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  1. Safa Sadiq A, Fisal NB, Ghafoor KZ, Lloret J
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:602808.
    PMID: 25614890 DOI: 10.1155/2014/602808
    We propose an Advanced Mobility Handover scheme (AMH) in this paper for seamless mobility in MIPv6-based wireless networks. In the proposed scheme, the mobile node utilizes a unique home IPv6 address developed to maintain communication with other corresponding nodes without a care-of-address during the roaming process. The IPv6 address for each MN during the first round of AMH process is uniquely identified by HA using the developed MN-ID field as a global permanent, which is identifying uniquely the IPv6 address of MN. Moreover, a temporary MN-ID is generated by access point each time an MN is associated with a particular AP and temporarily saved in a developed table inside the AP. When employing the AMH scheme, the handover process in the network layer is performed prior to its default time. That is, the mobility handover process in the network layer is tackled by a trigger developed AMH message to the next access point. Thus, a mobile node keeps communicating with the current access point while the network layer handover is executed by the next access point. The mathematical analyses and simulation results show that the proposed scheme performs better as compared with the existing approaches.
  2. Sahibzada MUK, Sadiq A, Faidah HS, Khurram M, Amin MU, Haseeb A, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2018;12:303-312.
    PMID: 29491706 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S156123
    Background: Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid widely used in Ayurveda and traditional Chinese medicine to treat illnesses such as hypertension and inflammatory conditions, and as an anticancer and hepato-protective agent. Berberine has low oral bioavailability due to poor aqueous solubility and insufficient dissolution rate, which can reduce the efficacy of drugs taken orally. In this study, evaporative precipitation of nanosuspension (EPN) and anti-solvent precipitation with a syringe pump (APSP) were used to address the problems of solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability of berberine.

    Methods: Semi-crystalline nanoparticles (NPs) of 90-110 nm diameter for APSP and 65-75 nm diameter for EPN were prepared and then characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD). Thereafter, drug content solubility and dissolution studies were undertaken. Berberine and its NPs were evaluated for their antibacterial activity.

    Results: The results indicate that the NPs have significantly increased solubility and dissolution rate due to conversion of the crystalline structure to a semi-crystalline form.

    Conclusion: Berberine NPs produced by both APSP and EPN methods have shown promising activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and yeasts, with NPs prepared through the EPN method showing superior results compared to those made with the APSP method and the unprocessed drug.

  3. Rahim H, Sadiq A, Khan S, Khan MA, Shah SMH, Hussain Z, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2017;11:2443-2452.
    PMID: 28860715 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S140626
    This study was aimed to enhance the dissolution rate, oral bioavailability and analgesic potential of the aceclofenac (AC) in the form of nanosuspension using cost-effective simple precipitation-ultrasonication approach. The nanocrystals were produced using the optimum conditions investigated for AC. The minimum particle size (PS) and polydispersity index was found to be 112±2.01 nm and 0.165, respectively, using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (1%, w/w), polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (1%, w/w) and sodium lauryl sulfate (0.12%, w/w). The characterization of AC was performed using zeta sizer, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The saturation solubility of the AC nanocrystals was substantially increased 2.6- and 4.5-fold compared to its unprocessed active pharmaceutical ingredient in stabilizer solution and unprocessed drug. Similarly, the dissolution rate of the AC nanocrystals was substantially enhanced compared to its other counterpart. The results showed that >88% of AC nanocrystals were dissolved in first 10 min compared to unprocessed AC (8.38%), microsuspension (66.65%) and its marketed tablets (17.65%). The in vivo studies of the produced stabilized nanosuspension demonstrated that the Cmax were 4.98- and 2.80-fold while area under curve from time of administration to 24 h (AUC0→24 h) were found 3.88- and 2.10-fold greater when compared with unprocessed drug and its marketed formulation, respectively. The improved antinociceptive activity of AC nanocrystals was shown at much lower doses as compared to unprocessed drug, which is purely because of nanonization which may be attributed to improved solubility and dissolution rate of AC, ultimately resulting in its faster rate of absorption.
  4. Ezhilarasu H, Sadiq A, Ratheesh G, Sridhar S, Ramakrishna S, Ab Rahim MH, et al.
    Nanomedicine (Lond), 2019 01;14(2):201-214.
    PMID: 30526272 DOI: 10.2217/nnm-2018-0271
    AIM: Atherosclerosis is a common cardiovascular disease causing medical problems globally leading to coronary artery bypass surgery. The present study is to fabricate core/shell nanofibers to encapsulate VEGF for the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into smooth muscle cells to develop vascular grafts.

    MATERIALS & METHODS: The fabricated core/shell nanofibers contained polycaprolactone/gelatin as the shell, and silk fibroin/VEGF as the core materials.

    RESULTS: The results observed that the core/shell nanofibers interact to differentiate MSCs into smooth muscle cells by the expression of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contractile proteins α-actinin, myosin and F-actin.

