OBJECTIVE: To study the antiamoebic effects of four novel synthetic dihydropyridine (DHP) compounds against Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. Furthermore, to evaluate their activity against amoeba-mediated host cells cytopathogenicity as well as their cytotoxicity against human cells.
METHODS: Dihydropyridines were synthesized by cyclic dimerization of alkylidene malononitrile derivatives. Four analogues of functionally diverse DHPs were tested against Acanthamoeba castellanii by using amoebicidal, encystation and excystation assays. Moreover, Lactate dehydrogenase assays were carried out to study cytopathogenicity and cytotoxicity against human cells.
RESULTS: These compounds showed significant amoebicidal and cysticidal effects at 50 μM concentration, whereas, two of the DHP derivatives also significantly reduced Acanthamoebamediated host cell cytotoxicity. Moreover, these DHPs were found to have low cytotoxicity against human cells suggesting a good safety profile.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that DHPs have potential against Acanthamoeba especially against the more resistant cyst stage and can be assessed further for drug development.
Methods: Several compounds were synthesized and their molecular identity was confirmed using nuclear magnetic resonance. Potential anticancer properties were determined using cytopathogenicity assays and growth inhibition assays using cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Cells were incubated with different concentrations of compounds belonging to Benzodioxane, Naphthalene diimide, Aminophenol derivatives and Porphyrins and effects were determined. HeLa cells cytopathogenicity was determined by measuring lactate dehydrogenase release using cytotoxicity detection assay. Growth inhibition assays were performed by incubating 50% semi-confluent HeLa cells with Benzodioxane, Naphthalene diimide, Aminophenol derivatives and Porphyrin compounds and HeLa cell proliferation was observed. Growth inhibition and host cell death were compared in the presence and absence of drugs.
Results: Cytopathogenicity assays showed that the selected compounds were cytotoxic against HeLa cells, killing up to 90% of cells. Growth inhibition assays exhibited 100% growth inhibition. These effects are likely via oxidative stress, production of reactive oxygen species, changes in cytosolic and intracellular calcium/adenine nucleotide homeostasis, inhibition of ribonucleotide reductase/cyclooxygenase and/or glutathione depletion.
Conclusions: Benzodioxane, Naphthalene diimide, Aminophenol derivatives and Porphyrins exhibited potent anticancer properties. These findings are promising and should pave the way in the rationale development of anticancer drugs. Using different cancer cell lines, future studies will determine their potential as anti-tumour agents as well as their precise molecular mode of action.
RESULTS: A new dimethyl aminopyridine based stabilizing agent named as DMAP-PTA was synthesized and used for stabilization of gold nanoparticles. Gold nanoparticles coated with DMAP-PTA abbreviated as DMAP-PTA-AuNPs were thoroughly characterized by UV-visible, FT-IR spectroscopic methods and transmission electron microscope before biological assay. DMAP-PTA, DMAP-PTA-AuNPs and Pefloxacin were examined for their antibacterial potential against E. coli, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined to be 300, 200 and 50 µg/mL respectively. Gold nanoparticles conjugation was found to significantly enhance the antibacterial activity of DMAP-PTA as compared to pure compound. Moreover, effects of DMAP-PTA-AuNPs on the antibacterial potential of Pefloxacin was also evaluated by combination therapy of 1:1 mixture of DMAP-PTA-AuNPs and Pefloxacin against E. coli in a wide range of concentrations from 5 to 300 µg/mL. The MIC of Pefloxacin + DMAP-PTA-AuNPs mixture was found to be 25 µg/mL as compared to Pefloxacin alone (50 µg/mL), which clearly indicates that DMAP-PTA-AuNPs increased the potency of Pefloxacin. AFM analysis was also carried out to show morphological changes occur in bacteria before and after treatment of test samples. Furthermore, DMAP-PTA-AuNPs showed high selectivity towards Pefloxacin in spectrophotometric drug recognition studies which offers tremendous potential for analytical applications.
CONCLUSIONS: Gold nanoparticles conjugation was shown to enhance the antibacterial efficacy of DMAP-PTA ligand, while DMAP-PTA-AuNPs also induced synergistic effects on the potency of Pefloxacin against E. coli. DMAP-PTA-AuNPs were also developed as Pefloxacin probes in recognizing the drug in blood and water samples in the presence of other drugs.