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  1. Saad B, Ariffin M, Saleh MI
    Talanta, 1998 Dec;47(5):1231-6.
    PMID: 18967428
    A flow injection potentiometric method for the rapid determination of paraquat in herbicide formulations and biological samples is described. It is based on the utilization of a flow-through potentiometric detector containing polyvinyl chloride-immobilised octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, a lipophilic plasticizer (tetra-n-undecyl 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylate) and membrane additive potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate. The detector was minimally interfered by the presence of constituents such as Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), glucose, urea, lactic and citric acids at physiological levels, respectively. Good correlation between results of the proposed method and HPLC for the formulation samples was found, while results for the determination of paraquat in biological samples such as urine, vomitus and stomach washout was less satisfactory.
  2. Saleh MI, Ahmad M, Darus H
    Talanta, 1990 Jul;37(7):757-9.
    PMID: 18965016
    A series of chelating reagents, 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(2-fluorobenzoyl)-5-pyrazolone, 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(3-fluorobenzoyl)-5-pyrazolone and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-5-pyrazolone, has been synthesized. The extraction of Ln(III), (Ln = La, Eu and Lu) into chloroform with these reagents at 30 +/- 1 degrees has been studied. The composition of the complexes extracted has been determined by the slope method, and the extraction constants K(ex), were measured. The presence of the fluorine atom in the reagents does not make the K(ex), values much different from those obtained with the parent pyrazolone.
  3. Kusrini E, Saleh MI, Lecomte C
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2009 Sep 15;74(1):120-6.
    PMID: 19560960 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2009.05.024
    (1)H NMR evidence for direct coordination between the Ln(III) ion and the oxygen atoms of the pentaethylene glycol (EO5) ligand and the picrate anion (Pic) in [Ln(Pic)(2)(EO5)][Pic] {Ln=Ce and Nd} complexes are confirmed by single X-ray diffraction. No dissociation of Ln-O bonds in dimethyl sulfoxide-d solution was observed in NMR studies conducted at different temperatures ranging 25-100 degrees C. The Ln(III) ion was chelated to nine oxygen atoms from the EO5 ligand in a hexadentate manner and the two Pic anions in each bidentate and monodentate modes. Both compounds are isostructural and crystallized in monoclinic with space group P2(1)/c. Coordination environment around the Ce1 and Nd1 atoms can be described as tricapped trigonal prismatic and monocapped square antiprismatic geometries, respectively. The crystal packing of the complexes have stabilized by one dimensional (1D) chains along the [001] direction to form intermolecular O-Hcdots, three dots, centeredO and C-Hcdots, three dots, centeredO hydrogen bonding. The molar conductance of the complexes in DMSO solution indicated that both compounds are ionic. The complexes had a good thermal stability. Under the UV-excitation, these complexes exhibited the red-shift emission.
  4. Koh YM, Saleh MI, Tan SC
    J Chromatogr A, 2003 Feb 14;987(1-2):257-67.
    PMID: 12613820
    An investigation was conducted on the usage of a single-step extraction procedure involving the retention of a phenylboronate-salbutamol complex on an end-capped C18 solid-phase sorbent to determine the level of salbutamol in human plasma samples. Propranolol, a beta-blocker, was chosen as the internal standard for this assay. In this solid-phase clean-up method, 50 mM sodium carbonate buffer, pH 9.60, was used for conditioning the column as well as washing the endogenous interference. Under the optimal conditions, the recovery of salbutamol from spiked plasma samples was found to be high and reproducible with mean recoveries (n = 3) of more than 90% after elution by using 50% 1 M trifluoroacetic acid in methanol. This sample clean-up step was effectively analyzed under reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. The method was successfully applied to the routine measurement of salbutamol in human plasma from the bioequivalence study on the different administration route of salbutamol. Quantification of salbutamol was convincingly reported with the correlation of coefficient of 0.9980 for the concentration range from 0 to 1000 ng ml(-1). An adequate precision was achieved with both between- and within-day precisions of less than 10% (n = 6) for 100 and 1000 ng ml(-1) and less than 15% (n = 6) for 10 ng ml(-1).
