The objectives of this study were: (1) to detect group B streptococcus (GBS) carriers among antenatal patients during pregnancy ( 35 to 37 weeks) in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and (2) to give antibiotic prophylaxis during the intrapartum period for the GBS carrier patients. The aim is to prevent early onset of GBS infection in newborn. This pilot study was carried out from 1st July 2005 to 31st August 2005. It is a prospective study involving 56 pregnant women who were seen at the antenatal clinic in the UMMC between 35 to 37 weeks gestation. High vaginal swab and low vaginal together with endoanal swab were taken for culture and sensitivity. The antibiotic prophylaxis was started early in the intrapartum period for patients with positive culture for GBS. GBS was detected in 18 patients which contributes to about 32% of the study population. The proper choice of antibiotic is important in successful disease prevention.
Study site: Obstretic and gynaecological clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
The motion resistances of 660 mm pneumatic and rigid bicycle wheels of the same rim diameter were measured experimentally using the developed tractor-towed single non-lug narrow wheel motion resistance test rig for traction studies. The motion resistances measured were taken to be the towing forces determined in real time using Mecmesin Basic Force Gauge (BFG 2500). The test variables included two test surfaces [tilled and wet (mud) surfaces], the dynamic load and the towing velocity. The tyre inflation pressure of 414 kPa was chosen to make the surface synonymous with that of the rigid wheel. Motion resistance ratios of the two wheels were determined empirically and through semi-empirical approach. The motion resistances of the rigid wheel were found to be greater than those of the pneumatic wheel for both surfaces. Consequently, the motion resistance ratios of the rigid wheel were greater than those obtained
from the pneumatic wheel. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences between the means of the motion resistance measured on the test surfaces, as well as between the two wheels and their interactions with the test surfaces. The motion resistance ratio exhibited a linear relationship with the towing velocity, while the relationship with the dynamic load was quadratic. However, such a relationship is either direct or inverse with the respective variables. The motion resistance ratio models for the pneumatic and rigid wheels showed that on different test conditions of the dynamic loads and the towing velocities, the relationships between the motion resistance ratio and the dynamic load, and motion resistance with dynamic load were also different.
Candidacidal assay was used to assess the phagocytic and killing activities of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from paediatric patients diagnosed to manifest with characteristics of atopic dermatitis. From this group of patients evaluated, all the 11 cases exhibited lower candidacidal activity in comparison to the normal children. However, there were no abnormalities observed in the engulfing abilities and myeloperoxidase activities of these leukocytes. The result indicated that lower killing capacity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in these patients may contribute to the frequent bacterial infections in atopic dermatitis children.
This study of the implementation of enterprise resource planning (ERP) in a customer driven environment analyzes the critical success factors throughout the initialization phase. The dynamic and stochastic nature of customer driven environments results in a massive workload of product structure configuration tasks related to new arrivals on one hand and a constant updating process on the other. Meanwhile, the development and implementation of an ERP system was studied from the very first step (i.e. the feasibly study for implementing an ERP) to the last step (i.e. testing the outputs of the implemented system) in an office furniture company for three years. The study involved analyzing of the data collected that were from a series of interviews, as well as direct observations and reviewing of the company’s documents. Based on the output of the analysis phase, a top-down hierarchical analysis of goals and CSFs were carried out according to the CSF analysis method. Three top level objectives included reducing project failure risk, project cost, and project time. Analysing the primary results of the study (i.e. activity model, data flow diagram DFD of different levels, system problems and potential solutions descriptions, etc.) revealed that the critical phase of the implementation project would be product structure initialization and this should be taken into consideration as the bottleneck of production planning in customer driven environment, which dramatically reduced the ERP efficiency in this kind of environment. Moreover, initializing issues of the same process is the main obstacle to the success of the ERP implementation, as it considerably raises the project failure risk and cost. Therefore, the simplification, facilitation, and automation of the PSCM process, which lead to acceleration of this process, are the most significant success factors for the ERP implementation projects in customer driven environment.
