTIVES: In this cross-sectional study we compared the central aortic systolic pressure (CASP), peripheral brachial systolic pressure (PSP), peripheral brachial diastolic pressure (PDP) and augmentation index (AIx) between normotensive offspring of nonhypertensive parents (ONT) and normotensive offspring with at least one hypertensive parent (OHT).
    METHODOLOGY: A total of 100 healthy ONT (mean age 20.95 ± 2.06) and 100 healthy OHT (mean age 20.89 ± 2.12) individuals were recruited. Parental history of hypertension was determined by detailed history taking. CASP, PSP, PDP and AIx were measured using the BPro device. All blood pressure (BP) measurements were calibrated using oscillometric BP readings.
    RESULTS: The OHT group had higher PSP (117.57 ± 10.06 versus 114.52 ± 8.94, P < 0.05), PDP (72.39 ± 7.28 versus 70.39 ± 6.50, P < 0.05) and CASP (103.72 ± 8.95 versus 101.37 ± 7.74, P < 0.05) compared to the ONT group. There was no significant difference in AIx in the ONT group (57.97 ± 11.02 versus 58.08 ± 12.16, P = 0.95) in comparison to the OHT group. However, following adjustments for certain cardiovascular risk factors, only PSP (117.33 versus 114.76, P < 0.05) remained significantly higher in the OHT group compared to the ONT group. Analysis of adjusted data within sex showed that CASP was higher in the female OHT group compared to the female ONT group, whereas PDP were higher in the male OHT group compared to the male ONT group.
    CONCLUSION: Alterations in PSP, PDP and CASP are already present in early life in normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents, with possible differences in mechanism between different sexes.
    Study site: Clinical Research Laboratory in Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences, Selangor, Malaysia
  8. Sooryanarayana R, Ganapathy SS, Wong NI, Rosman A, Choo WY, Hairi NN
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2020 Dec;20 Suppl 2:85-91.
    PMID: 33370859 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.13989
    AIM: Elder abuse is a significant public health problem. This study aims to estimate its prevalence and associated factors, using representative national Malaysian data.

    METHODS: A nationwide population-based survey involving 3977 community-dwelling older persons aged ≥60 years was conducted via face-to-face interview, of whom 3466 older persons were eligible for screening using a locally validated tool. Elder abuse was defined as any one occurrence of neglect, financial, psychological, physical or sexual abuse perpetrated by someone in a position of trust that was experienced in the past 12 months.

    RESULTS: About 9.0% of older persons in Malaysia have experienced elder abuse in the past 12 months, with neglect being the commonest type experienced (7.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.54, 10.07). There is no significant difference by age group and geographical location. Males (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.7; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.60), poorer social support (aOR 5.0; 95% CI: 2.25, 11.22), dependency in activities of daily living (aOR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.23, 3.44) and a previous history of abuse (aOR 10.1; 95% CI: 4.50, 22.86) show higher odds of experiencing elder abuse. Almost 5% of abused older persons reported experiencing multiple types of abuse. Reporting is low at 19.3% with none reporting to healthcare personnel.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of elder abuse in this study is lower than global estimates, but similar to local studies. Preventive measures and programs are crucial to overcoming elder abuse and need to be carried out at multiple levels - the individual, community, healthcare and other stakeholders. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 85-91.

