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  1. Harith Alaa, Shamsul Azhar Shah
    MyJurnal
    Chronic non-communicable diseases are the new emerging epidemic, and they are thought to challenge only rich countries; cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are now the leading cause of death and disability in low-income and middle-income countries, where they killed almost 8 million people younger than 60 years in 2013. Therefore, there is a need to develop a valid and reliable tool to measure the beliefs that influence people’s general behaviour, and a used to measure beliefs about chronic disease perceived susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the use of perception questionnaire among the young Iraqi adults. A total of 200 young adults participated who are free from any chronic diseases under study, and are living in Baghdad. The questionnaire, validated by an expert’s panel, translated to Arabic language, and pretested. Analyses included descriptive statistics of all the study variables, reliability estimates, and construct validity using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results showed that mean age of respondents was 30 years old, majority were males 71.5%, and EFA showed that factor loading was more than 0.4. CFA results show that Chi-square (df) = 1.213(2); p value (>0.05) = 0.297. Internal consistency reliability analysis on health-related behaviour; special practice, information seeking and perceived probability of diseases have good Cronbach’s α value of between 0.8 - 0.9. These findings revealed that validation is favourable and can be utilized on larger scale of sample to proceed with main study on chronic disease perceived susceptibility among healthy people.
  2. Abdul Hamid Abdul Rahman, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Normala Ibrahim
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2009;10(2):157-168.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: The study aims to determine pattern of verbal memory and learning impairment and its associated factors among patients with bipolar I disorder in a psychiatric clinic of a university hospital. Methods: A case control study comparing verbal memory test
    performance in 40 patients with bipolar I disorder to that of 40 healthy normal subjects using Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The association between demographic, clinical
    characteristics and poor verbal memory performance were examined. Results: Up to 92% of patients with bipolar I disorder have impaired short term working memory in this hospital-based study. They also recalled fewer words in all the RAVLT trials and had difficulties
    learning the word list in comparison to that of normal healthy individuals. Verbal memory and learning impairment are observed in bipolar illness in the absence of active mood symptoms while duration and severity of illness are not found to have any effect on verbal memory and learning. Conclusion: There is consistent verbal memory and learning problems in individuals with bipolar I disorder and their presence in the absence of mania, depression and mixed symptoms during the course of the illness suggests a trait related deficit.
  3. Noorsuzana Mohd Shariff, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Fadzilah Kamaludin
    MyJurnal
    There is a large volume of published studies describing the adverse relationship between treatment non-adherence
    with tuberculosis treatment outcome. Non-adherence could result in increased risks of prolonged infectiousness, drug
    resistance, relapse cases and poor survival among tuberculosis patients. Nevertheless, few studies are to be found providing
    detailed on the reason of defaulting treatment among tuberculosis patients in Malaysia. Hence the goal of this paper is
    to find out the barriers and motivations factors that affect patients’ treatment compliance among our local tuberculosis
    patients. This is a qualitative study which included 12 in-depth interviews with tuberculosis non-compliance patients
    who were treated at Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Kuala Lumpur. All the conversations were recorded, transcribed
    and analysed by using thematic analysis. It was found that low knowledge, self-negative attitudes, traditional believes,
    negative perceptions towards health caregiver, drug side effects, stigma, financial problems, less family support and
    work commitments are the barriers that prevent the patients from religiously taking their anti-tuberculosis treatment.
    Meanwhile, factors that encourage them to continue their treatment were the believes of bad effects of the disease onto
    their lives and health, good relationship between patient and health caregiver and social support from people around
    them. In conclusion, non-adherence involved a dynamic influence of individual, socio-economic and treatment-related
    factors on the patients. The results presented here may facilitate improvement in the activities in promoting compliance
    among tuberculosis patients in the future which tailored to the patients’ specific needs.
