Displaying all 13 publications

Abstract:
Sort:
  1. Sim BK, Mak JW, Kwa BH
    Z Parasitenkd, 1983;69(3):371-5.
    PMID: 6880344
    Quantitation of serum immunoglobulin M, G, A, D and E levels was carried out in Malaysians with Brugia malayi infections. Results showed highly elevated levels of IgM and IgE as well as moderately elevated levels of IgG. These were most significant in patients with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia or elephantiasis. Serum IgE levels were extremely high in microfilaraemic patients (6,060 +/- 3,958 IU ml) probably due to a constant antigenic stimulation by dead and dying microfilariae.
  2. Asma I, Sim BL, Brent RD, Johari S, Yvonne Lim AL
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Jun;32(2):310-22.
    PMID: 26691260 MyJurnal
    Cryptosporidiosis is a particular concern in immunocompromised individuals where symptoms may be severe. The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of Cryptosporidium infections in HIV/AIDS patients in Malaysia in order to identify risk factors and facilitate control measures. A modified Ziehl-Neelsen acid fast staining method was used to test for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the stools of 346 HIV/AIDS patients in Malaysia. Standard coproscopical methods were used to identify infections with other protozoan or helminths parasites. To identify the species of Cryptosporidium, DNA was extracted and nested-PCR was used to amplify a portion of the SSU rRNA gene. A total of 43 (12.4%) HIV-infected patients were found to be infected with Cryptosporidium spp. Of the 43 Cryptosporidium-positive HIV patients, 10 (23.3%) also harboured other protozoa, and 15 (34.9%) had both protozoa and helminths. The highest rates of cryptosporidiosis were found in adult males of Malay background, intravenous drug users, and those with low CD4 T cell counts (i.e., < 200 cells/mm3). Most were asymptomatic and had concurrent opportunistic infections mainly with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. DNA sequence analysis of 32 Cryptosporidium isolates identified C. parvum (84.3%), C. hominis (6.3%), C. meleagridis (6.3%), and C. felis (3.1%). The results of the present study revealed a high prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in hospitalized HIV/AIDS patients. The results also confirmed the potential significance of zoonotic transmission of C. parvum in HIV infected patients, as it was the predominant species found in this study. However, these patients were found to be susceptible to a wide range of Cryptosporidium species. Epidemiological and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates provides clinicians and researchers with further information regarding the origin of the infection, and may enhance treatment and control strategies.
  3. Nissapatorn V, Kuppusamy I, Sim BL, Fatt QK, Anuar AK
    Public Health, 2006 May;120(5):441-3.
    PMID: 16545406 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2005.11.005
  4. Lim YA, Rohela M, Sim BL, Jamaiah I, Nurbayah M
    PMID: 16438176
    A total of 66 fecal specimens obtained from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from Kajang Hospital were screened for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The fecal specimens were concentrated using the formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique, stained with modified Ziehl-Neelsen and confirmed with immunofluorescence stain. It was established that 2 (3.0%) were positive for Cryptosporidium. The two cases involved a Chinese local man (with diarrhea) and an Indonesian foreigner (without diarrhea). A higher index of suspicion for clinical cryptosporidiosis in HIV patients, including those with chronic weight loss with or without diarrhea, is recommended. In addition, laboratory testing for Cryptosporidium in HIV-infected patients is highly recommended in order to have a better understanding of the epidemiology and management of the disease in Malaysia.
  5. Nissapatorn V, Kuppusamy I, Sim BL, Quek KF, Khairul Anuar A
    PMID: 16295550
    This retrospective study was conducted at the National Tuberculosis Center (NTBC) where 252 HIV-positive patients coexisting with tuberculosis (TB/HIV) were examined. We found that patients with pulmonary (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPT) had similar mean age. A higher sex ratio between male to female (10.7:1) was observed in patients with PTB. The other characteristics of patients with pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis were not statistically different from each other. Cough (88%) and hemoptysis were the most common presenting symptoms, significantly related to patients with PTB. Lymphadenopathy (33.5%) was the most common sign in patients with EPT. The majority of patients with pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis had CD4 cell counts of less than 200 cells/mm3 (range 0-1,179 with a median of 57 cells/mm3). Lung (89%) and miliary (55.6%) forms were the most frequent disease locations in patients with PTB and EPT, respectively. A higher percentage of patients with PTB (42%) were treated successfully with short-course (6 months) therapy, whereas in patients with EPT (43%) needed a longer period (9 months) for successful treatment. Of the patients who defaulted treatment, a higher proportion (87%) had PTB. No MDR-TB or relapse cases were found in this study.
  6. Chew NK, Sim BF, Tan CT, Goh KJ, Ramli N, Umapathi P
    Neurology, 2001 Aug 14;57(3):529-31.
    PMID: 11502928
    In a hospital series of 70 patients on follow-up after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 14 patients (20%) developed delayed post-irradiation bulbar palsy 1 to 18 years after radiotherapy (mean 5.5 years). Functional disability was moderate to severe. Three patients had aspiration pneumonia with one mortality. Post-irradiation bulbar palsy was a common complication and probably resulted from direct neuronal damage.
  7. Fisher D, Michaels J, Hase R, Zhang J, Kataria S, Sim B, et al.
    J. Antimicrob. Chemother., 2017 04 01;72(4):1221-1226.
    PMID: 28077673 DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkw551
    Objectives: Healthcare facilities internationally have grown outpatient parenteral antibiotic administration services for the last few decades. The literature contains publications from dozens of countries describing systematized processes with specialist oversight and their levels of service provision and outcomes. Such descriptions are absent in the majority of Asian countries. We sought to elucidate the extent and nature of outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) in Asia and to consider the ramifications and opportunities for improvement.
    Methods: Utilizing colleagues and their personal networks, we surveyed healthcare facilities across 17 countries in Asia to ascertain the current means (if any) of providing OPAT. In that survey we also sought to explore the capacity and interest of these facilities in developing systematized OPAT services.
    Results: Responses were received from 171 different healthcare facilities from 17 countries. Most (97/171, 57%) stated that they administer outpatient parenteral antibiotics, but only 5 of 162 facilities (3%) outside of Singapore described comprehensive services with specialist oversight.
    Conclusions: There is very likely a large unrecognized problem of unchecked outpatient parenteral antibiotic administration in Asia. Developing comprehensive and systematized OPAT in Asia is needed as a priority in an environment in which the infectious diseases community is demanding broad stewardship approaches. There are nonetheless challenges in establishing and sustaining OPAT programmes. Local champions and leverage off identified local incentives and needs are key to regional advancement.
    Study site: unclear (convenient sample from contacts of investigators)
    Note: Questionnaire available here:
    https://academic.oup.com/jac/article/72/4/1221/2888431#supplementary-data
  8. Jiamsakul A, Lee MP, Nguyen KV, Merati TP, Cuong DD, Ditangco R, et al.
    Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis., 2018 02 01;22(2):179-186.
    PMID: 29506614 DOI: 10.5588/ijtld.17.0348
    SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related opportunistic infection and cause of acquired immune-deficiency syndrome related death. TB often affects those from a low socio-economic background.