  9. Kaur J, Cheong SM, Mahadir Naidu B, Kaur G, Manickam MA, Mat Noor M, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2014 Sep;26(5 Suppl):53S-62S.
    PMID: 25070697 DOI: 10.1177/1010539514544356
    Depression among adolescents has been recognized as a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of depression among school-going adolescents in Malaysia. Data from the Malaysia Global School-based Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 were analyzed with additional data from the validated DASS21 (Depression, Anxiety, and Stress) questionnaire. The study revealed that 17.7% of respondents had depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis further showed that feeling lonely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.99; 95% CI = 2.57-3.47), Indian ethnicity (aOR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.63-2.44), using drugs (aOR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.21-2.82), and being bullied (aOR = 1.79; 95% CI = 1.60-1.99) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Lack of parental supervision, alcohol use, and tobacco use were also significant risk factors. Addressing depressive symptoms among adolescents may have implications for managing their risks of being bullied and substance use. This study also highlights the need to further investigate depressive symptoms among adolescents of Indian ethnicity.
    Study name: Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS)
  10. Idris N, Aznal SS, Chin SP, Wan Ahmad WA, Rosman A, Jeyaindran S, et al.
    Int J Womens Health, 2011;3:375-80.
    PMID: 22140324 DOI: 10.2147/IJWH.S15825
    There is scarce or no data on prevalence and presentation of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) among women of reproductive age. Furthermore, whether women of reproductive age presenting with ACS have the same risk factors as men and older women is not known.
  11. Tan L, Ganapathy SS, Sooryanarayana R, Hasim MH, Saminathan TA, Mohamad Anuar MF, et al.
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2019 Nov;31(8_suppl):18S-29S.
    PMID: 31470742 DOI: 10.1177/1010539519870665
    This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with bullying victimization from a nationwide school-based survey among 27 458 students aged 13 to 17 years. The overall prevalence of having been bullied in the past 30 days was 16.2%; this decreased with age. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that factors most strongly associated with bullying victimization were exposure to physical attacks (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.17-2.79), illicit drug use (aOR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.78-3.34), involvement in physical fights (aOR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.74-2.23), being younger than 14 years (aOR =1.95, 95% CI = 1.59-2.38), and having ever attempted suicide (aOR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.51-2.21). Other significantly associated factors include loneliness, truancy, making suicidal plans, and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Exposure to bullying victimization can result in negative lifelong sequelae and important associated factors should be considered in planning effective school-based anti-bullying interventions.
  12. Sulaiman W, Othman M, Mokhtar AM, Rosman A, Ong SG, Soo IS, et al.
    APLAR Journal of Rheumatology, 2006;9 Suppl 1:A54-A55.
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1479-8077.2006.00199_24.x
    Objective: To determine the number of RA cases and to evaluate the demographic patterns in all 4 Rheumatology Referral Centers under the Ministry of Health Malaysia. Materials and methods: One thousand and eighty-four rheumatoid arthritis patients from all 4 centers i.e. Hospital Selayang, Putra Jaya, Seremban and Taiping which are situated in the west coast of West Malaysia, using rheumatoid arthritis database comprising of basic clinical and patient questionnaire, until the end of year 2004 were analysed. Results: At the time of documentation, 88.6% were female at all range of ages especially between age of 25 and 54 years (77.6%) with female to male ratio 8 :1. 52.1% were housewives. Mean age of onset of RA was 49.6 ± 11.8 SD with female 49.3 ± 11.7 SD and male 52.0 ± 12.0 SD (p < 0.05). Indian was the predominant ethnic group (54.5%), followed by Malay (31.4%), Chinese (11.6%) and others (27%). Majority had their education up to secondary level (50.8%), followed by primary (32.6%), and tertiary (6.3%) levels while 10.3% of cases had not received any formal education in their lives. 74.4% were seropositive and 87.3% fulfilled at least 4 out of 7 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) revised criteria for rheumatoid arthritis. 74% were diagnosed RA within 2 years after the onset of arthritis. Seropositivity was not significantly related to gender. Positive rheumatoid factor was dominated by Indian followed by Malay and Chinese. 83.3% were married. 23.3% female and 33.9% male between age group 25-54 were employed. 7.4% had achieved their retirement at time of entry whilst 8.9% were unemployed. Employment status was statistically significant across gender (p < 0.001). The cases differed between rheumatology centers as well as individual practices. Conclusion: There are increasing numbers of RA cases in Malaysia. Results from this study did not reflect the true prevalence of RA in Malaysia. Hence, a larger and more comprehensive database on RA with collaboration of all Government and Private Hospitals in the whole nation will provide better information about the patient case mix in different healthcare settings, treatment practice as well as disease complications. The implementation of rheumatology centers with better regional cooperation, will lead to better treatment and outcome in terms of identification of early as well as established RA cases. Early referral to the centers will be made possible for proper treatment institution and rehabilitation. Hence, improve quality of life including socio-economic status especially among those within the productive age.
  13. Lim SL, Tay VY, Bhullar A, Baharuddin H, Ch'ng SS, Yusoof HM, et al.
    Oman Med J, 2021 Sep;36(5):e305.
    PMID: 34733551 DOI: 10.5001/omj.2022.34
    Objectives: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is a global pandemic and has caught the attention of the rheumatology fraternity, where patients are thought to be at higher risk of infection. We aimed to study the incidence of COVID-19 infection and depression and anxiety symptoms among patients with rheumatic disease (RD) in Hospital Selayang, Malaysia, during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted via phone interview using a structured questionnaire in patients with RD aged > 18 years old scheduled for clinic appointments from 4 to 28 May 2020, which coincided with the second wave of COVID-19 cases in Malaysia. The questionnaire included demographics, COVID-19 screening questions, depression and anxiety symptoms screening using questions derived from the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 (GAD-2).

    Results: Among the 361 patients enrolled, the majority were females (83.1%), and over half (54.3%) were ethnic Malays, 41.6% had rheumatoid arthritis, 34.6% had systemic lupus erythematosus, 12.2% had spondyloarthropathy, and only one (0.3%) patient had COVID-19 infection. The mean age of patients was 48.2 years (range: 16-80 years). The frequency of patients with depression and anxiety symptoms was 8.6% and 6.9%, respectively. Married patients reported feeling more anxious (p =0.013), while patients with tertiary education levels reported feeling more depressed (p =0.012).

