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  1. Koo HC, Poh BK, Talib RA
    Nutrients, 2020 Sep 29;12(10).
    PMID: 33003299 DOI: 10.3390/nu12102972
    Diet composition is a key determinant of childhood obesity. While whole grains and micronutrients are known to decrease the risk of obesity, there are no interventions originating from Southeast Asia that emphasize whole grain as a strategy to improve overall quality of diet in combating childhood obesity. The GReat-Child Trial aimed to improve whole grain intake and quality of diet among overweight and obese children. It is a quasi-experimental intervention based on Social Cognitive Theory. It has a 12-week intervention and 6-month follow-up, consisting of three components that address environmental, personal, and behavioral factors. The intervention consists of: (1) six 30 min lessons on nutrition, using the Malaysian Food Pyramid to emphasize healthy eating, (2) daily deliveries of wholegrain foods to schools so that children can experience and accept wholegrain foods, and (3) diet counseling to parents to increase availability of wholegrain foods at home. Two primary schools with similar demographics in Kuala Lumpur were assigned as control (CG) and intervention (IG) groups. Inclusion criteria were: (1) children aged 9 to 11 years who were overweight/obese; (2) who did not consume whole grain foods; and (3) who had no serious co-morbidity problems. The entire trial was completed by 63 children (31 IG; 32 CG). Study outcomes were measured at baseline and at two time points post intervention (at the 3rd [T1] and 9th [T2] months). IG demonstrated significantly higher intakes of whole grain (mean difference = 9.94, 95%CI: 7.13, 12.75, p < 0.001), fiber (mean difference = 3.07, 95% CI: 1.40, 4.73, p = 0.001), calcium (mean difference = 130.27, 95%CI: 74.15, 186.39, p < 0.001), thiamin (mean difference = 58.71, 95%CI: 26.15, 91.28, p = 0.001), riboflavin (mean difference = 0.84, 95%CI: 0.37, 1.32, p = 0.001), niacin (mean difference = 0.35, 95%CI: 1.91, 5.16, p < 0.001), and vitamin C (mean difference = 58.71, 95%CI: 26.15, 91.28, p = 0.001) compared to CG in T1, after adjusting for covariates. However, T1 results were not sustained in T2 when intervention had been discontinued. The findings indicate that intervention emphasizing whole grains improved overall short-term but not long-term dietary intake among schoolchildren. We hope the present trial will lead to adoption of policies to increase whole grain consumption among Malaysian schoolchildren.
  2. Wafa SW, Hamzaid H, Talib RA, Reilly JJ
    J Trop Pediatr, 2014 Apr;60(2):161-3.
    PMID: 24213306 DOI: 10.1093/tropej/fmt093
    The present study examined objectively measured physical activity in Malaysian children and compared the differences in physical levels between obese and healthy weight children. Eighty-six obese children were matched for age and sex with 86 healthy weight children with median age 9.5 years. Habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured over 5 days using Actigraph accelerometers. Time spent sedentary was significantly higher in the obese group (90% vs. 86% of daytime; p = 0.001). Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly higher in the healthy weight group (1.2 vs. 0.7% of daytime, p < 0.001). In both healthy weight and obese children, physical activity levels were exceptionally low, although moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly lower in the obese group than the healthy weight group. Efforts to prevent and treat obesity in Malaysian children will need a substantial focus on the promotion of reductions in sedentary behaviour and increases in physical activity.
  3. Penjumras P, Rahman RA, Talib RA, Abdan K
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2015;2015:293609.
    PMID: 26167523 DOI: 10.1155/2015/293609
    Response surface methodology was used to optimize preparation of biocomposites based on poly(lactic acid) and durian peel cellulose. The effects of cellulose loading, mixing temperature, and mixing time on tensile strength and impact strength were investigated. A central composite design was employed to determine the optimum preparation condition of the biocomposites to obtain the highest tensile strength and impact strength. A second-order polynomial model was developed for predicting the tensile strength and impact strength based on the composite design. It was found that composites were best fit by a quadratic regression model with high coefficient of determination (R (2)) value. The selected optimum condition was 35 wt.% cellulose loading at 165°C and 15 min of mixing, leading to a desirability of 94.6%. Under the optimum condition, the tensile strength and impact strength of the biocomposites were 46.207 MPa and 2.931 kJ/m(2), respectively.
  4. Mohammadi S, Karim NA, Talib RA, Amani R
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2018 5 9;27(3):546-555.
