Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 44 in total

  1. Nordin N, Selamat J
    PMID: 24786623 DOI: 10.1080/19393210.2012.721140
    As, Cd, Pb and Hg were analysed in commonly consumed spices and herbs in Malaysia. The range of As, Cd, Pb and Hg content was 0.24-2.54, 0.23-8.07, 1.54-8.94 and 0.06-0.52 µg g(-1), respectively. The highest concentration of Cd, Pb and Hg in spices and herbs exceeded the maximum permitted proportion, which are 1, 2 and 0.05 µg g(-1), respectively. This study suggests further monitoring of Cd, Pb and Hg on daily consumption of spices and herbs and its toxicological implication for consumers since only the amount of As was lower than the permitted concentration.
  2. Fathordoobady, F., Manap, M.Y., Selamat, J., Singh, A.P.
    In the present work, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 as solvent and EtOH/water (v/v) as co-solvent was optimised by applying 23 factorial experimental design for the extraction of betacyanins from red pitaya fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel. Three independent variables of pressure (20-30 MPa), temperature (40-60°C) and co-solvent concentration (10-20%) were chosen for response variables. With the 2 mL/min flow rate of CO2, the dynamic time of extraction was found to be 90 min. The linear effects of main factors and interactions were evaluated. The calculated response surface model for the pressure/temperature was found to be significant for all the dependent variables. At optimal condition of SFE, the response variables were assessed as maximum extraction yield of 4.09 ± 0.69%, total betacyanins content of 25.49 ± 1.54 mg/100 mL, redness (a*) of 58.18 ± 0.82, and IC50 (antioxidant activity) of 1.34 ± 0.12 mg/mL for the experimental peel extracts. The optimal levels of independent variables were validated for the experimental responses as predicted by the mathematical model. The reliability of this method was confirmed as there was no significant difference between experimental and predicted values. The HPLC-MS profile of betacyanins extract comprised of both acylated and non-acylated betacyanins constituents.
  3. Hajeb P, Selamat J
    Clin Rev Allergy Immunol, 2012 Jun;42(3):365-85.
    PMID: 22045217 DOI: 10.1007/s12016-011-8284-9
    Seafood is common item in the world diet; Asian countries have the highest rates of fish consumption in the world, which is higher than world average. Several studies have been conducted on the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of seafood allergy in different countries, and some of the fish and seafood allergens unique to those regions have been characterized. Review on published data showed that seafood allergy is very ubiquitous in some regions of the world. Fish and shellfish are the most common seafood that cause adverse allergic reactions among nations; the symptoms ranged from oral allergy syndromes to urticaria and anaphylaxis. The major identified allergens are parvalbumin in fish and tropomyosin in shellfish. Nevertheless, such studies are lacking from some regions with high fish and seafood consumption. Furthermore, the published data are mostly from small groups of populations, which large-scale epidemiological studies need to be performed.
  4. Leong, Q.L., Ab Karim, S., Selamat, J., Mohd Adzahan, N., Karim, R., Rosita, J.
    This study aimed to analyze consumers’ perceptions and acceptance toward ‘belacan’. Results
    showed internal reliability of above 0.7 for sections analyzed. Factor analysis found two underlying factors in the section designed to examine consumers’ perceptions. The overall consumers’ perception had a positive and moderate correlation with their acceptance and was significant at .01. Results also showed that ‘belacan’ consumption level was relatively frequent and well accepted by all races in Malaysia. The findings of the study would be noteworthy to the fishery industry and the small and medium industry (SME) in Malaysia in meeting consumers’ needs.
  5. Rahmani A, Selamat J, Soleimany F
    PMID: 21598138 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2011.576436
    A reversed-phase HPLC optimization strategy is presented for investigating the separation and retention behavior of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone, simultaneously. A fractional factorial design (FFD) was used to screen the significance effect of seven independent variables on chromatographic responses. The independent variables used were: (X1) column oven temperature (20-40°C), (X2) flow rate (0.8-1.2 ml/min), (X3) acid concentration in aqueous phase (0-2%), (X4) organic solvent percentage at the beginning (40-50%), and (X5) at the end (50-60%) of the gradient mobile phase, as well as (X6) ratio of methanol/acetonitrile at the beginning (1-4) and (X7) at the end (0-1) of gradient mobile phase. Responses of chromatographic analysis were resolution of mycotoxin peaks and HPLC run time. A central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM) was then carried out for optimization of the most significant factors by multiple regression models for response variables. The proposed optimal method using 40°C oven temperature, 1 ml/min flow rate, 0.1% acetic acid concentration in aqueous phase, 41% organic phase (beginning), 60% organic phase (end), 1.92 ratio of methanol to acetonitrile (beginning) and 0.2 ratio (end) for X1-X7, respectively, showed good prediction ability between the experimental data and predictive values throughout the studied parameter space. Finally, the optimized method was validated by measuring the linearity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision parameters, and has been applied successfully to the analysis of spiked cereal samples.