  4. Muhammad Haikal Ghazali, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Mohd Rizal Abd Manaf
    MyJurnal
    As air travelling now becomes cheaper and available to almost all people of any walk of life, travelling across international borders is fast becoming a lifestyle of many. Having travel health service as part of health care services is important to address the issues of travel related illnesses among travellers. However, lacks of published guidelines pertaining to travel health service rendering many countries to overlook its importance. The aim of this paper is to review published literatures and authoritative websites on the components needed to develop guideline to establish travel health services. A systematic literature search was done using pre-specified keywords for literatures published between years 2000 – 2016. Literatures written in English and fully accessible were all included. No exclusion criteria was set before the search. Online authoritative websites pertaining to travel health were also referred. A total of six literatures ranging from expert opinion, review paper and original study, together with three authoritative websites related to travel health were reviewed. Among the important components needed to be considered for developing the guideline for establishing travel health services are to prioritise pre-travel health service, to set up specialised travel health clinic, to produce travel health/medicine specialist, to emphasize on continuous education and training of the practitioners and to apply multiagency and multidisciplinary approach with adequate fund for research in travel health. As a conclusion, policy makers should prioritise and select the most important components in developing guideline for travel health service.
  5. Norazman Mohd Rosli, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Mohd Ihsani Mahmood
    MyJurnal
    Tuberculosis (TB) is known as a disease that prone to spatial clustering. Recent development has seen a sharp rise in the number of epidemiologic studies employing Geographical Information System (GIS), particularly in identifying TB clusters and evidences of etiologic factors. The aim of this systematic review is to determine evidence of TB clustering, type of spatial analysis commonly used and the application of GIS in TB surveillance and control. A literature search of articles published in English language between 2000 and November 2015 was performed using MEDLINE and Science Direct using relevant search terms related to spatial analysis in studies of TB cluster. The search strategy was adapted and developed for each database using appropriate subject headings and keywords. The literature reviewed showed strong evidence of TB clustering occurred in high risk areas in both developed and developing countries. Spatial scan statistics were the most commonly used analysis and proved useful in TB surveillance through detection of outbreak, early warning and identifying area of increased TB transmission. Among others are targeted screening and assessment of TB program using GIS technology. However there were limitations on suitability of utilizing aggregated data such as national cencus that were pre-collected in explaining the present spatial distribution among population at risk. Spatial boundaries determined by zip code may be too large for metropolitan area or too small for country. Nevertheless, GIS is a powerful tool in aiding TB control and prevention in developing countries and should be used for real-time surveillance and decision making.
  6. Shamsul Azhar Shah, Lee, Jing, Muhammad Syahmi Khalid, Fatimah Najid, Intan Sabrina Haniff, Azmee Mohd Ghazi
    MyJurnal
    Limited studies on prevalence and risk factors of Premature Coronary Artery Disease (PCAD) were done in Malaysia, primarily on lipid profile. This cross sectional study aims to identify any changing patterns in prevalence and risk factors of Premature CAD between 2000 and 2012. From 2000 to 2012 we included 21862 patients who underwent the first Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). Analysis of risk factors was done to 1660 and 2098 patients from year 2007 and 2012 respectively. Age of less than 45 years was taken as PCAD. Data was collected from PCI database of National Heart Institute (NHI), NHI TrakCare System, and patients’ medical records. PCAD significantly decreased from 18.8% (2000) to 11.6% (2012). Malay ethnicity showed increasing trend over the years from 55.1% to 66.9%. Multiple logistic regression analysis in 2007 showed that smoking had the higher risk (AOR=2.52), followed by male gender (AOR=2.06), family history of PCAD (AOR=1.96), Indian ethnicity, (AOR=1.65), triglycerides level (AOR=1.20) and BMI (AOR=1.06). In 2012, family history of PCAD had the highest risk (AOR=2.00) followed by smoking (AOR=1.91) and BMI (AOR=1.11). There are changes in risk factors patterns of premature CAD between 2007 and 2012. Most of them are preventable at earlier stage.