Tropical fruits are of great significance in human diet due to abundant nutritional and antioxidants components. The processing or consumption of these fruits generates waste,which is generally disposed of into the ecosystem. However, efforts are in line to evaluate the nutritional worth and possible reuse of fruit processing waste by valorizing the waste in an optimal way. In this review, by-products of rambutan fruit waste, i.e., seed and peel, are signified with respect to their nutritional values and possible applications. Peel and seed cumulatively share almost around 50% of whole rambutan fruit by weight. Peel that is rich in phenolics and ellagitannins have applications as a natural antioxidant system. However, abundant fat content (14−41%) with high oleic acid, renders the seed a novel source of vegetable fat. Besides, possibilities of using seed fat in chocolate (30 wt.% substitute) and personal care products are also one of the focus. Nanostructured seed fat is reported for encapsulation off at-soluble vitamins (e.g., vitamin E). Additionally, the seed contains the most of the essential and non-essential amino acids that are concentrated as protein concentrate. The physico-functional properties of defatted seed flour and seed mucilage are also elaborated. Similarly, rambutan seed oil and peel utility as filler in packaging, bio-coagulant, bio-sorbent and alternative biodiesel are also mentioned. Despite diverse applications, gaps are still there to further evaluate and validate the potential of rambutan processing by-products. Thus, to avail the manifold potential, fruit by-products’ applications should be scaled up to transform the maximum waste into best.
Between April 1987 and March 1988, populations of immature Aedes albopictus and Toxorhynchites spp. in bamboo pots were sampled weekly. Populations of Ae. albopictus and rainfall varied from month to month. During the heavy rainfall months of September and October 1987, larval counts of Ae. albopictus were high, between 30.8 and 49.2 larvae per week compared to 16 larvae per week during the low rainfall month of January 1988. A higher population of Toxorhynchites spp. was associated with a low population of the vector.
Trypsin Modulating Oostatic Factor (TMOF) terminates trypsin biosynthesis in adult and larval mosquito gut. It will inhibit the growth and development of mosquito larvae feeding on it resulting in death by starvation. The objective of this study is to determine the effective dose of Pichia-TMOF and the combination of Pichia-TMOF with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) as larvicide on Ae. aegypti larvae.
Pulmonary atelectasis may be caused by endobronchial lesions or by extrinsic compression of the bronchus. However, lung collapse due to compression from a thoracic aneurysm is uncommon. We report a 76-year-old hypertensive female patient who has pulmonary atelectasis due to an extrinsic compression from a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm, and discuss possible treatment options.
1. Seven types of water-insoluble adhesives were evaluated in sticky traps for collecting adults of Musca domestica L. and Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) or mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus Say). 2. Adhesive viscosity affected the tackiness of the glues and this determined their trapping efficiency in air or water. 3. From the 'Hyvis' range of adhesives tested, 'Hyvis 200' was most effective for trapping adult flies. 4. With 24 h exposure to fourth instar Ae.aegypti larvae in tapwater, submerged plates coated with 'Hyvis 10', 'Hyvis 30' or 'Hyvis 200' formulations trapped the majority of larvae. In polluted water the highest rates of trapping were 17.3% of Ae.aegypti and 18.7% of Cx quinquefasciatus with 'Hyvis 200'. Floating traps were consistently less productive than submerged traps under laboratory conditions. 5. In a heavily polluted natural breeding-site of Cx quinquefasciatus, floating traps were more productive than submerged sticky traps with four of seven adhesives tested, the most efficient being 'Hyvis 200' (4.2 mosquitoes per hour) and Hyvis:polyethylene 90:10 (4.5/h). Despite the relative inefficiency of aquatic traps, emergent adults, pupae and second to fourth instars of larvae were collected quickly from the habitat.