    PMID: 29737801 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.072017.07
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic illness which can be managed by patients' commitment to self-care and self-efficacy behaviors.

    METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled intervention study was carried out to determine the impact of self-efficacy education based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) in 240 patients with type 2 diabetes at the Golestan Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran between October 2014 and August 2015. The education duration was three months followed by a 24-week follow-up visit to determine the progress of the subjects. In this study, reliable and validated diabetes educational booklet and questionnaires based on knowledge, health beliefs and quality of life were used. The participants were randomly allocated to either the intervention group (n=120) or to the conventional dietary counseling group as controls (n=120), and assessed at the baseline, week 12 and week 36. The study was divided into primary outcome measurements consisting of glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose, lipid profile, and anthropometric levels. Secondary outcome measures were related to nutrition knowledge, health beliefs and quality of life.

    RESULTS: The results showed that subjects in the intervention group had significantly better metabolic and glycemic profiles compared with those in the control group. It also showed that knowledge, health belief and quality of life significantly increased in the intervention group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that through tailored self-efficacy education, the quality of life and metabolic profile of diabetes patients can be improved.

  5. Abdullah N, Chin NL, Yusof YA, Talib RA
    J Food Process Preserv, 2018 Feb;42(2):e13517.
    PMID: 29479123 DOI: 10.1111/jfpp.13517
    This study has modeled the rheological behavior of thermosonic extracted pink-fleshed guava, pink-fleshed pomelo, and soursop juice concentrates at different concentrations and temperatures. The effects of concentration on consistency coefficient (K) and flow behavior index (n) of the fruit juice concentrates was modeled using a master curve which utilized the concentration-temperature shifting to allow a general prediction of rheological behaviors covering a wide concentration. For modeling the effects of temperature on K and n, the integration of two functions from the Arrhenius and logistic sigmoidal growth equations has provided a new model which gave better description of the properties. It also alleviated the problems of negative region when using the Arrhenius model alone. The fitted regression using this new model has improved coefficient of determination, R2 values above 0.9792 as compared to using the Arrhenius and logistic sigmoidal models alone, which presented minimum R2 of 0.6243 and 0.9440, respectively.

    Practical applications: In general, juice concentrate is a better form of food for transportation, preservation, and ingredient. Models are necessary to predict the effects of processing factors such as concentration and temperature on the rheological behavior of juice concentrates. The modeling approach allows prediction of behaviors and determination of processing parameters. The master curve model introduced in this study simplifies and generalized rheological behavior of juice concentrates over a wide range of concentration when temperature factor is insignificant. The proposed new mathematical model from the combination of the Arrhenius and logistic sigmoidal growth models has improved and extended description of rheological properties of fruit juice concentrates. It also solved problems of negative values of consistency coefficient and flow behavior index prediction using existing model, the Arrhenius equation. These rheological data modeling provide good information for the juice processing and equipment manufacturing needs.

  6. Abdullah N, Chin NL, Yusof YA, Talib RA
    J Food Sci Technol, 2018 Mar;55(3):1207-1213.
    PMID: 29487464 DOI: 10.1007/s13197-017-3024-7
    The steady-state flow test was conducted on pink-fleshed guava, pink-fleshed pomelo and soursop juice concentrates using a rheometer to understand its rheological behaviour. The power law model was used and a master-curve was created using the shear rate-temperature-concentration superposition technique to predict rheological properties from a wide range of temperatures and concentrations. All three juice concentrates undergo a double horizontal shift whilst the pink-fleshed guava required an additional vertical shift. The final equations show shear-thinning behaviour of pink-fleshed guava, pink-fleshed pomelo and soursop with flow behaviour index of 0.2217, 0.7507 and 0.6347, respectively. The final master-curve predicts shear stress at wide range of shear rates, i.e. between 10-2 and 106 s-1 for the pink-fleshed guava, 100 and 106 s-1 for the pink-fleshed pomelo and 100 and 107 s-1 for the soursop. The results provide useful information and effective technique to predict fruit juice concentrates behaviour affected by heat changes during processing.
  7. Hamzaid H, Talib RA, Azizi NH, Maamor N, Reilly JJ, Wafa SW
    Int J Pediatr Obes, 2011 Oct;6(5-6):450-4.