  6. Lioe HN, Selamat J, Yasuda M
    J Food Sci, 2010 Apr;75(3):R71-6.
    PMID: 20492309 DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01529.x
    Soy sauce taste has become a focus of umami taste research. Umami taste is a 5th basic taste, which is associated to a palatable and pleasurable taste of food. Soy sauce has been used as an umami seasoning since the ancient time in Asia. The complex fermentation process occurred to soy beans, as the raw material in the soy sauce production, gives a distinct delicious taste. The recent investigation on Japanese and Indonesian soy sauces revealed that this taste is primarily due to umami components which have molecular weights lower than 500 Da. Free amino acids are the low molecular compounds that have an important role to the taste, in the presence of sodium salt. The intense umami taste found in the soy sauces may also be a result from the interaction between umami components and other tastants. Small peptides are also present, but have very low, almost undetected umami taste intensities investigated in their fractions.
  7. Ali A, Selamat J, Man YB, Suria AM
    Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2001 May;52(3):251-61.
    PMID: 11400474
    The characterization and fat migration of palm kernel stearin (PKS) and desiccated coconut, used as base filling centre in dark chocolate were studied. C36 and C38 triglycerides of PKS decreased by 11% and 9.6% respectively, whereas C32 and C34 increased by 97% and 48% respectively. The change in the triglycerides composition of PKS shift the melting point of PKS from 33.2 to 31.4 degrees C. Solid fat content (SFC) of PK reduced by 40% at 30 degrees C. The rate of fat migration was very slow at 18 degrees C storage compared to 30 degrees C. The rate of change of C36 in the chocolate layer was 0.1% week-1 and 1.2% week-1 at 18 and 30 degrees C respectively. Chocolate stored at 18 degrees C showed post hardening during storage period and withstood bloom during the storage period, whereas that stored at 30 degrees C became soft and bloomed faster after 3 weeks of storage.
  8. Onsa GH, bin Saari N, Selamat J, Bakar J
    J Agric Food Chem, 2000 Oct;48(10):5041-5.
    PMID: 11052775
    Latent polyphenol oxidase (LPPO), an enzyme responsible for the browning reaction of sago starches during processing and storage, was investigated. The enzyme was effectively extracted and partially purified from the pith using combinations of nonionic detergents. With Triton X-114 and a temperature-induced phase partitioning method, the enzyme showed a recovery of 70% and purification of 4. 1-fold. Native PAGE analysis of the partially purified LPPO revealed three activity bands when stained with catechol and two bands with pyrogallol. The molecular masses of the enzymes were estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 37, 45, and 53 kDa. The enzyme showed optimum pH values of 4.5 with 4-methylcatechol as a substrate and 7.5 with pyrogallol. The LPPO was highly reactive toward diphenols and triphenols. The activity of the enzyme was greatly enhanced in the presence of trypsin, SDS, ethanol, and linoleic acid.
  9. Rasti B, Erfanian A, Selamat J
    Food Chem, 2017 Sep 01;230:690-696.
    PMID: 28407968 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.03.089
    The aim of the present research was to evaluate the application, stability and suitability of ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) incorporated nanoliposomes in food enrichment. Nanoliposomal ω3 PUFAs was prepared by Mozafari method, and their application in bread and milk was compared with unencapsulated (fish oil) and microencapsulated ω3 PUFAs. Sensory evaluation was conducted to determine the perceptible sensory difference/similarity between control, unencapsulated, microencapsulated, and nanoliposomal ω3 PUFAs enriched foods. Results showed no significant (p=0.11) detectable difference between control and nanoliposomal ω3 PUFAs enriched samples while, samples enriched with unencapsulated or microencapsulated ω3 PUFAs showed significant (p=0.02) fishy flavor. Moreover, significantly (p<0.01) higher ω3 PUFAs % recovery and lower peroxide and anisidine values were observed in nanoliposomal ω3 PUFAs enriched samples in comparison with other samples. In conclusion, an effective and reproducible method for application of ω3 PUFAs in the food system was developed.