Bioprotein is one of the useful products obtained from biotechnology invention. It is a promising replacement for the commercial fish feed supplement. In this study, the enrichment of the bioprotein content after solid state fermentation using palm kernel cake and seaweed by the white rot fungus: Phanerochaete chrysoporium and yeast: Candida utilis was carried out. The growth media components were selected from 11 types of media using Plackett-Burman design (hereinafter PBD) and were optimized by one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method with bioprotein concentration (mg/g) as the response. From the screening result using PBD, three media components, namely K2HPO4, CuSO4.5H2O and MnSO4.H2O were selected for further optimization using OFAT method because of their positive contributions to the response. The final results showed that 5.0 g/L K2HPO4, 3.0 g/L CuSO4.5H2O and 0.1 g/L MnSO4.H2O were there to be the optimum media constituents with 9.0 g/L, MgSO4.7H2O, 0.1 g/L, CaCl2.H2O, 3.0 g/L FeSO4.7H2O and 3.0 g/L peptone as fixed compositions. At this optimum concentration, the protein increment of 11% was observed as compared to the results determined in the screening using PBD. The study revealed the benefits of using mixed cultures in improving the protein concentrations which can be used as nutritious fish feed.
The aluminium-silicon (Al-Si) based on Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) is widely used in lightweight
constructions and transport applications requiring a combination of high strength and ductility. A grain
refinement plays a crucial role in improving characteristics and properties of Al alloys. In this investigation,
titanium diboride (TiB2) and scandium (Sc) inoculants were added to the Al-Si alloys for grain refinement of
an alloy. In this investigation, the corrosion resistance rate of Al-Si cast alloy reinforced by TiB2 and Sc were
measured by potentiostat (AUTOLAB) instrument. The aim of this research is to investigate the corrosion
rate for Al-Si-TiB2-Sc composites that immersed in different concentration of acidic solutions. Besides, the
immersion time of acidic solutions also was investigated. All the samples were prepared accordingly for
ASTM standard by the composition of 6.0 wt% TiB2 and 0.6wt% Sc. All the samples undergo cold mounting
technique for easy handling on corrosion tests. Then the samples were immersed in two different
concentrations acidic medium solutions, which were 0.1.and 1.0 M hydrochloric acids (HCl). The corrosion
rate also was investigated for immersion samples of 1.0 M HCl for 21 days. From the results obtained, added
TiB2 and Sc onto Al-Si alloy gave the better properties in corrosion resistance. Corrosion rates to reduce when
the samples were immersed in a lower concentration of acidic medium, 0.1 HCl. However, there are some
significant on the result but it still following the corrosion rates trend. Thus, improvements to reinforcement
content need to be done in further research to cover the lack of this corrosion rates trend.
Three pyrethroids were evaluated in the laboratory against Aedes albopictus females by exposure to insecticide impregnated papers, and to 4th instar Ae. albopictus larvae as insecticide solutions. Lambda-cyhalothrin was found to be the most effective pyrethroid when tested against Aedes albopictus adult females and larvae compared with that of deltamethrin and permethrin.
In this study, solid coconut waste and CaO/PVA was used as raw material and catalyst respectively to produce biodiesel through in situ transesterification. Both, raw material and catalyst were packed in a packed bed reactor. The reaction was fixed for 3 h and the mixing was kept constant at 350 rpm. The highest biodiesel yield of 95% was obtained at reaction temperature of 61 °C with catalyst loading (CaO/PVA) of 2.29 wt% and methanol to solid ratio of 12:1. CaO-waste derived catalyst has been successfully proven to be utilized as heterogeneous base catalyst for the production of biodiesel from solid coconut waste.
Honey is rich in phenolic compounds, which act as natural antioxidants and are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. A wide range of phenolic constituents is present in honey like quercetin, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), acacetin, kaempferol, galangin which have promising effect in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Many epidemiological studies have shown that regular intake of phenolic compounds is associated with reduced risk of heart diseases. In coronary heart disease, the protective effects of phenolic compounds include mainly antithrombotic, anti-ischemic, anti-oxidant, and vasorelaxant. It is suggested that flavonoids decrease the risk of coronary heart disease by three major actions: improving coronary vasodilatation, decreasing the ability of platelets in the blood to clot, and preventing low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) from oxidizing. In this review paper, we discussed the preventive role of polyphenols of honey against cardiovascular diseases.