    PMID: 21767214 DOI: 10.3109/17477166.2011.590206
    BACKGROUND:Quality of life (QoL) is impaired in childhood obesity, but the literature on this is all from Western countries. Aim. To test for impairment of QoL in obese children in Malaysia, using parent-reported and child-reported QoL.
    METHODS:Health-related Quality of Life was measured using the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory version 4.0. Comparison of QoL between a community sample of 90 obese children (as defined by US CDC and Cole-IOTF definitions), median age 9.5 y (interquartile range [IQR] 8.6, 10.5 y) and 90 control children of healthy weight (BMI less than the 85th centile of US reference data), median age 10.0 y (IQR 9.6, 10.5 y). Children were matched pair-wise for age, gender, and ethnic group, and controls were recruited from schools in the same area as obese participants.
    RESULTS:For child self-report, the healthy weight group had significantly higher QoL for the physical (median 82.9, IQR 65.7, 90.6), and psychosocial domains (median, 73.3, IQR 64.4, 83.3), and total QoL (median 76.1, IQR 64.1, 84.8) compared to the obese group (median 67.2, IQR 59.4, 81.3; median 62.5, IQR 53.3, 75.4; median 60.9, IQR 50.8, 73.9; all p < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the obese and healthy weight group for parent-reported physical health, psychosocial health, or total QoL.
    CONCLUSION:Obese children in Malaysia have markedly poorer QoL than their peers, but this is not evident when parent reports of QoL are used.
    Study name: Malaysian Childhood Obesity Treatment Trial (MASCOT)
    Study site: Two primary schools, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  8. Yusof BN, Talib RA, Kamaruddin NA, Karim NA, Chinna K, Gilbertson H
    Diabetes Obes Metab, 2009 Apr;11(4):387-96.
    PMID: 19175374 DOI: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2008.00984.x
    AIMS: The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of low glycaemic index (GI) vs. conventional carbohydrate exchange (CCE) dietary advice on glycaemic control and metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes.
    METHODS: A total of 104 patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to either a low GI (GI) or CCE dietary advice over a 12-week period. The primary end-point was glycaemic control as assessed by glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fructosamine level and plasma glucose. The secondary end-points were anthropometric measurements and metabolic parameters that include blood pressure, lipid profile and insulin levels. The oral antidiabetic medications remained unchanged throughout the duration of the study.
    RESULTS: A low-GI diet was associated with significant changes in the fructosamine level (DeltaGI = -0.20 +/- 0.03; DeltaCCE = -0.08 +/- 0.03 mmol/l, p < 0.01) and waist circumference (DeltaGI group = -1.88 +/- 0.30 cm; DeltaCCE group: -0.36 +/- 0.4 cm, p < 0.05) at week 4. At week 12, the changes in fasting glucose (DeltaGI = -0.03 +/- 0.3; DeltaCCE = 0.7 +/- 0.3 mmol/l; p < 0.05) and waist circumference (DeltaGI = -2.35 +/- 0.47 cm; DeltaCCE group = -0.66 +/- 0.46 cm; p < 0.05) in the GI group was significantly lower than the CCE group. With the low-GI diet, the changes in postprandial glycaemia at time 0, 60, 150 and 180 min after consuming the standard test meal was lower than with the CCE diet (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the groups for the remaining parameters that were measured.
    CONCLUSIONS: Use of a low-GI diet resulted in significant changes of serum fructosamine level, plasma glucose and waist circumference in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes over a 12-week period compared with those following a CCE diet. The effect on HbA1c and other metabolic parameters was not significantly different between the two study groups but the improvement within the GI group was more pronounced and of clinical benefit.
  9. Rasaei B, Talib RA, Noor MI, Karandish M, Karim NA
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2016 Dec;25(4):729-739.
    PMID: 27702715 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.092015.46
    Sleep deprivation and coffee caffeine consumption have been shown to affect glucose homeostasis separately, but the combined effects of these two variables are unknown.
  10. Bahreini Esfahani N, Ganjali Dashti N, Ganjali Dashti M, Noorv MI, Koon PB, Talib RA, et al.
    Iran Red Crescent Med J, 2016 Sep;18(9):e25569.
    PMID: 28144452 DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.25569
    BACKGROUND: Considering both diet and energy expenditures possess some influence on weight status, research into dietary determinants of obesity is challenging but essential to rational planning of well-organized interventions to avoid obesity.
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether dietary factors were predictive of overweight and obesity in adolescents in the Iranian population.
    PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 840 students, ages 15 - 17, from six schools were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. A diet-patterns approach often has been used to describe the eating patterns in adolescents. Height, weight, and waist circumference anthropometric indices, physical activity, waist hip ratio, and BMI measurements were determined. Daily dietary data and weighed food records were collected in 2010 and 2011. Abdominal obesity was defined according to world health organization guidelines, and the relationship between dietary predictor variables and the measures of adiposity were determined by using linear regression. Usual dietary intakes were assessed in an experimental study of Esfahani students.
    RESULTS: In total, 38.5% of girls and 32.2% of boys had a Western dietary pattern as the more prevalent pattern. The diet quality of adolescents with the lowest score on each dietary pattern was compared with those recording the highest scores. Those with the Western dietary pattern score were less likely to exercise and had a higher prevalence of general obesity. Adolescents in the greater quartile of the Mediterranean dietary patterns had the lowest odds of being overweight (OR 0.50, 95%; CI 0.27 - 0.73) and obese (OR 0.48, 95%; CI 0.15 - 0.80) than those in the lower quartile, whereas those in the greater quartile of the Western dietary pattern had the highest odds of being overweight (OR 1.69, 95%; CI 1.10 - 2.04) and obese (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.05 - 1.84). Higher consumption of a Western dietary pattern and a salty dietary pattern were associated significantly with obesity (P < 0.05). Intake of a Western dietary pattern and a salty-sweet dietary pattern were associated positively with measures of adiposity, namely body mass index and waist circumference.
    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed significant associations between the seven dietary patterns and overweight and obesity among adolescents. Using dietary patterns within adolescents can provide important information on dietary consumption, and this approach is clearer and much easier to follow.
    KEYWORDS: Adolescent; Dietary Patterns; Food Habits; Obesity; Overweight; Predictors
  11. Mohamad N, Mazlan MM, Tawakkal ISMA, Talib RA, Kian LK, Fouad H, et al.
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Nov 15;163:1451-1457.
    PMID: 32738328 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.07.209
    The growing global awareness for environmental protection has inspired the exploration on producing active packaging films from bio-based materials. In present work, three types of active agents were studied by incorporating thymol(T), kesum(K), and curry(C) (10% wt.) into polylactic acid (PLA) to produce PLA-10T, PLA-10K, and PLA10-C packaging films via solvent casting method. The morphology, functional chemistry, thermal stability, permeability, and antimicrobial properties were evaluated for PLA films. Functional chemical analysis confirmed the presence of interfacial bonding between aromatic groups of active agents and PLA carbonyl group. PLA-10K exhibited the highest thermal resistance comparing to PLA-10T and PLA-10C while water vapor barrier was enhanced after incorporation of active agents. Qualitative observation had indicated that chicken meat could be preserved in the active films until 15 days, while odourless and firm texture properties retained in food sample. For disc diffusion assay (in vitro), it showed positive results against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) whereas with negative results against Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) and Aspergillus Brasiliensis due to embedded active agents within PLA matrix. We concluded that produced active agents filled PLA films potential to use in food packaging application to enhance the shelf life of meats, fruits and vegetables product.
  12. Mohamad Mazlan M, Talib RA, Chin NL, Shukri R, Taip FS, Mohd Nor MZ, et al.
    Foods, 2020 Jul 31;9(8).
    PMID: 32751949 DOI: 10.3390/foods9081023
    Single-screw extrusion of a fibrous-structured meat analog from soy proteins added with low-grade oyster mushroom was successful. Satisfactory extrudates were obtained at a barrel temperature of 140 °C, screw speed range of 100-160 rpm, and oyster mushroom addition at 0%, 7.5%, and 15% via factorial experiments. Single-screw extrusion equipped with a slit die successfully produced expanded oyster mushroom-soy protein extrudates. However, the increase in the oyster mushroom content significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.05) the expansion ratio of the extrudate from 1.26 to 0.98. This result indicated that adding more oyster mushroom restrained the expansion ratio. The extrudates had a medium density range (max of 1393.70 ± 6.30 kg/m3). By adding oyster mushroom, the extrudates attained a higher moisture content (range = 34.77% to 37.93%) compared with the extrudates containing the protein mixture only (range = 26.99% to 32.33%). The increase in screw speed and oyster mushroom significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) the water absorption index. The increase in the texturization index was significantly influenced (p ≤ 0.05) by oyster mushroom addition rather than the screw speed. A defined fibrous structure supported the high texturization index and small shape of air cells observed in the extrudates.