  5. Tameem AA, Saad B, Makahleh A, Salhin A, Saleh MI
    Talanta, 2010 Sep 15;82(4):1385-91.
    PMID: 20801345 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2010.07.004
    A sorbent material based on a newly synthesized hydrazone ligand, 4-hydroxy-N'-[(E)-(2-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]benzohydrazide was prepared by immobilizing the ligand into a silica sol-gel matrix. The capability of the sorbent material for the extraction of seven biogenic amines (BAs), i.e., tryptamine (TRY), beta-phenylethylamine (PEA), putrescine (PUT), cadaverine (CAD), histamine (HIS), tyramine (TYR), and spermidine (SPD) was studied. Under the adopted conditions, the sorbent showed good selectivity towards PUT, CAD, HIS and SPD (% extraction (%E)>96) while %E for TYR, TRY and PEA were 82.0, 78.9 and 46.4%, respectively. The sorbent could be used up to six extraction cycles for SPD, CAD and PUT and was applied to the determination of food samples ("budu", ketchup, orange juice, soy sauce) that were spiked with 20 mg L(-1) of the BAs. The extracted analytes were derivatized with dansyl chloride before the HPLC determination. With the exception of HIS and TYR in "budu" sample, reasonable recoveries were found for the other analytes in all the tested food samples.
  6. Saleh MI, Kusrini E, Mohd Sarjidan MA, Abd Majid WH
    PMID: 21030294 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2010.08.029
    A mononuclear of [Eu(NO3)(Pic)(H2O)2(EO3)](Pic)·(0.73)H2O complex, where EO3=trietraethylene glycol and Pic=picrate anion, shows a red emission when used as an active layer in a single layer of ITO/EO3-Eu-Pic/Al configuration. The crystal structure of the complex consists of [Eu(NO3)(Pic)(H2O)2(EO3)]+ cation and [Pic]- anion. The Eu(III) ion is coordinated to the 10 oxygen atoms from one EO3 ligand, one Pic anion, one nitrate anion, and two water molecules. The complex is crystallized in triclinic with space group P-1. The hybrids in thin films I and II were prepared in the respective order solution concentrations of 15 and 20 mg/mL the emissive center. Comparing the photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) spectra, we can find that all emissions come from the characteristic transitions of the Eu(III) ion. The EL spectra of both thin films showed the occurrence of the most intense red-light emission around at 612 nm. Comparison of organic light-emitting device (OLED) current intensity characteristics as a function of voltage (I-V) show that the thin film I is better than those found for the thin film II. The thickness of the emitting layer is an important factor to control the current-voltage curve. The sharp and intense emission of the complex at low voltage indicates that the complex is a suitable and promising candidate for red-emitting materials.
  7. Elbashir AA, Saad B, Ali AS, Saleh MI
    J AOAC Int, 2008 6 24;91(3):536-41.
    PMID: 18567298
    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method has been developed that allows the separation and estimation of primaquine enantiomers using hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrin (HP-gamma -CD) as a chiral selector. The influence of chemical and instrumental parameters on the separation, such as type and concentration of CD, buffer concentration, buffer pH, applied voltage, capillary temperature, and injection time, were investigated. Good separation of the racemic mixture of primaquine was achieved using a fused-silica capillary (52.5 cm effective length x 50 microm id) and a background electrolyte composed of tris-phosphate buffer solution (50 mM, pH 2.5) containing 15 mM HP-gamma-CD as a chiral selector. The recommended applied voltage, capillary temperature, and injection time were 15 kV, 25 degrees C, and 6 s, respectively. Within-day and interday reproducibility of peak area and migration time gave relative standard deviation values ranging from 1.05-3.30%. Good recoveries (range of 96.8-104.9%) were obtained from the determination of placebos that were spiked with 0.25-1.00 mg/L primaquine. The proposed CE method was successfully applied to the assay of primaquine diphosphate in pharmaceutical formulations (tablets).
  8. Saad B, Wai WT, Lim BP, Saleh MI
    Anal Chim Acta, 2007 May 22;591(2):248-54.
