Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 93 in total

  1. Lim SE
    Family Practitioner, 1975;2:43-47.
  2. Said S. E. H. Elnashaie
    Bifurcation and chaos are important phenomena affecting many physical and chemical systems. They are also related to the stability/instability and multiplicity phenomena associated with these systems. The phenomena are not only of theoretical/mathematical interest but are also important for laboratory, pilot plant and commercial units. This paper concentrates on 3 systems:

    1. The novel auto-thermic Circulating Fluidized Membrane Steam Reformer (CFBMSR) for the efficient production of the clean fuel hydrogen and which shows multiplicity of the steady state (static bifurcation)

    2. A novel fermentor for the efficient production of bio-ethanol that shows static/dynamic bifurcation as well as chaotic behaviour

    3. The neurocycle of the acetylcholine transmitter in the brain using diffusion-reaction models in order to gain insight into their possible connection to Alzheimer and Parkinson Diseases (AD/PD); these are preliminary efforts to investigate the bifurcation and chaotic behaviour of this neurocycle.
  3. Latha S, Choon SE
    Med J Malaysia, 2017 06;72(3):151-156.
    PMID: 28733562 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (cADRs) are common. There are only few studies on the incidence of cADRs in Malaysia.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, clinical features and risk factors of cADRs among hospitalized patients.

    METHODS: A prospective study was conducted among medical inpatients from July to December 2014.

    RESULTS: A total of 43 cADRs were seen among 11 017 inpatients, yielding an incidence rate of 0.4%. cADR accounted for hospitalization in 26 patients. Previous history of cADR was present in 14 patients, with 50% exposed to the same drug taken previously. Potentially lifethreatening severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR), namely drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS: 14 cases) and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (SJS/TEN: 6 cases) comprise almost 50% of cADRs. The commonest culprit drug group was antibiotics (37.2%), followed by anticonvulsants (18.6%). Cotrimoxazole, phenytoin and rifampicin were the main causative drugs for DRESS. Anticonvulsants were most frequently implicated in SJS/TEN (66.7%). Most cases had "probable" causality relationship with suspected drug (69.8%). The majority of cases were of moderate severity (65.1%), while 18.6% had severe reaction with 1 death recorded. Most cases were not preventable (76.7%). Older age (> 60 years) and mucosal involvement were significantly associated with a more severe reaction.

    CONCLUSION: The incidence of cADRs was 0.4%, with most cases classified as moderate severity and not preventable. The commonest reaction pattern was DRESS, while the main culprit drug group was antibiotics. Older age and mucosal membrane involvement predicts a severe drug reaction.