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the socio-economic determinants of TB in HIV-infected patients in Asia.

    DESIGN: This was a matched case-control study. HIV-positive, TB-positive cases were matched to HIV-positive, TB-negative controls according to age, sex and CD4 cell count. A socio-economic questionnaire comprising 23 questions, including education level, employment, housing and substance use, was distributed. Socio-economic risk factors for TB were analysed using conditional logistic regression analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 340 patients (170 matched pairs) were recruited, with 262 (77.1%) matched for all three criteria. Pulmonary TB was the predominant type (n = 115, 67.6%). The main risk factor for TB was not having a university level education (OR 4.45, 95%CI 1.50-13.17, P = 0.007). Burning wood or coal regularly inside the house and living in the same place of origin were weakly associated with TB diagnosis.

    CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that lower socio-economic status is associated with an increased risk of TB in Asia. Integrating clinical and socio-economic factors into HIV treatment may help in the prevention of opportunistic infections and disease progression.

  9. Jiamsakul A, Yunihastuti E, Van Nguyen K, Merati TP, Do CD, Ditangco R, et al.
    HIV Med., 2018 Apr 23.
    PMID: 29683253 DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12621
  10. Haridan US, Mokhtar U, Machado LR, Abdul Aziz AT, Shueb RH, Zaid M, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(1):e0116791.
    PMID: 25594501 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0116791
    The FCGR3 locus encoding the low affinity activating receptor FcγRIII, plays a vital role in immunity triggered by cellular effector and regulatory functions. Copy number of the genes FCGR3A and FCGR3B has previously been reported to affect susceptibility to several autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammatory conditions. However, such genetic association studies often yield inconsistent results; hence require assays that are robust with low error rate. We investigated the accuracy and efficiency in estimating FCGR3 CNV by comparing Sequenom MassARRAY and paralogue ratio test-restriction enzyme digest variant ratio (PRT-REDVR). In addition, since many genetic association studies of FCGR3B CNV were carried out using real-time quantitative PCR, we have also included the evaluation of that method's performance in estimating the multi-allelic CNV of FCGR3B. The qPCR assay exhibited a considerably broader distribution of signal intensity, potentially introducing error in estimation of copy number and higher false positive rates. Both Sequenom and PRT-REDVR showed lesser systematic bias, but Sequenom skewed towards copy number normal (CN = 2). The discrepancy between Sequenom and PRT-REDVR might be attributed either to batch effects noise in individual measurements. Our study suggests that PRT-REDVR is more robust and accurate in genotyping the CNV of FCGR3, but highlights the needs of multiple independent assays for extensive validation when performing a genetic association study with multi-allelic CNVs.
  11. Bijker R, Jiamsakul A, Uy E, Kumarasamy N, Ditango R, Chaiwarith R, et al.
    HIV Med., 2019 Mar;20(3):183-191.
    PMID: 30620108 DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12687
    OBJECTIVES: With aging of the HIV-positive population, cardiovascular disease (CVD) increasingly contributes to morbidity and mortality. We investigated CVD-related and other causes of death (CODs) and factors associated with CVD in a multi-country Asian HIV-positive cohort.