  13. Islam Shishir MR, Taip FS, Aziz NA, Talib RA, Hossain Sarker MS
    Food Sci Biotechnol, 2016;25(2):461-468.
    PMID: 30263292 DOI: 10.1007/s10068-016-0064-0
    The optimization of pink guava was executed using central composite face-centred design to optimize the spray drying parameters of inlet temperature, maltodextrin concentration (MDC) and feed flow (FF). The experimental results were significantly (p<0.01) fitted into second-order polynomial models to describe and predict the response quality in terms of the final moisture, particle size and lycopene with R2 of 0.9749, 0.9616, and 0.9505, respectively. The final moisture content significantly (p<0.01) decreased with increasing inlet temperature and MDC, whereas the particle size increased. In contrast, the lycopene content significantly (p<0.01) decreased with the higher temperature and increased with increasing MDC. However, according to multiple response optimization, the optimum conditions of 150°C inlet temperature, 17.12% (w/v) MDC and 350 mL/h FF-predicted 3.10% moisture content, 11.23 μm particle size and 58.71 mg/100 g lycopene content. The experimental observation satisfied the predicted model within the acceptable range of the responses.
  14. Lau SW, Chong AQ, Chin NL, Talib RA, Basha RK
    Microorganisms, 2021 Jun 23;9(7).
    PMID: 34201420 DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms9071355
    Sourdough is the oldest form of leavened bread used as early as 2000 BC by the ancient Egyptians. It may have been discovered by accident when wild yeast drifted into dough that had been left out resulting in fermentation of good microorganisms, which made bread with better flavour and texture. The discovery was continued where sourdough was produced as a means of reducing wastage with little known (at that point of time) beneficial effects to health. With the progress and advent of science and technology in nutrition, sourdough fermentation is now known to possess many desirable attributes in terms of health benefits. It has become the focus of attention and practice in modern healthy eating lifestyles when linked to the secret of good health. The sourdough starter is an excellent habitat where natural and wild yeast plus beneficial bacteria grow by ingesting only water and flour. As each sourdough starter is unique, with different activities, populations and interactions of yeast and bacteria due to different ingredients, environment, fermentation time and its carbohydrate fermentation pattern, there is no exact elucidation on the complete make-up of the sourdough microbiome. Some lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains that are part of the sourdough starter are considered as probiotics which have great potential for improving gastrointestinal health. Hence, from a wide literature surveyed, this paper gives an overview of microbial communities found in different sourdough starters. This review also provides a systematic analysis that identifies, categorises and compares these microbes in the effort of linking them to specific functions, particularly to unlock their health benefits.
  15. Bahreini N, Noor MI, Koon PB, Talib RA, Lubis SH, Dashti MG, et al.
    J Res Med Sci, 2013 Aug;18(8):641-6.
    PMID: 24379838
    Obesity or being overweight is a major health problem in Iran. Only few studies are available that compare the obesity prevalence by four different available criteria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Isfahani adolescents based on four different definitions.
  16. Wafa SW, Talib RA, Hamzaid NH, McColl JH, Rajikan R, Ng LO, et al.
    Int J Pediatr Obes, 2011 Jun;6(2-2):e62-9.
    PMID: 21604965 DOI: 10.3109/17477166.2011.566340
    CONTEXT: Few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions for the treatment of childhood obesity have taken place outside the Western world.
    AIM: To test whether a good practice intervention for the treatment of childhood obesity would have a greater impact on weight status and other outcomes than a control condition in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    METHODS: Assessor-blinded RCT of a treatment intervention in 107 obese 7- to 11-year olds. The intervention was relatively low intensity (8 hours contact over 26 weeks, group based), aiming to change child sedentary behavior, physical activity, and diet using behavior change counselling. Outcomes were measured at baseline and six months after the start of the intervention. Primary outcome was BMI z-score, other outcomes were weight change, health-related quality of life (Peds QL), objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior (Actigraph accelerometry over 5 days).
    RESULTS: The intervention had no significant effect on BMI z score relative to control. Weight gain was reduced significantly in the intervention group compared to the control group (+1.5 kg vs. +3.5 kg, respectively, t-test p < 0.01). Changes in health-related quality of life and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior favored the intervention group.
    CONCLUSIONS: Treatment was associated with reduced rate of weight gain, and improvements in physical activity and quality of life. More substantial benefits may require longer term and more intensive interventions which aim for more substantive lifestyle changes.
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