    PMID: 17481416
    A flow injection analysis (FIA) procedure for the determination of anisidine value (AV) in palm olein using a triiodide detector is described. Undiluted oil sample and chloramine-T reagent were added to a reaction chamber, and reaction was accelerated by applying a short vortex action (typically for 30 s). After allowing the emulsified oil phase to be separated from the aqueous phase (bottom layer), an aliquot of the aqueous phase (containing unreacted chloramine-T) was aspirated into a carrier stream that contained I(-) where the chloramine-T oxidized the I- to form I3(-) which was finally detected by a flow-through triiodide potentiometric detector. Variables that affect the FIA signals such as size of the reaction chamber, oil and reagent flow rates, chloramine-T concentration, vortex time, time for phase separation, carrier stream pH and injected volume were studied. The optimized FIA procedure is linear over 1.0-23.0 AV. The method exhibits good repeatabililty (R.S.D. of +/-3.16% (n = 4) for the determination of 5.0 AV) and a sampling rate of 40 samples per hour was achieved. Good correlation (r2 = 0.996 (n = 4)) between the proposed method and the manual American Oil Chemists' Society procedure was found when applied to the determination of twenty different types of palm olein samples.
  9. Saleh MI, Koh YM, Tan SC, Aishah AL
    Analyst, 2000 Sep;125(9):1569-72.
    PMID: 11064937
    Salbutamol ¿2-(tert-butylamino)-1-[4-hydroxy-3- (hydroxymethyl)phenyl]ethanol¿, also known as albuterol, is clinically the most widely used beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist in the treatment of bronchial asthma. During this study, we evaluated liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) in order to develop a reliable extraction method followed by analysis using liquid chromatography and gas chromatography. An assay is described which involves SPE as the clean-up method followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine salbutamol levels in human serum after oral administration. The SPE method requires the use of a hyper-cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene bonded phase (ENV+) without involving any sample pre-treatment to obtain 60-65% recoveries for salbutamol and terbutaline as the internal standard. Distilled water and 1% trifluoroacetic acid in methanol were found to be the most suitable washing solvent and eluting solvent, respectively. A detection limit of 2 ng mL-1 was achieved by derivatization with N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide to form trimethylsilyl (TMS)-salbutamol (m/z 369) and TMS-terbutaline (m/z 356). The relationship between the ratio of the peak area of salbutamol to that of the internal standard and concentration was linear for the range tested (2-200 ng mL-1) and the correlation of coefficient was 0.9999 with a y-intercept not significantly different from zero. The inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) was < 10% for all three concentrations. The intra-day RSD was 14% for 2 ng mL-1. This assay was then successfully applied to human serum samples obtained from clinical trials after oral administration of salbutamol.
  10. Saad B, Bee-Leng Y, Saleh MI, Rahman IA, Mansor SM
    J AOAC Int, 2001 8 15;84(4):1151-7.
    PMID: 11501917
    Potentiometric response characteristics were evaluated for quinine selective sensors based on a lipophilic ion-exchanger potassium tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethylphenyl)]borate (PTFB) immobilized together with plasticizing solvents in polyvinyl chloride membranes. The use of dioctyl phthalate (DOP), 2-nitrophenyl phenyl ether (NPPE), and bis(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (BEHA) plasticizers produced good quality quinine sensors that were sensitive and fast responding, and exhibited near Nernstian responses when used as batch-sensors. These membranes were further tested in a wall-jet flow-through potentiometric flow injection analysis (FIA) detector. Quinine sensors containing BEHA were the most suitable membrane, with no noticeable differences in sensitivity even after 5 h of continuous exposure to solutions. Interference by foreign species such as alkali, alkaline earth metal ions, sugars, and sodium benzoate was minimal in either the batch-mode (log selectivity coefficients
  11. Ben-Hander GM, Makahleh A, Saad B, Saleh MI
    PMID: 24200841 DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.10.007
    A three phase hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction with in situ derivatization (in situ HF-LPME) followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) method was developed for the trace determination of metformin hydrochloride (MH) in biological fluids. A new derivatization agent pentafluorobenzoyl chloride (PFBC) was used. Several parameters that affect the derivatization and extraction efficiency were studied and optimized (i.e., type of organic solvent, volume of NaOH (4M) and derivatization agent in the donor phase, acceptor phase (HCl) concentration, stirring speed, temperature, time and salt addition). Under the optimum conditions (organic solvent, dihexyl ether; volume of NaOH (4M) and derivatization agent (10mg PFBC in 1mL acetonitrile) in the donor phase, 600 and100μL, respectively; acceptor phase, 100mM HCl (10μL); stirring speed, 300rpm; extraction time, 30min; derivatization temperature, 70°C; without addition of salt) an enrichment factor of 210-fold was achieved. Good linearity was observed over the range of 1-1000ngmL(-1) (r(2)=0.9998). The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.56 and 1.68ngmL(-1), respectively. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of MH in biological fluids (plasma and urine) and water samples. Prior to the microextraction treatment of plasma samples, deproteinization step using acetonitrile was conducted. The proposed method is simple, rapid, sensitive and suitable for the determination of MH in a variety of samples.