  7. Shamsul Azhar Shah, Md. Idris Mohd. Nor, Abdul Hadi Harman Shah, Tahir Aris
    MyJurnal
    Tuberkulosis merupakan penyakit yang masih meigadi masalah kesihatan di seluruh dunia amnya dan di Malaysia khasnya. Kajian telah dilakukan ali Cheras, Kuala Lumpur menggunakan aplikasi GIS untuk mengenalpasti taburan geografi dan tren tuberkulosis daripada tahun 1996 sehingga tahun 2000. Kajian ini juga dilakukan untuk melihat kebolehan GIS sebagai alat surveilan penyakit beyangkit. Hasil kajian dengan menggunakan aplikasi GIS mendapati tren peningkatan tuberkulosis di kawasan·kawasan yang tertentu di Cheras. Penumpuan kes-kes tuberkulosis dapat dilihat di kawasan taburan penduduk yang kepadatan tinggi dan sederhana tinggi terutama di kawasan Kampung Pandan, kawasan penempatan Jalan Cheras dan Bandar Tun Razak. Kes—kes tersebut juga kebanyakannya adalah dalam lingkungan 100 meter ke 200 meter di antara satu sama lain. Kesimpulannya secara am, aplikasi GIS memberikan dimensi baru dalam kawalan penyakit dan ia pasti dapat digunakan dalam membantu aktiviti surveilan penyakit tuberkulosis.
  8. Nik Ruzyanei Nik Jaafar, Tuti Iryani Mohd, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Rozhan Shariff Mohamed Radzi, Hatta Sidi
    ASEAN Journal of Psychiatry, 2008;9(2):85-92.
    MyJurnal
    Objectives: To determine the association of students’ perception of schooling with externalizing/internalizing scores; and to examine the different perceptions related to truancy. Methods:A total of 373 predominantly 16 year-old students attending three high risk schools in Pudu, Kuala Lumpur completed the questionnaires on schooling variables (four items) and externalizing/internalizing syndromes (Youth Self-Report, 112 items). Results: Certain negative perceptions (uncertainty of the schooling purpose, thinking schooling as time wasting) were significantly associated with higher internalizing (p
  9. Rozita Hod, Azimatun Noor Aizuddin, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Nazarudin Safian, Mohd Hasni Jaafar
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(1):1-6.
    MyJurnal
    Accepted 21 July 2011.
    Introduction The extensive and intensive use of pesticides in agricultural practices has exposed farmers to various hazards resulting in varying degrees of health
    outcomes.
    Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among paddy farmers in Sabak Bernam district, Malaysia. The objective of this study was to gather baseline information on chlorpyrifos blood level and its relationship with pesticides exposure symptoms.
    Results We detected chlorpyrifos in farmers’ blood in 7 percent of the respondents, with mean 7.29 nanogram per millilitre blood (sd 5.84 nanogram per millilitre). The percentage of farmers who experienced at least one pesticide exposure symptoms was 75 percent. However, we found no significant association between chlorpyrifos blood level and its exposure symptoms. The farmers had low scores on safe practice of pesticide use even though they have high marks on knowledge and attitude. We found no significant association between the scores on knowledge, attitude and practice on pesticide use and the chlorpyrifos blood level.
    Conclusions The presence of pesticide exposure symptoms proved that most of the farmers were exposed to hazardous effects of pesticides. Specific trainings on safe use and handling of pesticides should be given on regular basis to these farmers to ensure they are protected from hazardous effects of pesticides exposure.
  10. Zahir Izuan Azhar, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Tan, Susan, M.K., Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahim
    Int J Public Health Res, 2016;6(1):713-718.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction The risk factors associated with mental health among adolescents are usually
    described by researchers at an individual level. Neighbourhood factors and
    health have opened a new insight into the field of epidemiology. The aim of
    this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a newly developed
    Neighbourhood Factors on Mental Health Questionnaire among Malaysian
    adolescents.

    Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools in Kuala
    Lumpur, Malaysia using a newly developed questionnaire which comprised
    of two main domains and seven items. Exploratory factor analysis and
    Cronbach‟s alpha were used to measure the instrument‟s construct validity
    and reliability.