  10. Azri FA, Selamat J, Sukor R
    Sensors (Basel), 2017 Nov 30;17(12).
    PMID: 29189760 DOI: 10.3390/s17122776
    Palm kernel cake (PKC) is the solid residue following oil extraction of palm kernels and useful to fatten animals either as a single feed with only minerals and vitamins supplementation, or mixed with other feedstuffs such as corn kernels or soy beans. The occurrence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins, ochratoxins, zearalenone, and fumonisins) in feed samples affects the animal's health and also serves as a secondary contamination to humans via consumption of eggs, milk and meats. Of these, aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) is the most toxically potent and a confirmed carcinogen to both humans and animals. Methods such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are common in the determination of mycotoxins. However, these methods usually require sample pre-treatment, extensive cleanup and skilled operator. Therefore, in the present work, a rapid method of electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of AFB₁ was developed based on an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and chitosan (CS) were used as the electrode modifier for signal enhancement.N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) andN-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) activated the carboxyl groups at the surface of nanocomposite for the attachment of AFB₁-BSA antigen by covalent bonding. An indirect competitive reaction occurred between AFB₁-BSA and free AFB₁ for the binding site of a fixed amount of anti-AFB₁ antibody. A catalytic signal based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) mediator was observed as a result of attachment of the secondary antibody to the immunoassay system. As a result, the reduction peak of TMB(Ox)was measured by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) analysis. Based on the results, the electrochemical surface area was increased from 0.396 cm² to 1.298 cm² due to the electrode modification with MWCNT/CS. At the optimal conditions, the working range of the electrochemical immunosensor was from 0.0001 to 10 ng/mL with limit of detection of 0.1 pg/mL. Good recoveries were obtained for the detection of spiked feed samples (PKC, corn kernels, soy beans). The developed method could be used for the screening of AFB₁ in real samples.
  11. Ahmad Kamal NH, Selamat J, Sanny M
    PMID: 29334335 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2018.1425553
    This study investigated the simultaneous formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) in gas-grilled beef satay at different temperatures (150, 200, 250, 300, and 350°C). Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was used for sample clean-up. Fifteen PAHs were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) and nine HCAs were quantified using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with a gradient programme. The lowest significantly concentrations of PAHs and HCAs were generated at 150°C; the formation of PAHs and HCAs simultaneously increased with temperatures. Benzo[a]pyrene was detected in all samples and increased markedly at 300 and 350°C. The sums of 4 PAHs (PAH4) in marinated beef satay at 300 and 350°C exceeded the maximum level in Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/1125. Significant reductions of polar and non-polar HCAs (except PhIP) were found in marinated beef satay across all temperatures. Overall, PAHs and HCAs showed opposite trends of formation in beef satay with marination.
  12. Agus BAP, Hussain N, Selamat J
    Food Chem, 2020 Jan 15;303:125398.
    PMID: 31470272 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125398
    Roasting is an important process in cocoa production which may lead to formation of non-desirable compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Therefore, PAH4 (sum of four different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) in roasted cocoa beans was determined using a modified method (combination of QuEChERS and DLLME), and quantified by HPLC-FLD. The modified method was validated and met the performance criteria required by the EU Regulation (No. 836/2011). Results show a significant (p 
  13. Fathordoobady F, Mirhosseini H, Selamat J, Manap MY
    Food Chem, 2016 Jul 1;202:70-80.
    PMID: 26920267 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.01.121
    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of solvent type and ratio as well as the extraction techniques (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction) on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel and fresh extract from the red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The peel and flesh extracts obtained by SFE at 25MPa pressure and 10% EtOH/water (v/v) mixture as a co-solvent contained 24.58 and 91.27mg/100ml total betacyanin, respectively; while the most desirable solvent extraction process resulted in a relatively higher total betacyanin in the peel and flesh extracts (28.44 and 120.28mg/100ml, respectively). The major betacyanins identified in the pitaya peel and flesh extracts were betanin, isobetanin, phyllocactin, butyrylbetanin, isophyllocactin and iso-butyrylbetanin. The flesh extract had the stronger antioxidant activity than the peel extract when the higher proportion of ethanol to water (E/W) was applied for the extraction.