  12. Saad B, Wai WT, Ali AS, Saleh MI
    Anal Sci, 2006 Jan;22(1):45-50.
    PMID: 16429771
    A flow injection analysis (FIA) method for the determination of four residual chlorine species, namely combined available chlorine (CAC), free available chlorine (FAC), total available chlorine (TAC) and chlorite (ClO2-) was developed using a flow-through triiodide-selective electrode as a detector. An important strategy of speciation studies utilized the kinetic discrimination of reactions between the CAC and FAC with Fe2+, which was applied to the speciation of FAC, CAC and TAC. The speciation of available chlorine species and chlorite (an oxychlorine species) was achieved by using the same set-up, but using flow streams of different pH. The effects of the pH of the carrier stream, the flow rate and the sample volume were studied. The method exhibited linearity from 2.8 x 10(-6) to 2.8 x 10(-4) M active chlorine (expressed as OCl-) with a detection limit of 1.4 x 10(-6) M. The selectivity of the method was studied by examining the minimum pH for the oxidation of iodide by other oxidants, and also by assessing the potentiometric selectivity coefficients. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of chlorine species in tap water, and disinfecting formulations where good agreement occurred between the proposed and standard methods were found.
  13. Ben-Hander GM, Makahleh A, Saad B, Saleh MI, Cheng KW
    Talanta, 2015 Jan;131:590-6.
    PMID: 25281145 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2014.08.037
    A new analytical method for the simultaneous determination of the antidiabetic drugs rosiglitazone (ROS) and metformin hydrochloride (MH) with marked differences in their affinity towards organic solvents (log P of 2.4 and -1.43, respectively) was developed. Prior to the HPLC separation, the drugs were subjected to a sequential hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) procedure. Two sequential HF-LPME approaches were considered, the preferred one involves the use of two vials containing solution mixtures for the extraction of ROS (vial 1) and MH (vial 2), respectively, but using the same fiber and acceptor phase. Important parameters that affect the extraction efficiency such as extracting solvent, donor phase conditions, HCl concentration, agitation, extraction time, addition of salt, etc. were studied. Under the optimum conditions, good enrichment factors (EF, 471 and 86.6 for ROS and MH, respectively) were achieved. Calibration curves were linear over the range 1-500 (r(2)=0.998) and 5-2500 ng mL(-1) (r(2)=0.999) for ROS and MH, respectively. The relative standard deviation values (RSD%) for six replicates were below 8.4%. Detection and quantitation limits based on S/N ratio of 3 and 10 were 0.12, 1.0 and 0.36, 3.0 ng mL(-1) for ROS and MH, respectively. The proposed method is simple, sensitive and opens up new opportunities for the microextraction of analytes with contrasting properties.
  14. Makahleh A, Saad B, Siang GH, Saleh MI, Osman H, Salleh B
    Talanta, 2010 Apr 15;81(1-2):20-4.
