With great interest, we read the article "Relationships between PTEN gene mutations and prognosis in glioma: a meta-analysis" (by Xiao et al. Tumor Biol 35(7):6687-6693, 2014), which has reached important conclusions that the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gene mutations were closely related to poor prognosis of glioma patients. Through quantitative analysis, the investigators (Xiao WZ et al.) showed that glioma patients with PTEN gene mutations exhibited a significantly shorter overall survival (OS) than those without PTEN gene mutations (HR = 3.66, 95 % CI = 2.02∼5.30, P 0.05). The meta-analysis results are encouraging. Nevertheless, some deficiencies still existed that we would like to raise.
Positive teacher-student interaction can exert a positive influence on student engagement and math performance. As an important part of teacher-student interaction, emotional support of a teacher plays an indispensable role in the math performance of junior middle school and elementary school students. This study aimed to explore the effects of teacher's emotional support on math performance, and examine the mediating role of academic self-efficacy and math behavioral engagement. A total of 1,294 students in grades 3-5 and 7-8 from 14 junior middle and primary schools in China took part in the web-based survey. Results showed the following: (1) academic self-efficacy mediated the relationship between teacher's emotional support and math performance of Chinese primary and middle school boys and girls; math behavioral engagement mediated the relationship between teacher's emotional support and math performance of Chinese primary and middle school boys and girls; (2) The relationship between teacher's emotional support and math performance of Chinese junior middle school boys and girls was mediated by the chain of academic self-efficacy and math behavioral engagement.
KEY MESSAGE: Morphological and transcriptomic evidences provide us strong support for the function of ANAC019 in reproductive development under drought stress. Plants are sensitive to drought conditions, particularly at the reproductive stage. Several studies have reported drought effects on crop reproductive development, but the molecular mechanism underlying drought response during reproduction is still unclear. A recent study showed that drought induces in Arabidopsis inflorescence increased expression of many genes, including ANAC019. However, the function of ANAC019 in drought response during reproductive development has not been characterized. Here, we report an investigation of the ANAC019 function in the response to drought during reproduction. ANAC019 is preferentially expressed in the inflorescence compared with the leaf, suggesting possible roles in regulating both stress response and flower development. The anac019 mutant was more sensitive to drought than WT plant, and exhibited a delay in recovery of floral organ development under prolonged drought stress. Moreover, many fewer genes were differentially expressed in the anac019 inflorescence under drought than that of WT, suggesting that the mutant was impaired in drought-induced gene expression. The genes affected by ANAC019 were associated with stress and hormone responses as well as floral development. In particular, the expression levels of several key drought-induced genes, DREB2A, DREB2B, ARF2, MYB21 and MYB24, were dramatically reduced in the absence of ANAC019, suggesting that ANAC019 is an upstream regulator these genes for drought response and flower development. These results provide strong support for the potential function of ANAC019 in reproductive development under drought stress.
Little is known regarding Chinese mothers' intention to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV) since the HPV vaccine was approved for use in China in 2016. The aim was to explore maternal HPV vaccination acceptance, preference for 2-, 4- or 9-valent HPV vaccine and acceptance of domestically manufactured HPV vaccines. Study participants were mothers of primary school children in Southeastern region of Fujian. An online cross-sectional survey was undertaken between June and August 2019. Among the total of 3,586 completed responses (response rate 28.5%), the intention to vaccinate daughter against HPV was high (83.3%). Higher maternal education and perceived benefit and barriers were associated with greater intention to vaccinate. Among mothers who did not intend to vaccinate their daughters, the three most common reasons were daughter being too young to receive HPV vaccination (40.6%), fear of side effects (31.9%) and vaccine price is too high (16.0%). The largest proportion (41.4%) preferred their daughter to be vaccinated with the 9-valent HPV vaccine (9vHPV). Greater preference for 9vHPVwas strongly associated with higher maternal education level and annual household income. The majority of mothers expressed a preference for imported HPV vaccine (56.3%). Our result indicates that lower intentions to vaccinate daughters against HPV among less educated and lower-income mothers may lead to significant social inequalities in HPV vaccine uptake in the country.