    Conclusions: The incidence of COVID-19 infection is low, probably due to the low rate of testing. Depression and anxiety symptoms reported by patients in our cohort were modest. Our findings suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has a greater impact on married patients with RD and those with a higher education level.

  14. Ramli MM, Rosman AS, Mazlan NS, Ahmad MF, Halin DSC, Mohamed R, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 10 19;11(1):20702.
    PMID: 34667216 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-00171-3
    Breast cancer is one of the most reported cancers that can lead to death. Despite the advances in diagnosis and treatment procedures, the possibility of cancer recurrences is still high in many cases. With that in consideration, researchers from all over the world are showing interest in the unique features of Graphene oxide (GO), such as its excellent and versatile physicochemical properties, to explore further its potential and benefits towards breast cancer cell treatment. In this study, the cell viability and electrical response of GO, in terms of resistivity and impedance towards the breast cancer cells (MCF7) and normal breast cells (MCF10a), were investigated by varying the pH and concentration of GO. Firstly, the numbers of MCF7 and MCF10a were measured after being treated with GO for 24 and 48 h. Next, the electrical responses of these cells were evaluated by using interdigitated gold electrodes (IDEs) that are connected to an LCR meter. Based on the results obtained, as the pH of GO increased from pH 5 to pH 7, the number of viable MCF7 cells decreased while the number of viable MCF10a slightly increased after the incubation period of 48 h. Similarly, the MCF7 also experienced higher cytotoxicity effects when treated with GO concentrations of more than 25 µg/mL. The findings from the electrical characterization of the cells observed that the number of viable cells has corresponded to the impedance of the cells. The electrical impedance of MCF7 decreased as the number of highly insulating viable cell membranes decreased. But in contrast, the electrical impedance of MCF10a increased as the number of highly insulating viable cell membranes increased. Hence, it can be deduced that the GO with higher pH and concentration influence the MCF7 cancer cell line and MCF10a normal breast cell.
  15. Chua YA, Azureen SN, Rosman A, Kasim SS, Ibrahim KS, Md Radzi AB, et al.
    J Atheroscler Thromb, 2022 Dec 23.
    PMID: 36567112 DOI: 10.5551/jat.63389
    AIMS: Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) are known to have higher exposure to coronary risk than those without FH with similar low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level. Lipid-lowering medications (LLMs) are the mainstay treatments to lower the risk of premature coronary artery disease in patients with hypercholesterolemia. However, the LLM prescription pattern and its effectiveness among Malaysian patients with FH are not yet reported. The aim of this study was to report the LLM prescribing pattern and its effectiveness in lowering LDL-C level among Malaysian patients with FH treated in specialist hospitals.

    METHODS: Subjects were recruited from lipid and cardiac specialist hospitals. FH was clinically diagnosed using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network Criteria. Patients' medical history was recorded using a standardized questionnaire. LLM prescription history and baseline LDL-C were acquired from the hospitals' database. Blood samples were acquired for the latest lipid profile assay.

    RESULTS: A total of 206 patients with FH were recruited. Almost all of them were on LLMs (97.6%). Only 2.9% and 7.8% of the patients achieved the target LDL-C of <1.4 and <1.8 mmol/L, respectively. The majority of patients who achieved the target LDL-C were prescribed with statin-ezetimibe combination medications and high-intensity or moderate-intensity statins. All patients who were prescribed with ezetimibe monotherapy did not achieve the target LDL-C.

    CONCLUSION: The majority of Malaysian patients with FH received LLMs, but only a small fraction achieved the therapeutic target LDL-C level. Further investigation has to be conducted to identify the cause of the suboptimal treatment target attainment, be it the factors of patients or the prescription practice.