    Results A total of 106 adolescents participated in this research. The majority of
    adolescents were 13 years old (40.6%), female (55.7%), Malays (68.9%),
    have parents who only studied until secondary school (66.0%) and lived in
    flats (32.1%). Bartlett‟s Test of Sphericity was significant (Chi-square =
    258.361, p
  11. Mohammed A. Abdal Qader, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Zaleha Md Isa, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi, Idayu Badilla, Tiba Nezar Hasan
    MyJurnal
    Great importance has been attributed to birth weight all over the world because it is considered as one of the best predictors of prenatal survival and a good indicator of quality life. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of low birth weight babies (LBW) and factors related to it in Baghdad city. A cross sectional study was carried out in four general hospitals in Baghdad city, Iraq. A total of 225 newborn babies, alive, singleton and without congenital malformation were selected randomly from these four general hospitals.The result of the study showed the prevalence rate of low birth weights was 21.3%. Mothers’ educational level, monthly family income, mothers with chronic hypertension, mothers with history of previous low birth weight infants and anemic mothers were significantly associated with low birth weight babies (P= 0.03, 0.01, 0.02,
  12. Shamsul Azhar Shah, Azura Abdullah, Azimatun Noor Aizuddin, Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Nazarudin Safian, Rozita Hod, et al.
    MyJurnal
    Objective: Truancy is a disciplinary problem, which frequently occurs among school students and it has many contributory as well as inter-related factors. It is a growing problem in this country and it often becomes a prelude to other delinquent behaviours. The study objective is to determine the prevalence of truancy as well as factors related to it including psycho-behavioural factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 556 Malay student’s selected using multi-stage sampling was conducted. Results: The overall prevalence of truancy is 30.2%. The predictors to truancy are age, students who frequenting entertainment centre, students who have not completed Quran recital, coping strategies using problems solving methods and time spent watching television/video. There is a significant association between truancy and psycho-behaviour such as watching video/internet pornography,
    frequenting entertainment centre, smoking, motorcycle racing and dating a special friend. Conclusion: Truancy is a social issue, which must be given serious attention by all concerned components of the society.
  13. Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Norin Rahayu Samsuddin, Sharifah Noor Akmal Syed Hussain, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Syed Mohamed Aljunid
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(1):13-22.
    MyJurnal
    Accepted 10 August 2011.
    Introduction Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most prevalent female cancer in Malaysia. Almost 70% of its’ causal factors are attributable to oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16, 18 and other risk factors. HPV genotypes distributions are also noted to differ by geographical area.
    Methods This was cross sectional study conducted in 2007, to determine the influencing factors of HPV positivity and prevalence of HPV infections among patients with cervical cancer in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). Patients’ paraffin-embedded cervical tissues kept in the Pathology Department from 1999 to 2007 were randomly selected. A total of 81 medical records with complete information were chosen as samples and patients were contacted for consent. Tissue samples were further derived for PCR DNA for HPV genotyping. Analyses included descriptive statistics; bivariate χ2 test and correlation were used to determine relationship between factors and HPV positivity. Significance level of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant.
    Results Mean age of cancer diagnosis was at 52 ± 12.2 years. Women of Chinese ethnicity was the highest ethnicity to be HPV positive at 65.4% and squamous cell carcinoma was more commonly found (59.3%) compared with other types of cancers. The prevalence of HPV positivity was 92.6% with type 16 being the most common (74.1%), followed by type 33 (30.9%) and 18 (22.2%). Multiple HPV infections were a common finding at 54.3%. Factors thought to influence positivity i.e. age of intercourse, number of sexual partners, number of parity, smoking status of patients and their partners, oral contraceptive usage, presence of chronic illnesses and cancer stage were not significantly associated with HPV positivity. Increased CC severity level was not associated with increased number of HPV infections (Pearson correlation 0.58; p =0.607).
    Conclusions High HPV positivity at 92.6% was found among ICC patients. Factors thought to influence HPV positivity were not significant. The top three HPV genotypes were type 16 followed by type 33 and 18. However, local women HPV serotypes findings need to be replicated in a larger population sample.