  4. Choon SE, Khoo JJ
    Br. J. Dermatol., 1999 Mar;140(3):557-8.
    PMID: 10233296
  5. Sulaiman BT, Clarke SE
    Med J Malaysia, 1996 Mar;51(1):131-3.
    PMID: 10967992
    A total of 10 volunteers were monitored for radiation doses, whose spouses were given radio-iodine (131I) orally. Nine of the spouses were given radio-iodine for Graves' disease and one for thyroid carcinoma. It was found that the highest radiation dose received by the volunteer was only 13.5% of the annual dose limit for individual members of the public. Hence, patients treated with radio-iodine do not pose a significant radiation hazard to the public.
  6. Lee RL, Ackerman SE
    Psychiatry, 1980 Feb;43(1):78-88.
    PMID: 7355184
    This discussion of an episode of mass hysteria in a Malay college in West Malaysia examines stress and conflict in relation to the interpretive process within a specific social setting. Unlike previous studies, which conceptualize mass hysteria as a cathartic response to accumulated stress, the present study treats stress as a matter of definition in a specific sociocultural context rather than as an objective given from which predictions can be made. Objections are raised to the logic of explanations that attribute mass hysteria to environmental stress. What is of concern is how meanings are assigned to events that are experienced as stressful, how participants and observers explain these events, and the consequences that follow from their interpretations.
  7. Lee RL, Ackerman SE
    Psychiatry, 1980 Feb;43(1):78-88.
    PMID: 27755901
  8. Suhaimi H, Ahmad FB, Friberg SE
    J Pharm Sci, 1995 Mar;84(3):376-80.
    PMID: 7616381
    A lamellar liquid crystalline region was identified in a typical skin lotion formulation system composed of a mixture of isostearic acid and triethanolamine (TEA) at 65:35 (w/w), decane, and water (the temperature was controlled at 30 degrees C). The interlayer spacings were determined by a small-angle X-ray diffraction technique. Incorporation of a natural dye, curcumin, resulted in lower interlayer spacings and higher penetration of water into the layered structure. However, the higher penetration of water was not apparent at all compositions of isostearic acid:TEA, decane, and water.
  9. Goh SE, Ong SB, Subramaniam M
    Br J Psychiatry, 1993 Feb;162:276-7.
    PMID: 8435714
  10. Chia SE, Chia KS, Ong CN
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1991 Nov;20(6):758-61.
    PMID: 1803964
    Blood lead levels of two ethnic groups (11 Chinese and 25 Malays) of workers in a factory manufacturing lead accumulator battery were studied. The mean adjusted (for environmental lead levels, age, exposure duration and stick-years of smoking by analysis of covariance) blood lead level of the Malays was 34.8 micrograms/dl as compared to 22.4 micrograms/dl for the Chinese. This difference was significant (p less than 0.02). Oral ingestion of lead, through eating of food with hands contaminated by lead compound, among the Malay workers was suggested as a possible cause for the difference in the mean blood lead levels. Preventive measures and recommendations to overcome the problem among this particular group of workers were discussed.
  11. Khoo SE, Smith PC, Fawcett JT
    Int Migr Rev, 1984;18(4 Special Issue):1247-63.
    PMID: 12340237
  12. Ho SE, Choy YC, Rozainee A
    Medicine & Health, 2009;4(1):47-52.
    Post operative pain is an expected adverse outcome following surgery and it often delays mobilization and overall recovery. Acute post operative pain is subjective and cannot be measured directly. The objective of this study was to determine nurses’ knowledge and attitude towards post operative pain management. A cross sectional study was conducted in surgical wards and the Intensive Care Unit of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre from February to April 2008. A 28 item questionnaire which comprised of two domains: knowledge and attitude towards post operative pain management was used. Eighty four respondents successfully responded to the study. Twenty respondents (25%) possessed high level, 58 respondents (69%) possessed moderate level and 5 respondents (6%) had low knowledge level of post operative pain management. Positive attitude towards post operative pain management was reported by 66 respondents (78.5%). There was a significant relationship between nurses’ academic qualifications and attitude towards post operative pain management (χ² =29.96, p
  13. Shalihin SE, Harun Z, Osman IF
    Malays Fam Physician, 2018;13(2):39-41.
    PMID: 30302184 MyJurnal
    Essential thrombocythemia is one of the myeloproliferative neoplasms. Palpable purpura is a rare manifestation that may delay diagnosis and treatment. We report a case of essential thrombocythemia in a 50-year-old man, who presented with recurrent thigh pain for the past one year with nonspecific localized purpura. His full blood count revealed isolated thrombocytosis of 880,000/µL with an impression of myeloproliferative disorder from peripheral blood film. He was referred urgently to the hematology team, which proceeded with a venesection. His condition improved with hydroxyurea. This was a rare case of chronic presentation of myeloproliferative neoplasm detected at a primary care clinic.
  14. Lee YW, Choon SE, Izham S
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 08;74(4):259-265.
    PMID: 31424030
    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to be a determinant of disease severity in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). There is a lack of information on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Malaysian children with AD. The objective of this study was to determine the association of vitamin D deficiency with AD severity, to compare vitamin D deficiency between children with and without AD and to determine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children with AD.

    METHODS: A case-control study to examine serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in children with and without AD was done. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] level was measured by immunoassay. AD severity was evaluated using the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index.

    RESULTS: The serum levels of 25(OH)D, measured in 135 children with AD was not statistically different from 65 children without AD [median (IQR): 25.2ng/mL (15.45) vs 25.9ng/mL (15.87), p=0.616]. However, serum vitamin D levels were significantly lower in children with severe AD compared to those with mild-to-moderate AD [median (IQR): 16.0ng/mL (19.32) vs 26.3ng/mL (15.56), p=0.021]. The odds of having vitamin D deficiency in children with severe AD was 3.82 times that of children with non-severe AD (95% confidence level: 1.13, 12.87).

    CONCLUSION: This study suggests that there is an inverse association between vitamin D level and the severity of AD in Malaysian children.