    PMID: 20188881 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2009.11.030
    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D) has been developed for the separation and the simultaneous determination of five underivatized long chain fatty acids (FAs), namely myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. An isocratic elution mode using methanol/1mM sodium acetate (78:22, v/v) as mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.6 mL min(-1) was used. The separation was effected by using a Hypersil ODS C(18) analytical column (250 mm x 4.6 mm x 5 microm) and was operated at 45 degrees C. Calibration curves of the five FAs were well correlated (r(2)>0.999) within the range of 5- 200 microg mL(-1) for stearic acid, and 2-200 microg mL(-1) for the other FAs. The proposed method was tested on four vegetable oils, i.e., pumpkin, soybean, rice bran and palm olein oils; good agreement was found with the standard gas chromatographic (GC) method. The proposed method offers distinct advantages over the official GC method, especially in terms of simplicity, faster separation times and sensitivity.
  15. Saaid M, Saad B, Ali AS, Saleh MI, Basheer C, Lee HK
    J Chromatogr A, 2009 Jul 3;1216(27):5165-70.
    PMID: 19481215 DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2009.04.091
    Hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction with in situ derivatization using dansyl chloride has been successfully developed for the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) determination of the biogenic amines (tryptamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine) in food samples. Parameters affecting the performance of the in situ derivatization process such as type of extraction solvent, temperature, extraction time, stirring speed and salt addition were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions (extraction solvent, dihexyl ether; acceptor phase, 0.1M HCl; extraction time, 30 min; extraction temperature, 26 degrees C; without addition of salt), enrichment factors varying from 47 to 456 were achieved. Good linearity of the analytes was obtained over a concentration range of 0.1-5 microg mL(-1) (with correlation coefficients of 0.9901-0.9974). The limits of detection and quantification based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3-10, ranged from 0.0075 to 0.030 microg mL(-1) and 0.03 to 0.10 microg mL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations based on the peak areas for six replicate analysis of water spiked with 0.5 microg mL(-1) of each biogenic amine were lower than 7.5%. The method was successfully applied to shrimp sauce and tomato ketchup samples, offering an interesting alternative to liquid-liquid extraction and solid phase extraction for the analysis of biogenic amines in food samples.
  16. Saaid M, Saad B, Rahman IA, Ali AS, Saleh MI
    Talanta, 2010 Jan 15;80(3):1183-90.
    PMID: 20006072 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2009.09.006
    Three sorbent materials (A18C6-MS, DA18C6-MS and AB18C6-MS) based on the crown ether ligands, 1-aza-18-crown-6, 1,4,10,13-tetraoxa-7,16-diazacyclo octadecane and 4'-aminobenzo-18-crown-6, respectively, were prepared by the chemical immobilization of the ligand onto mesoporous silica support. The sorbents were characterized by FT-IR, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, elemental analysis and nitrogen adsorption-desorption test. The applicability of the sorbents for the extraction of biogenic amines by the batch sorption method was extensively studied and evaluated as a function of pH, biogenic amines concentration, contact time and reusability. Under the optimized conditions, all the sorbents exhibited highest selectivity toward spermidine (SPD) compared to other biogenic amines (tryptamine, putrescine, histamine and tyramine). Among the sorbents, AB18C6-MS offer the highest capacity and best selectivity towards SPD in the presence of other biogenic amines. The AB18C6-MS sorbent can be repeatedly used three times as there was no significant degradation in the extraction of the biogenic amines (%E>85). The optimized procedure was successfully applied for the separation of SPD in food samples prior to the reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography separation.
  17. Elbashir AA, Saad B, Ali AS, Saleh MI, Aboul-Enein HY
    Biomed Chromatogr, 2009 Mar;23(3):295-301.
    PMID: 18816453 DOI: 10.1002/bmc.1113
    A capillary electrophoretic (CE) method for the baseline separation of the enantiomers of primaquine diphosphate (PQ) and quinocide (QC) (a major contaminant) in pharmaceutical formulations is proposed. Both components were separated under the following conditions: 50 mm tris phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) containing 15 mm hydroxypropyl-gamma-cyclodextrin (HP-gamma-CD) as background electrolyte; applied voltage, 16 kV; capillary temperature, 25 degrees C; detection wavelength, 254 nm; hydrostatic injection, 10 s. The separations were conducted using a 35 cm length and 50 microm i.d. uncoated fused silica capillary column. Under the optimized conditions, the components were successfully separated in about 5 min. Intraday precision of migration time and corrected peak areas when expressed as relative standard deviation ranged from 0.17 to 0.45 and 2.60 to 3.94%, respectively, while the interday precision ranged from 2.59 to 4.20 and 3.15 to 4.21%, respectively. After the validation exercise, the proposed method was applied for the determination of QC impurity in PQ formulations.