  14. Mohd Rohaizat Hassan, Mohd Fadhli Samsuri1, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Nazarudin Safian, Zulkifli Md Zainuddin, Hasanain Faisal Ghazi
    MyJurnal
    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with of Premature Ejaculation &Erectile Dysfunctionamong Malaysian men.A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban and rural areas using standardized and validated self-administeredquestionnaires.A total of 319 samples were recruited for PE screening. The overall prevalence of PE was 31.7% with 20.7% and 40.8% for urban and rural arearespectively. Depression, anxiety and frequent masturbation were significantly associated with PE. While For ED, infrequent sexual intercourse was the sole factor significantly associated with ED.PE and ED were highly prevalent in both urban and rural areas; with several significant preventable associated factors.
  15. Chan LF, Shamsul AS, Maniam T
    Psychiatry Res, 2014 Dec 30;220(3):867-73.
    PMID: 25240940 DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2014.08.055
    Our study aimed to examine the interplay between clinical and social predictors of future suicide attempt and the transition from suicidal ideation to suicide attempt in depressive disorders. Sixty-six Malaysian inpatients with a depressive disorder were assessed at index admission and within 1 year for suicide attempt, suicidal ideation, depression severity, life event changes, treatment history and relevant clinical and socio-demographic factors. One-fifth of suicidal ideators transitioned to a future suicide attempt. All future attempters (12/66) had prior ideation and 83% of attempters had a prior attempt. The highest risk for transitioning from ideation to attempt was 5 months post-discharge. Single predictor models showed that previous psychiatric hospitalization and ideation severity were shared predictors of future attempt and ideation to attempt transition. Substance use disorders (especially alcohol) predicted future attempt and approached significance for the transition process. Low socio-economic status predicted the transition process while major personal injury/illness predicted future suicide attempt. Past suicide attempt, subjective depression severity and medication compliance predicted only future suicide attempt. The absence of prior suicide attempt did not eliminate the risk of future attempt. Given the limited sample, future larger studies on mechanisms underlying the interactions of such predictors are needed.
  16. Suzaily Wahab, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Soo, Tze Hui, Siti Juliana Hussin, Mohd Fekri Ahmat Nazri, Izzatul Izzanis Abd Hamid, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(1):531-537.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Anxiety and depression were known to bring detrimental outcome in patients
    with ischemic heart disease (IHD). Notwithstanding their high prevalence
    and catastrophic impact, anxiety and depression were unrecognized and
    untreated. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anxiety
    and depression among IHD patients and the association of this condition with
    clinical and selected demographic factors.

    Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 100 IHD patients admitted to medical
    ward in UKMMC. Patients diagnosed to have IHD were randomly assessed
    using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Perceived Social
    Support (PSS) Questionnaire. Socio-demographic data were obtained by
    direct interview. Fifteen percent of IHD patients in this sample were noted to
    have anxiety, fourteen percent noted to have depression while thirty two
    percent was noted to have both anxiety and depression. Patients’ age group
    and the duration of illness were found to have significant association with
    anxiety. Socio-demographic data were obtained by direct interview.

    Results Fifteen percent of IHD patients in this sample were noted to have anxiety,
    fourteen percent noted to have depression while thirty two percent was noted
    to have both anxiety and depression. Patients’ age group and the duration of
    illness were found to have significant association with anxiety. The other
    clinical and selected demographic factors such as gender, race, marital status,
    education level, occupation, co-existing medical illness and social support
    were not found to be significantly associated with anxiety or depression
    among the IHD patients.

    Conclusions In conclusion, proper assessment of anxiety and depression in IHD patients,
    with special attention to patients’ age and duration of illness should be
    carried out routinely to help avert detrimental consequences.
  17. Dalila AS, Mohd Said MS, Shaharir SS, Asrul AW, Low SF, Shamsul AS, et al.
    Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 2014 Jul;30(7):337-42.