  14. Hamidi EN, Hajeb P, Selamat J, Abdull Razis AF
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2016;17(1):15-23.
    PMID: 26838201
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are primarily formed as a result of thermal treatment of food, especially barbecuing or grilling. Contamination by PAHs is due to generation by direct pyrolysis of food nutrients and deposition from smoke produced through incomplete combustion of thermal agents. PAHs are ubiquitous compounds, well-known to be carcinogenic, which can reach the food in different ways. As an important human exposure pathway of contaminants, dietary intake of PAHs is of increasing concern for assessing cancer risk in the human body. In addition, the risks associated with consumption of barbecued meat may increase if consumers use cooking practices that enhance the concentrations of contaminants and their bioaccessibility. Since total PAHs always overestimate the actual amount that is available for absorption by the body, bioaccessibility of PAHs is to be preferred. Bioaccessibility of PAHs in food is the fraction of PAHs mobilized from food matrices during gastrointestinal digestion. An in vitro human digestion model was chosen for assessing the bioaccessibility of PAHs in food as it offers a simple, rapid, low cost alternative to human and animal studies; providing insights which may not be achievable in in vivo studies. Thus, this review aimed not only to provide an overview of general aspects of PAHs such as the formation, carcinogenicity, sources, occurrence, and factors affecting PAH concentrations, but also to enhance understanding of bioaccessibility assessment using an in vitro digestion model.
  15. Abbasi Pirouz A, Abedi Karjiban R, Abu Bakar F, Selamat J
    Toxins (Basel), 2018 09 06;10(9).
    PMID: 30200553 DOI: 10.3390/toxins10090361
    A novel magnetic graphene oxide modified with chitosan (MGO-CTS) was synthesised as an adsorbent aimed to examine the simultaneous removal of mycotoxins. The composite was characterised by various procedures, namely Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The adsorption evaluation was considered via pH effects, initial mycotoxin concentration, adsorption time and temperature. Adsorption isotherm data and kinetics experiments were acquired at the optimum pH 5 fit Freundlich isotherm as well as pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The thermodynamic results indicated that the adsorption of the mycotoxins was spontaneous, endothermic and favourable.
  16. Majeed S, Iqbal M, Asi MR, Iqbal SZ, Selamat J
    J Food Prot, 2017 Dec;80(12):1993-1998.
    PMID: 29131682 DOI: 10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-17-117
    Recently, cultivation of high-yielding hybrid maize varieties has revolutionized maize production in Pakistan. Analyses of nutritional traits and aflatoxin (AF) contamination in these varieties can aid in the identification of susceptible and resistant varieties, particularly for cultivation in the Pakistani agro-climatic environment. Five spring maize varieties-Pioneer, Neelam, DK-919, Desi, and Hi-maize-were selected for analyses of their nutritional, tocopherol, and AF contents. Protein, carbohydrate, oil, ash, fiber, and moisture contents ranged between 8.7 and 10.8%, 68 and 71%, 3.72 and 5.56%, 1.09 and 1.81%, 1.1 and 3.1%, and 11.7 and 14.2%, respectively. Tocopherol levels in selected varieties were in the range of 461 to 1,430 μg/g. Hi-maize exhibited significantly higher protein and tocopherol contents than the other varieties, indicating its better suitability for feed and silage applications. The highest mean level of total AFs, 14.5 ± 0.12 μg/kg, was found in Desi, and results showed that the most dominant AF found in the maize varieties was AFB1. Furthermore, the results showed that the higher the level of tocopherol, the lower the concentration of total AFs and vice versa in maize varieties. The results can be used to investigate additional susceptible maize varieties that are resistant to fungal attack.
  17. Khan MJ, Kumari S, Shameli K, Selamat J, Sazili AQ
    Materials (Basel), 2019 Jul 26;12(15).