  18. Elbashir AA, Saad B, Ali AS, Saleh MI, Aboul-Enein HY
    Biomed Chromatogr, 2009 May;23(5):464-71.
    PMID: 19016231 DOI: 10.1002/bmc.1137
    A capillary zone electrophoretic method has been developed and validated for the determination of the impurity quinocide (QC) in the antimalarial drug primaquine (PQ). Different buffer additives such as native cyclodextrins and crown ethers were evaluated. Promising results were obtained when either beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) or 18-crown-6 ether (18C6) were used. Their separation conditions such as type of buffer and its pH, buffer additive concentration, applied voltage capillary temperature and injection time were optimized. The use of 18C6 offers slight advantages over beta-CD such as faster elution times and improved resolution. Nevertheless, migration times of less than 5 min and resolution factors (R(s)) in the range of 2-4 were obtained when both additives were used. The method was validated with respect to selectivity, linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, analytical precision (intra- and inter-day variability) and repeatability. Concentrations of 2.12 and 2.71% (w/w) of QC were found in pharmaceutical preparations of PQ from two different manufacturers. A possible mechanism for the successful separation of the isomers is also discussed.
  19. Saad B, Bari MF, Saleh MI, Ahmad K, Talib MK
    J Chromatogr A, 2005 May 06;1073(1-2):393-7.
    PMID: 15909546
    A reversed-phased HPLC method that allows the separation and simultaneous determination of the preservatives benzoic (BA) and sorbic acids (SA), methyl- (MP) and propylparabens (PP) is described. The separations were effected by using an initial mobile phase of methanol-acetate buffer (pH 4.4) (35:65) to elute BA, SA and MP and changing the mobile phase composition to methanol-acetate buffer (pH 4.4) (50:50) thereafter. The detector wavelength was set at 254 nm. Under these conditions, separation of the four components was achieved in less than 23 min. Analytical characteristics of the separation such as limit of detection, limit of quantification, linear range and reproducibility were evaluated. The developed method was applied to the determination of 67 foodstuffs (mainly imported), comprising soft drinks, jams, sauces, canned fruits/vegetables, dried vegetables/fruits and others. The range of preservatives found were from not detected (nd)--1260, nd--1390, nd--44.8 and nd--221 mg kg(-1) for BA, SA, MP and PP, respectively.
  20. Saad B, Zin ZM, Jab MS, Rahman IA, Saleh MI, Mahsufi S
    Anal Sci, 2005 May;21(5):521-4.
    PMID: 15913140
    Poly (vinyl chloride) membrane electrodes that responded selectively towards the antimalarial drug chloroquine are described. The electrodes were based on the use of the lipophilic potassium tetrakis(4-chlorophenyl)borate as ion-exchanger and bis(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (BEHA), or trioctylphosphate (TOP) or dioctylphenylphosphonate (DOPP) as plasticizing solvent mediator. All electrodes produced good quality characteristics such as Nernstian- and rapid responses, and are minimally interfered with by the alkali and alkaline earth metal ions tested. The membranes were next applied to a flow-through device, enabling it to function as flow-injection analysis (FIA) detector. The performance of the sensor after undergoing the FIA optimization was further evaluated for its selectivity characteristics and lifetime. Results for the determination of chloroquine in synthetic samples that contained common tablet excipients such as glucose, starch, and cellulose, and other foreign species such as cations, citric acid or lactic acid were generally satisfactory. The sensor was also successfully used for the determination of the active ingredients in mock tablets, synthetic fluids and biological fluids. The sensor was applied for the determination of active ingredients and the dissolution profile of commercial tablets was also established.
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