  16. Montoro Alvarez M, Chong OY, Janta I, González C, López-Longo J, Monteagudo I, et al.
    Clin. Exp. Rheumatol., 2015 Mar-Apr;33(2):141-5.
    PMID: 25665178
    The complement system plays a fundamental role in mediating the activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Biologic therapy can reduce native complement component levels and its activation. We aimed to study the relation of Doppler ultrasound (US) synovitis versus clinical synovitis with changes in native complement component levels in RA patients on biologic therapy.
  17. Chen CH, Chen MC, Gibbs H, Kwon SU, Lo S, On YK, et al.
    Int J Cardiol, 2015 Jul 15;191:244-53.
    PMID: 25978611 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.03.369
    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common heart arrhythmia. Untreated AF incurs a considerable burden of stroke and associated healthcare costs. Asians have AF risk factors similar to Caucasians and a similarly increased risk of AF-related stroke; however, with a vast and rapidly ageing population, Asia bears a disproportionately large disease burden. Urgent action is warranted to avert this potential health crisis. Antithrombotic therapy with oral anticoagulants is the most effective means of preventing stroke in AF and is a particular priority in Asia given the increasing disease burden. However, AF in Asia remains undertreated. Conventional oral anticoagulation with warfarin is problematic in Asia due to suboptimal control and a propensity among Asians to warfarin-induced intracranial haemorrhage. Partly due to concerns about intracranial haemorrhage, there are considerable gaps between AF treatment guidelines and clinical practice in Asia, in particular overuse of antiplatelet agents and underuse of anticoagulants. Compared with warfarin, new direct thrombin inhibitors and Factor Xa inhibitors are non-inferior in preventing stroke and significantly reduce the risk of life-threatening bleeding, particularly intracranial bleeding. These agents may therefore provide an appropriate alternative to warfarin in Asian patients. There is considerable scope to improve stroke prevention in AF in Asia. Key priorities include: early detection of AF and identification of asymptomatic patients; assessment of stroke and bleeding risk for all AF patients; evidence-based pharmacotherapy with direct-acting oral anticoagulant agents or vitamin K antagonists for AF patients at risk of stroke; controlling hypertension; and awareness-raising, education and outreach among both physicians and patients.
  18. Abdul-Razak S, Rahmat R, Mohd Kasim A, Rahman TA, Muid S, Nasir NM, et al.
    BMC Cardiovasc Disord, 2017 Oct 16;17(1):264.
    PMID: 29037163 DOI: 10.1186/s12872-017-0694-z
    BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a genetic disorder with a high risk of developing premature coronary artery disease that should be diagnosed as early as possible. Several clinical diagnostic criteria for FH are available, with the Dutch Lipid Clinic Criteria (DLCC) being widely used. Information regarding diagnostic performances of the other criteria against the DLCC is scarce. We aimed to examine the diagnostic performance of the Simon-Broom (SB) Register criteria, the US Make Early Diagnosis to Prevent Early Deaths (US MEDPED) and the Japanese FH Management Criteria (JFHMC) compared to the DLCC.

    METHODS: Seven hundered fifty five individuals from specialist clinics and community health screenings with LDL-c level ≥ 4.0 mmol/L were selected and diagnosed as FH using the DLCC, the SB Register criteria, the US MEDPED and the JFHMC. The sensitivity, specificity, efficiency, positive and negative predictive values of individuals screened with the SB register criteria, US MEDPED and JFHMC were assessed against the DLCC.

    RESULTS: We found the SB register criteria identified more individuals with FH compared to the US MEDPED and the JFHMC (212 vs. 105 vs. 195; p 

  19. Pok LSL, Shabaruddin FH, Dahlui M, Sockalingam S, Mohamed Said MS, Rosman A, et al.
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2018 May;21(5):943-951.
    PMID: 29314744 DOI: 10.1111/1756-185X.13256
    AIM: To determine the incidence and direct costs of NSAID-induced upper GI adverse events in Malaysian rheumatology patients.
    METHODS: A retrospective, multi-centre, cohort study of rheumatology patients on long-term NSAIDs was conducted. Clinical data of patients treated between 2010 and 2013 were collected for a 24-month follow-up period. The costs of managing upper GI adverse events were based on patient level resource use data.
    RESULTS: Six hundred and thirty-four patients met the inclusion criteria: mean age 53.4 years, 89.9% female, diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA; 59.3%), osteoarthritis (OA; 10.3%) and both RA and OA (30.3%). Three hundred and seventy-one (58.5%) patients were prescribed non-selective NSAIDs and 263 (41.5%) had cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors. Eighty-four upper GI adverse events occurred, translating into a risk of 13.2% and an incidence rate of 66.2 per 1000 person-years. GI adverse events comprised: dyspepsia n = 78 (12.3%), peptic ulcer disease (PUD) n = 5 (0.79%) and upper GI bleeding (UGIB) n = 1 (0.16%). The total direct healthcare cost of managing adverse events was Malaysian Ringgit (MR) 37 352 (US dollars [USD] 11 419) with a mean cost of MR 446.81 ± 534.56 (USD 136.60 ± 163.42) per patient, consisting mainly of GI pharmacotherapy (33.8%), oesophagoduodenoscopies (23.1%) and outpatient clinic visits (18.2%). Mean cost per patient by GI events were: dyspepsia, MR 408.98 ± 513.29 (USD125.03 ± 156.92); PUD, MR 805.93 ± 578.80 (USD 246.39 ± 176.95); UGIB, MR 1601.94 (USD 489.74, n = 1).
    CONCLUSION: The economic burden of GI adverse events due to long-term NSAIDs use in Malaysian patients with chronic rheumatic diseases is modest.
    Study site: Rheumatology clinics, Hospital Putrajaya, Hospital Selayang, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
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