    PMID: 24924839 DOI: 10.1016/j.kjms.2014.02.010
    The purpose of this study was to compare the serum interleukin (IL)-23 levels between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and healthy controls and to determine the correlation of IL-23 levels with disease activity, joint damage and functional disability in RA. Serum samples were obtained from 45 patients with RA and 45 healthy controls. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method was used for quantitative analysis of IL-23. All the RA patients were assessed for disease activity based on the 28-joint disease activity score, joint damage based on modified Sharp score, and functional ability using the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index. The mean serum IL-23 level was much higher among the RA patients (24.50 ± 13.98 pg/mL) compared to the controls (5.98 ± 3.40 pg/mL; p < 0.01). There was a significant positive relationship between IL-23 levels and disease activity and questionnaire scores (p = 0.003 and 0.020, respectively). On logistic regression analysis, IL-23 levels were significantly higher in patients with moderate to high disease activity (p = 0.008, odds ratio = 1.073, 95% confidence interval = 1.019-1.130) and patients with significant functional disability (p = 0.008, odds ratio = 1.085, 95% confidence interval = 1.021-1.153). RA patients have significantly higher levels of serum IL-23. The IL-23 levels correlate well with disease activity and functional disability but not with radiographic joint damage.
  18. Razlan H, Marzuki NM, Tai ML, Shamsul AS, Ong TZ, Mahadeva S
    Gastroenterol Res Pract, 2011;2011:235796.
    PMID: 21687605 DOI: 10.1155/2011/235796
    The accuracy of the (13)C-methacetin breath test ((13)C-MBT) in differentiating between various stages of liver disease is not clear. A cross-sectional study of Asian patients was conducted to examine the predictive value of the (13)C-MBT in various stages of chronic liver diseases. Diagnostic accuracy of the breath test was determined by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and area under the curve analysis. Seventy-seven patients (47 men/30 women, mean age 50 ± 16 years) were recruited. Forty-seven patients had liver cirrhosis (Child Pugh A = 11, Child Pugh B = 15, and Child Pugh C = 21), 21 had fibrosis, and 9 had chronic inflammation. The sensitivity and positive predictive value for liver fibrosis, cirrhosis (all stages), Child-Pugh A, Child-Pugh B, and Child-Pugh C were 65% and 56%, 89% and 89%, 67% and 42%, 40% and 40%, and 50% and 77%, respectively. Area under curve values for fibrosis was 0.62 (0.39-0.86), whilst that for cirrhosis (all stages) was 0.95 (0.91-0.99). The (13)C-methacetin breath test has a poor predictive value for liver fibrosis but accurately determines advanced cirrhosis.
  19. Abdul Muizz AM, Mohd Shahrir MS, Sazliyana S, Oteh M, Shamsul AS, Hussein H
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2011 Feb;14(1):18-30.
    PMID: 21303478 DOI: 10.1111/j.1756-185X.2010.01593.x
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients without clinically evident cardiovascular manifestations and to estimate whether there is any correlation between RA disease severity and disability and LV diastolic dysfunction.
  20. Zahir Izuan A, Shamsul Azhar S, Tan MKS, Syed-Sharizman SAR
    Asian J Psychiatr, 2018 Oct 28;38:35-41.
    PMID: 30408711 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2018.10.018
    BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are affecting more children and adolescents worldwide. Individual, family and school factors are often linked with mental health problems among adolescents.

    AIM: To determine the neighbourhood factors influencing the prevalence of abnormal mental health status among adolescents in an urban population.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents aged 13, 14 and 16 years old from thirteen secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur using validated questionnaires. A total of 567 adolescents participated in this study.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of abnormal mental health status in this study was 4.4%. In multivariable analysis, female (OR = 1.79, 95%CI: 1.11-2.89), having divorced parents (OR = 3.53, 95%CI: 1.96-6.36), high educational stress (OR = 8.18, 95%CI: 4.25-15.75), medium educational stress (OR = 2.99, 95%CI: 1.53-5.83), whose house has been broken in before (OR = 2.02, 95%CI: 1.11-3.68) and living in a neighbourhood with low socioeconomic status (OR = 2.09, 95%CI: 1.23-3.56) were more likely to have abnormal mental health status.

    CONCLUSIONS: Neighbourhood factors were found to be significant in determining adolescents' mental health status. The findings emphasize the importance of those in the public health sector to highlight these significant neighbourhood factors to the Ministry of Housing and Local Government. Swift action needs to be taken by the Ministry to provide solutions related to the neighbourhood factors and this can contribute to improvement in the adolescents' mental health.

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