    CONCLUSION: The functionalized polycaprolactone/gelatin/silk fibroin/VEGF (250 ng) core/shell nanofibers were fabricated for the controlled release of VEGF in a persistent manner for the differentiation of MSCs into smooth muscle cells for vascular tissue engineering.

  5. Ezhilarasu H, Ramalingam R, Dhand C, Lakshminarayanan R, Sadiq A, Gandhimathi C, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2019 Oct 18;20(20).
    PMID: 31635374 DOI: 10.3390/ijms20205174
    Aloe vera (AV) and tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) exhibit significant properties such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-bacterial activities to facilitate skin tissue engineering. The present study aims to develop poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)/ AV containing curcumin (CUR), and TCH loaded hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds to validate the synergistic effect on the fibroblast proliferation and antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria for wound healing. PCL/AV, PCL/CUR, PCL/AV/CUR and PCL/AV/TCH hybrid nanofibrous mats were fabricated using an electrospinning technique and were characterized for surface morphology, the successful incorporation of active compounds, hydrophilicity and the mechanical property of nanofibers. SEM revealed that there was a decrease in the fiber diameter (ranging from 360 to 770 nm) upon the addition of AV, CUR and TCH in PCL nanofibers, which were randomly oriented with bead free morphology. FTIR spectra of various electrospun samples confirmed the successful incorporation of AV, CUR and TCH into the PCL nanofibers. The fabricated nanofibrous scaffolds possessed mechanical properties within the range of human skin. The biocompatibility of electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were evaluated on primary human dermal fibroblasts (hDF) by MTS assay, CMFDA, Sirius red and F-actin stainings. The results showed that the fabricated PCL/AV/CUR and PCL/AV/TCH nanofibrous scaffolds were non-toxic and had the potential for wound healing applications. The disc diffusion assay confirmed that the electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds possessed antibacterial activity and provided an effective wound dressing for skin tissue engineering.
  6. Majid Shah S, Ullah F, Ayaz M, Sadiq A, Hussain S, Ali Shah AU, et al.
    Steroids, 2019 08;148:56-62.
    PMID: 31085212 DOI: 10.1016/j.steroids.2019.05.001
    The current study was aimed to evaluate the anti-leishmanial potentials of β-sitosterol isolated from Ifloga spicata. The anti-leishmanial potential of β-sitosterol is well documented against Leishmania donovani and Leishmania amazonensis but unexplored against Leishmania tropica. Structure of the compound was elucidated by FT-IR, mass spectrometry and multinuclear (1H and 13C) magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The compound was evaluated for its anti-leishmanial potentials against L. tropica KWH23 using in vitro anti-promastigote, DNA interaction, apoptosis, docking studies against leishmanolysin (GP63) and trypanothione reductase (TR) receptors using MOE 2016 software. β-sitosterol exhibited significant activity against leishmania promastigotes with IC50 values of 9.2 ± 0.06 μg/mL. The standard drug glucantaime showed IC50 of 5.33 ± 0.07 µg/mL. Further mechanistic studies including DNA targeting and apoptosis induction via acridine orange assay exhibited promising anti-leishmanial potentials for β-sitosterol. Molecular docking with leishmanolysin (GP63) and trypanothione reductase (TR) receptors displayed the binding scores of β-sitosterol with targets TR and GP63 were -7.659 and -6.966 respectively. The low binding energies -61.54 (for TR) and -33.24 (for GP63) indicate that it strongly bind to the active sites of target receptors. The results confirmed that β-sitosterol have considerable anti-leishmanial potentials and need further studies as potential natural anti-leishmanial agent against L. tropica.
  7. Hussain S, Ullah F, Sadiq A, Ayaz M, Shah AA, Ali Shah SA, et al.
    Curr Top Med Chem, 2019;19(30):2805-2813.
    PMID: 31702502 DOI: 10.2174/1568026619666191105103801
    BACKGROUND: Liver cancer is a devastating cancer with increasing incidence and mortality rates worldwide. Plants possess numerous therapeutic properties, therefore the search for novel, naturally occurring cytotoxic compounds is urgently needed.

    METHODS: The anticancer activity of plant extracts and isolated compounds from Anchusa arvensis (A. arvensis) were studied against the cell culture of HepG-2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines) using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-yl)-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was investigated by performing Acridine orange -ethidium bromide staining, styox green assay and DNA interaction study. We also used tools for computational chemistry studies of isolated compounds with the tyrosine kinase.

    RESULTS: In MTT assay, the crude extract caused a significant cytotoxic effect with IC50 of 34.14 ± 0.9 μg/ml against HepG-2 cell lines. Upon fractionation, chloroform fraction (Aa.Chm) exhibited the highest antiproliferative activity with IC50 6.55 ± 1.2 μg/ml followed by ethyl acetate (Aa.Et) fraction (IC50, 24.59 ± 0.85 μg/ml) and n-hexane (Aa.Hex) fraction (IC50 29.53 ± 1.5μg/ml). However, the aqueous (Aa.Aq) fraction did not show any anti-proliferative activity. Bioactivity-guided isolation led to the isolation of two compounds which were characterized as para-methoxycatechol (1) and decane (2) through various spectroscopic techniques. Against HepG-2 cells, compound 1 showed marked potency with IC50 6.03 ± 0.75 μg/ml followed by 2 with IC50 18.52 ± 1.9 μg/ml. DMSO was used as a negative control and doxorubicin as a reference standard (IC50 1.3 ± 0.21 μg/ml). It was observed that compounds 1-2 caused apoptotic cell death evaluated by Acridine orange -ethidium bromide staining, styox green assay and DNA interaction study, therefore both compounds were tested for molecular docking studies against tyrosine kinase to support cytotoxic activity.