    METHODS: Patient data from 2003-2017 were obtained from the Therapeutics, Research, Education and AIDS Training in Asia (TREAT Asia) HIV Observational Database (TAHOD). We included patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) with > 1 day of follow-up. Cumulative incidences were plotted for CVD-related, AIDS-related, non-AIDS-related, and unknown CODs, and any CVD (i.e. fatal and nonfatal). Competing risk regression was used to assess risk factors of any CVD.

    RESULTS: Of 8069 patients with a median follow-up of 7.3 years [interquartile range (IQR) 4.4-10.7 years], 378 patients died [incidence rate (IR) 6.2 per 1000 person-years (PY)], and this total included 22 CVD-related deaths (IR 0.36 per 1000 PY). Factors significantly associated with any CVD event (IR 2.2 per 1000 PY) were older age [sub-hazard ratio (sHR) 2.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-3.58 for age 41-50 years; sHR 5.52; 95% CI 3.43-8.91 for ≥ 51 years, compared with < 40 years], high blood pressure (sHR 1.62; 95% CI 1.04-2.52), high total cholesterol (sHR 1.89; 95% CI 1.27-2.82), high triglycerides (sHR 1.55; 95% CI 1.02-2.37) and high body mass index (BMI) (sHR 1.66; 95% CI 1.12-2.46). CVD crude IRs were lower in the later ART initiation period and in lower middle- and upper middle-income countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: The development of fatal and nonfatal CVD events in our cohort was associated with older age, and treatable risk factors such as high blood pressure, triglycerides, total cholesterol and BMI. Lower CVD event rates in middle-income countries may indicate under-diagnosis of CVD in Asian-Pacific resource-limited settings.

  12. Jiamsakul A, Kiertiburanakul S, Ng OT, Chaiwarith R, Wong W, Ditangco R, et al.
    HIV Med., 2019 Aug;20(7):439-449.
    PMID: 30980495 DOI: 10.1111/hiv.12734
    OBJECTIVES: With earlier antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, time spent in HIV care is expected to increase. We aimed to investigate loss to follow-up (LTFU) in Asian patients who remained in care 5 years after ART initiation.

    METHODS: Long-term LTFU was defined as LTFU occurring after 5 years on ART. LTFU was defined as (1) patients not seen in the previous 12 months; and (2) patients not seen in the previous 6 months. Factors associated with LTFU were analysed using competing risk regression.

    RESULTS: Under the 12-month definition, the LTFU rate was 2.0 per 100 person-years (PY) [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-2.2 among 4889 patients included in the study. LTFU was associated with age > 50 years [sub-hazard ratio (SHR) 1.64; 95% CI 1.17-2.31] compared with 31-40 years, viral load ≥ 1000 copies/mL (SHR 1.86; 95% CI 1.16-2.97) compared with viral load < 1000 copies/mL, and hepatitis C coinfection (SHR 1.48; 95% CI 1.06-2.05). LTFU was less likely to occur in females, in individuals with higher CD4 counts, in those with self-reported adherence ≥ 95%, and in those living in high-income countries. The 6-month LTFU definition produced an incidence rate of 3.2 per 100 PY (95% CI 2.9-3.4 and had similar associations but with greater risks of LTFU for ART initiation in later years (2006-2009: SHR 2.38; 95% CI 1.93-2.94; and 2010-2011: SHR 4.26; 95% CI 3.17-5.73) compared with 2003-2005.

    CONCLUSIONS: The long-term LTFU rate in our cohort was low, with older age being associated with LTFU. The increased risk of LTFU with later years of ART initiation in the 6-month analysis, but not the 12-month analysis, implies that there was a possible move towards longer HIV clinic scheduling in Asia.

Related Terms
Filters
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (tengcl@gmail.com)

External Links