Determinations of total calcium, total magnesium, calcium ion, parathyroid hormone and 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1 alpha levels were carried out on 84 blood samples from 4 groups of women categorised as non-pregnant normotensive (NNP), pregnant normotensive (NP), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and pre-eclampsia (PE). PIH was clinically diagnosed when the diastolic pressure was more than 90 mmHg and was only hypertensive during pregnancy while PE was with additional proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Compared to NNP women, total calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were of lower levels (p < 0.05) in NP women while in PIH women, total calcium and 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1 alpha levels were also lowered (p < 0.05). Compared to NNP women, PE women's levels of total calcium, calcium ion and 6-keto-prostaglandin-F1 alpha decreased (p < 0.05) while parathyroid hormone level increased (p < 0.05). When compared to the NP women, PE women had decreased levels (p < 0.05) of total calcium as well as calcium ion and increased level (p < 0.05) of parathyroid hormone. Calcium ion was found to be negatively correlated (NNP : r = -0.883, p = 0.008/NP : r = -0.931, p = 0.000) while parathyroid hormone was positively correlated (NNP : r = 0.904, p = 0.013/NP : r = 0.913, p = 0.000) with mean arterial pressure.
Alphacypermethrin (Fendona) and lambda-cyhalothrin (Icon) were evaluated against sentinel bloodfed adults and 4th-instar larvae of Aedes aegypti in a housing estate in Malaysia. The impact of both pyrethroids on field populations of Ae. aegypti and Aedes albopictus were monitored weekly using oviposition trap samples. Both alphacypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin showed adulticidal and larvicidal effects.
INTRODUCTION: The rapid increase in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) among the younger age groups is a growing concern worldwide. Thus, assessing the perception of risk and knowledge among those at risk may provide an opportunity for early intervention, delay or even prevent the onset.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the perceived risk of developing T2DM and its knowledge among the offspring of diabetic patients.
METHODS: A cross sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among university students whose parents had type 2 diabetes to determine their perceived risk and knowledge on T2DM.
RESULTS: A total of 336 university students participated in this study and 56.5% of them correctly identified themselves at risk of developing T2DM. About half of them (52.7%) had higher knowledge of T2DM. Male students appeared to have better risk perception (p=0.024) compared to females while those with mothers affected by T2DM appear to have higher knowledge regarding diabetes (p=0.007). Most of their information regarding T2DM was obtained from the internet (87.5%) and other family members (77.9%).
CONCLUSION: The students whose mothers had T2DM appear to have better knowledge and information regarding T2DM and this was mostly obtained from the internet and family members. Awareness regarding diabetes and healthy lifestyles advice through primary patients may be beneficial for their offspring.
Study site: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
This study explored the efficacy of Toxorhynchites splendens, predator of Aedes albopictus as a biocontrol agent. There was a negative correlation between Ae. albopictus larval population and Tx. splendens larval population in ovitraps (r=-0.287, R²=0.0821). The correlation is higher between the mean number of Ae. albopictus larvae per ovitrap and the number of Tx. splendens larvae in an ovitrap (r=-0.987, R²=0.9737). Larvae of Tx. splendens were observed to co-exist with larvae of Ae. albopictus and Culex fuscocephala in the ovitraps placed in the study area. The existence of Tx. splendens larvae in the study area coincides with their habit, preferring to breed in bamboo stumps. A total of 480 ovitraps were inspected for 30-week study period and 281 ovitraps were positive with Ae. albopictus larvae respectively. There was a significant difference between numbers of ovitrap positive for Ae. albopictus larvae with number of Tx. splendens larvae in the ovitraps (ANOVA, F((4,475)) 2.655, p<0.05). Of 281 ovitraps positive with Ae. albopictus larvae, 255 ovitraps contained only one Tx. splendens larva each. Only one ovitrap contained four, the most number of Tx. splendens larvae (p< 0.05). Thus, Tx. splendens could be utilised as an alternative for dengue vector control programme.