  15. Md Rifin S, Shalihin MSE, Mat Jidin M
    Med J Malaysia, 2021 05;76(3):419-421.
    PMID: 34031344
    A 35-year-old lady presented at the Klinik Kesihatan Bandar 32 Bera, Pahang with a one-month history of multiple cervical swelling and ulcers over her neck area. The lesions began as papules and later progressively developed into nodules and pustules. She also had low grade fever associated with weight loss for one month duration. Chest xray revealed normal findings and sputum direct smear for acid fast bacilli was noted to be negative. Histopathologic finding of skin biopsy revealed central epidermal necrosis surrounded by granulomatous tissue forming an abscess and histiocyte infiltrates, confirming the diagnosis of Scrofuloderma. In view of the report of the fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the cervical lymph nodes suggestive for tuberculous lymphadenitis, the patient was given anti-tuberculosis therapy. Fortunately, six months later, the ulcers began to solve and heal gradually.
  16. Choon SE, Der YS, Lai NLJ, Yu SEE, Yap XL, Nalini NM
    Med J Malaysia, 2018 08;73(4):220-225.
    PMID: 30121684 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare, cutaneous reaction characterised by sudden onset of numerous, non-follicular, sterile pustules on oedematous erythematous skin, accompanied by fever and neutrophilia. AGEP is predominantly drug-induced. Skin lesions appear rapidly within 1-3 days of drug exposure and upon drug withdrawal, resolve rapidly within 15 days.

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical characteristics, culprit drugs and outcome of patients with AGEP.

    METHODS: A retrospective note review of all AGEP patients seen from 2001-2015.

    RESULTS: Among 21 AGEP patients, 76% were Malays, 9.5% Chinese, 9.5% Indians, and 5% Iban. Sixteen were females and 5 were males. Median age of patients was 40 years (IQR: 26). The main culprit drug was amoxicillin (10 cases), followed by cloxacillin (three cases), phenytoin (two cases) and one case each of carbamazepine, sulphasalazine, allopurinol, cephalexin, ceftriaxone, celecoxib and herbal product. The median time from drug initiation to onset of AGEP was 3 days (IQR: 5.5). Fever was documented in 52.4 %, mucosal involvement 9.5%, purpura 4.7% and blisters 4.7%. Neutrophilia was observed in 63.6% of patients and eosinophilia in 28.5%. While most patients required admission (67%), all achieved complete recovery within 15 days without any sequela.

    CONCLUSIONS: AGEP predominantly affects Malay females in this study. The most common culprit drug was amoxicillin. Our patients exhibited the classic clinical manifestations of AGEP and confirmed the generally benign nature of this reaction upon drug withdrawal. Although the overall prognosis is good, prompt diagnosis of AGEP is important because drug withdrawal is the mainstay therapy.

  17. Filippou A, Teng KT, Berry SE, Sanders TA
    Eur J Clin Nutr, 2014 Sep;68(9):1036-41.
    PMID: 25052227 DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2014.141
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Dietary triacylglycerols containing palmitic acid in the sn-2 position might impair insulin release and increase plasma glucose.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: We used a cross-over designed feeding trial in 53 healthy Asian men and women (20-50 years) to test this hypothesis by exchanging 20% energy of palm olein (PO; control) with randomly interesterified PO (IPO) or high oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS). After a 2-week run-in period on PO, participants were fed PO, IPO and HOS for 6 week consecutively in randomly allocated sequences. Fasting (midpoint and endpoint) and postprandial blood at the endpoint following a test meal (3.54 MJ, 14 g protein, 85 g carbohydrate and 50 g fat as PO) were collected for the measurement of C-peptide, insulin, glucose, plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1, lipids and apolipoproteins; pre-specified primary and secondary outcomes were postprandial changes in C-peptide and plasma glucose.

    RESULTS: Low density lipoprotein cholesterol was 0.3 mmol/l (95% confidence interval (95% CI)) 0.1, 0.5; P<0.001) lower on HOS than on PO or IPO as predicted, indicating good compliance to the dietary intervention. There were no significant differences (P=0.58) between diets among the 10 male and 31 female completers in the incremental area under the curve (0-2 h) for C-peptide in nmol.120 min/l: GM (95% CI) were PO 220 (196, 245), IPO 212 (190, 235) and HOS 224 (204, 244). Plasma glucose was 8% lower at 2 h on IPO vs PO and HOS (both P<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Palmitic acid in the sn-2 position does not adversely impair insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis.

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