    PMID: 31357398 DOI: 10.3390/ma12152382
    Nanoparticles (NPs) are, frequently, being utilized in multi-dimensional enterprises. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted researchers in the last decade due to their exceptional efficacy at very low volume and stability at higher temperatures. Due to certain limitations of the chemical method of synthesis, AgNPs can be obtained by physical methods including sun rays, microwaves and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In the current study, the synthesis of pullulan mediated silver nanoparticles (P-AgNPs) was achieved through ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, with a wavelength of 365 nm, for 96 h. P-AgNPs were formed after 24 h of UV-irradiation time and expressed spectra maxima as 415 nm, after 96 h, in UV-vis spectroscopy. The crystallographic structure was "face centered cubic (fcc)" as confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). Furthermore, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) proved that P-AgNPs were covered with a thin layer of pullulan, with a mean crystalline size of 6.02 ± 2.37. The average lattice fringe spacing of nanoparticles was confirmed as 0.235 nm with quasi-spherical characteristics, by selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis. These green synthesized P-AgNPs can be utilized efficiently, as an active food and meat preservative, when incorporated into the edible films.
  18. Khan MJ, Shameli K, Sazili AQ, Selamat J, Kumari S
    Molecules, 2019 Feb 16;24(4).
    PMID: 30781541 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24040719
    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles is desirable practice. It is not only the required technique for industrial and biomedical purposes but also a promising research area. The aim of this study was to synthesize green curcumin silver nanoparticles (C-Ag NPs). The synthesis of C-Ag NPs was achieved by reduction of the silver nitrate (AgNO₃) in an alkaline medium. The characterizations of the prepared samples were conducted by ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and zeta potential (ZP) analyses. The formation of C-Ag NPs was evaluated by the dark color of the colloidal solutions and UV-vis spectra, with 445 nm as the maximum. The size of the crystalline nanoparticles, recorded as 12.6 ± 3.8nm, was confirmed by HRTEM, while the face-centered cubic (fcc) crystallographic structure was confirmed by PXRD and SAED. It is assumed that green synthesized curcumin silver nanoparticles (C-Ag NPs) can be efficiently utilized as a strong antimicrobial substance for food and meat preservation due to their homogeneous nature and small size.
  19. Nematbakhsh S, Selamat J, Idris LH, Abdull Razis AF
    Foods, 2021 Jul 07;10(7).
    PMID: 34359445 DOI: 10.3390/foods10071575
    Nowadays, the high demand for village chickens in Malaysia leads to the fraudulent substitution of indigenous chickens with other cheaper counterparts. Discriminating different chicken breeds based on their phenotypic characteristics is one strategy to avoid chicken adulteration. The main objective of this study was to authenticate and group dominant chicken breeds in Malaysia, including commercial chickens (Cobb, Hubbard, DeKalb) and cross-bred village chickens (Ayam Kampung, Akar Putra). The further discrimination of village chickens from underaged colored broilers (UCBs) (Hubbard, Sasso) was performed based on phenotype traits. The results showed that the breed had a significant effect (p < 0.05) on phenotypic characteristics, while the sex effect was not significant for some characteristics. In the first phase, the most remarkable discriminating factors were abdominal fat weight, breast muscle weight, chest circumference, shank length, and wingspan. However, in the second phase, notable variations in phenotypic characteristics between village chickens and UCBs were not detected. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed the successful separation of village chickens from high-performance breeds (broiler and colored broiler). Nevertheless, there was overlap among observations for Sasso and village chickens, which approved the possible similarities in their phenotypic characteristics. This study showed clear breed clustering, which leads to the chicken authentication based on their phenotypic characteristics.
  20. Salim SA, Sukor R, Ismail MN, Selamat J
    Toxins (Basel), 2021 04 15;13(4).
    PMID: 33920815 DOI: 10.3390/toxins13040280
    Rice bran, a by-product of the rice milling process, has emerged as a functional food and being used in formulation of healthy food and drinks. However, rice bran is often contaminated with numerous mycotoxins. In this study, a method to simultaneous detection of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FB1 and FB2), sterigmatocystin (STG), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) and zearalenone (ZEA) in rice bran was developed, optimized and validated using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In DLLME, using a solvent mixture of methanol/water (80:20, v/v) as the dispersive solvent and chloroform as the extraction solvent with the addition of 5% salt improved the extraction recoveries (63-120%). The developed method was further optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM) combined with Box-Behnken Design (BBD). Under the optimized experimental conditions, good linearity was obtained with a correlation coefficient (r2) ≥ 0.990 and a limit of detection (LOD) between 0.5 to 50 ng g-1. The recoveries ranged from 70.2% to 99.4% with an RSD below 1.28%. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze multi-mycotoxin in 24 rice bran samples.
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