Osteoporosis is a systemic and metabolic bone disease that usually occurs in postmenopausal women, which mainly manifests as bone loss and increased bone fragility that both facilitate fracture. However, few drugs for osteoporosis have shown good efficacy and limited side effects. Vaccarin has demonstrated its antiosteoporosis effects by inhibiting the formation and osteolytic activities of osteoclasts in our previous investigation. In this study, multivariate statistical analysis and ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry were used to analyze the serum metabolites of ovariectomized mice treated with or without vaccarin. As a result, 9 serum metabolites were identified as biomarkers. The metabolic levels of 3 crucial biomarkers, namely, lysophosphatidylcholine [22 : 6, (4Z, 7Z, 10Z, 13Z, 16Z, 19Z)], 1-linoleoylglycerophosphocholine and 1-palmitoyl-Sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, that were correlated with glycerophospholipid metabolism increased and then decreased significantly after vaccarin treatment. Molecular docking analysis and osteoclasts differentiation experiment further revealed that vaccarin may bind with phospholipase A2 and downregulated its activity to reduce the osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, the occurrence of osteoporosis is closely related with glycerophospholipid metabolism disorders, and vaccarin exerts antiosteoporosis effects by reducing the levels of glycerophospholipid metabolites.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most common cancers worldwide, but marked epidemiological differences exist between Asian and non-Asian populations. Hence, a consensus meeting was held in Hong Kong in December 2012 to develop Asia-specific guidelines for the management of metastatic CRC (mCRC). A multidisciplinary expert panel, consisting of 23 participants from 10 Asian and 2 European countries, discussed current guidelines for colon or rectal cancer and developed recommendations for adapting these guidelines to Asian clinical practice. Participants agreed that mCRC management in Asia largely follows international guidelines, but they proposed a number of recommendations based on regional 'real-world' experience. In general, participants agreed that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) infusion regimens in doublets can be substituted with UFT (capecitabine, tegafur-uracil) and S1 (tegafur, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine and oxonic acid), and that the monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab are recommended for KRAS wild type tumors. For KRAS mutant tumors, bevacizumab is the preferred biological therapy. FOLFOX (folinic acid, 5-FU, and oxaliplatin) is preferred for initial therapy in Asian patients. The management of mCRC is evolving, and it must be emphasized that the recommendations presented here reflect current treatment practices and thus might change as more data become available.
Bamboo and rattan are widely grown for manufacturing, horticulture, and agroforestry. Bamboo and rattan production might help reduce poverty, boost economic growth, mitigate climate change, and protect the natural environment. Despite progress in research, sufficient molecular and genomic resources to study these species are lacking. We launched the Genome Atlas of Bamboo and Rattan (GABR) project, a comprehensive, coordinated international effort to accelerate understanding of bamboo and rattan genetics through genome analysis. GABR includes 2 core subprojects: Bamboo-T1K (Transcriptomes of 1000 Bamboos) and Rattan-G5 (Genomes of 5 Rattans), and several other subprojects. Here we describe the organization, directions, and status of GABR.
Climate is widely recognised as an important determinant of the latitudinal diversity gradient. However, most existing studies make no distinction between direct and indirect effects of climate, which substantially hinders our understanding of how climate constrains biodiversity globally. Using data from 35 large forest plots, we test hypothesised relationships amongst climate, topography, forest structural attributes (stem abundance, tree size variation and stand basal area) and tree species richness to better understand drivers of latitudinal tree diversity patterns. Climate influences tree richness both directly, with more species in warm, moist, aseasonal climates and indirectly, with more species at higher stem abundance. These results imply direct limitation of species diversity by climatic stress and more rapid (co-)evolution and narrower niche partitioning in warm climates. They also support the idea that increased numbers of individuals associated with high primary productivity are partitioned to support a greater number of species.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) associations are critical for host-tree performance. However, how mycorrhizal associations correlate with the latitudinal tree beta-diversity remains untested. Using a global dataset of 45 forest plots representing 2,804,270 trees across 3840 species, we test how AM and EcM trees contribute to total beta-diversity and its components (turnover and nestedness) of all trees. We find AM rather than EcM trees predominantly contribute to decreasing total beta-diversity and turnover and increasing nestedness with increasing latitude, probably because wide distributions of EcM trees do not generate strong compositional differences among localities. Environmental variables, especially temperature and precipitation, are strongly correlated with beta-diversity patterns for both AM trees and all trees rather than EcM trees. Results support our hypotheses that latitudinal beta-diversity patterns and environmental effects on these patterns are highly dependent on mycorrhizal types. Our findings highlight the importance of AM-dominated forests for conserving global forest biodiversity.
The PREDICTS project-Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)-has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used this evidence base to develop global and regional statistical models of how local biodiversity responds to these measures. We describe and make freely available this 2016 release of the database, containing more than 3.2 million records sampled at over 26,000 locations and representing over 47,000 species. We outline how the database can help in answering a range of questions in ecology and conservation biology. To our knowledge, this is the largest and most geographically and taxonomically representative database of spatial comparisons of biodiversity that has been collated to date; it will be useful to researchers and international efforts wishing to model and understand the global status of biodiversity.