    CONCLUSION: This study revealed that the plant extracts and isolated compounds possess promising antiproliferative activity against HepG-2 cell lines via apoptotic cell death.

  8. Ishaq R, Shoaib M, Baloch NS, Sadiq A, Raziq A, Huma ZE, et al.
    Front Public Health, 2021;9:801035.
    PMID: 35111720 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2021.801035
    Background: Quality of Life (QoL) and its determinants are significant in all stages of life, including pregnancy. The physical and emotional changes during pregnancy affect the QoL of pregnant women, affecting both maternal and infant health. Hence, assessing the QoL of pregnant women is gaining interest in literature. We, therefore, aimed to describe the QoL of pregnant women during physiological pregnancy and to identify its associated predictors in women attending a public healthcare institute of Quetta city, Pakistan.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Sandeman Provincial Hospital Quetta city, Pakistan. The respondents were asked to answer the Urdu (lingua franca of Pakistan) version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire for Physiological Pregnancy. Data were coded and analyzed by SPPS v 21. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to establish normality of the data and non-parametric tests were used accordingly. Quality of Life was assessed as proposed by the developers. The Chi-square test was used to identify significant associations and linear regression was used to identify the predictors of QoL. For all analyses, p < 0.05 was taken significantly.

    Results: Four hundred and three pregnant women participated in the study with a response rate of 98%. The mean QoL score was 19.85 ± 4.89 indicating very good QoL in the current cohort. The Chi-Square analysis reported a significant association between age, education, occupation, income, marital status, and trimester. Education was reported as a positive predictor for QoL (p = 0.006, β = 2.157). On the other hand, trimester was reported as a negative predictor of QoL (p = 0.013, β = -1.123).

    Conclusion: Improving the QoL among pregnant women requires better identification of their difficulties and guidance. The current study highlighted educational status and trimester as the predictors of QoL in pregnant women. Health care professionals and policymakers should consider the identified factors while designing therapeutic plans and interventions for pregnant women.

  9. Mehmood R, Sadiq A, Alsantali RI, Mughal EU, Alsharif MA, Naeem N, et al.
    ACS Omega, 2022 Feb 01;7(4):3775-3795.
    PMID: 35128286 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.1c06694
    In the present work, a concise library of 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazolines (2a-2q) was designed and synthesized by employing a multistep strategy, and the newly synthesized compounds were screened for their urease and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. The compounds (2a-2q) were characterized using a combination of several spectroscopic techniques including FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and EI-MS. All the synthesized compounds, except compound 2i, were potent against urease as compared to the standard inhibitor thiourea (IC50 = 21.37 ± 0.26 μM). These analogs disclosed varying degrees of urease inhibitory activities ranging from 9.13 ± 0.25 to 18.42 ± 0.42 μM. Compounds 2b, 2g, 2m, and 2q having IC50 values of 9.36 ± 0.27, 9.13 ± 0.25, 9.18 ± 0.35, and 9.35 ± 0.35 μM, respectively, showed excellent inhibitory activity as compared to standard thiourea (IC50 = 21.37 ± 0.26 μM). A kinetic study of compound 2g revealed that compound 2g inhibited urease in a competitive mode. Among the synthesized pyrazolines, the compounds 2c, 2k, 2m, and 2o exhibited excellent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the lowest IC50 values of 212.52 ± 1.31, 237.26 ± 1.28, 138.35 ± 1.32, and 114.57 ± 1.35 μM, respectively, as compared to the standard acarbose (IC50 = 375.82 ± 1.76 μM). The compounds (2a-2q) showed α-glucosidase IC50 values in the range of 114.57 ± 1.35 to 462.94 ± 1.23 μM. Structure-activity relationship revealed that the size and electron-donating or -withdrawing effects of substituents influenced the activities, which led to the urease and α-glucosidase inhibiting properties. Compound 2m was a dual potent inhibitor against urease and α-glucosidase due to the presence of 2-CF3 electron-withdrawing functionality on the phenyl ring. To the best of our knowledge, these synthetic compounds were found to be the most potent dual inhibitors of urease and α-glucosidase with minimum IC50 values. The cytotoxicity of the compounds (2a-2q) was also investigated against human cell lines MCF-7 and HeLa. Compound 2l showed moderate cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines. Moreover, in silico studies on most active compounds were also performed to understand the binding interaction of most active compounds with active sites of urease and α-glucosidase enzymes. Some compounds exhibited drug-like characteristics due to their lower cytotoxic and good ADME profiles.
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