Supramolecular building blocks, such as cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n])-based host-guest complexes, have been extensively studied at the nano- and microscale as adhesion promoters. Herein, we exploit a new class of CB[n]-threaded highly branched polyrotaxanes (HBP-CB[n]) as aqueous adhesives to macroscopically bond two wet surfaces, including biological tissue, through the formation of CB heteroternary complexes. The dynamic nature of these complexes gives rise to adhesion with remarkable toughness, displaying recovery and reversible adhesion upon mechanical failure at the interface. Incorporation of functional guests, such as azobenzene moieties, allows for stimuli-activated on-demand adhesion/de-adhesion. Macroscopic interfacial adhesion through dynamic host-guest molecular recognition represents an innovative strategy for designing the next generation of functional interfaces, biomedical devices, tissue adhesives, and wound dressings.
BACKGROUND: Warfarin is an anticoagulant indicated for patients who had undergone mechanical heart valve(s) replacement (MHVR). In these patients, time in therapeutic range (TTR) is important in predicting the bleeding and thrombotic risks.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the anticoagulation control of warfarin using TTR in patients with MHVR in a tertiary health care referral Center.
METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively by reviewing clinical notes of outpatients who attended international normalized ratio (INR) clinics in November 2015. Patients who had MHVR and who took warfarin were included. The data collected were demographics, relevant laboratory investigations, and patients' prior medical history. TTR was calculated using Rosendaal and traditional methods.
RESULTS: A total of 103 patients with MHVR were recruited. The mean age was 51.72 ± 13.97 years and 46.6% were male. A total of 54.4% had mitral valve replacement (MVR), whereas 26.2% had aortic valve replacement (AVR). The mean TTR calculated using the Rosendaal method was 57.1%. There was no significant difference among patients with AVR, MVR, and both valves (AMVR) in terms of TTR (AVR vs. MVR vs. AMVR, 62.94 ± 23.08, 54.12 ± 21.62, 57.63 ± 17.47; p = 0.213). The average dose of warfarin for all groups was approximately 3 mg/day. Moreover, MVR, AVR, and AMVR patients who had TTR (Rosendaal method) ≤60% were 58.9%, 37.0%, and 45.0%, respectively. Only 4.8% had minor bleeding, whereas none had stroke in the period of TTR determination.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite a majority of patients having <60% TTR, there were low incidences of bleeding and stroke events in this center. There were no factors found to be associated with INR control in this study.
Study site: INR clinic, Sarawak Heart Centre, Sarawak General Hospital, Malaysia
Recent progress on highly tough and stretchable polymer networks has highlighted the potential of wearable electronic devices and structural biomaterials such as cartilage. For some given applications, a combination of desirable mechanical properties including stiffness, strength, toughness, damping, fatigue resistance, and self-healing ability is required. However, integrating such a rigorous set of requirements imposes substantial complexity and difficulty in the design and fabrication of these polymer networks, and has rarely been realized. Here, we describe the construction of supramolecular polymer networks through an in situ copolymerization of acrylamide and functional monomers, which are dynamically complexed with the host molecule cucurbituril (CB). High molecular weight, thus sufficient chain entanglement, combined with a small-amount dynamic CB-mediated non-covalent crosslinking (2.5 mol%), yields extremely stretchable and tough supramolecular polymer networks, exhibiting remarkable self-healing capability at room temperature. These supramolecular polymer networks can be stretched more than 100× their original length and are able to lift objects 2000× their weight. The reversible association/dissociation of the host-guest complexes bestows the networks with remarkable energy dissipation capability, but also facile complete self-healing at room temperature. In addition to their outstanding mechanical properties, the networks are ionically conductive and transparent. The CB-based supramolecular networks are synthetically accessible in large scale and exhibit outstanding mechanical properties. They could readily lead to the promising use as wearable and self-healable electronic devices, sensors and structural biomaterials.
The ability to construct self-healing scaffolds that are injectable and capable of forming a designed morphology offers the possibility to engineer sustainable materials. Herein, we introduce supramolecular nested microbeads that can be used as building blocks to construct macroscopic self-healing scaffolds. The core-shell microbeads remain in an "inert" state owing to the isolation of a pair of complementary polymers in a form that can be stored as an aqueous suspension. An annealing process after injection effectively induces the re-construction of the microbead units, leading to supramolecular gelation in a preconfigured shape. The resulting macroscopic scaffold is dynamically stable, displaying self-recovery in a self-healing electronic conductor. This strategy of using the supramolecular assembled nested microbeads as building blocks represents an alternative to injectable hydrogel systems, and shows promise in the field of structural biomaterials and flexible electronics.
Compared with females, little research on muscularity and the sociocultural influences on this domain has been conducted with males in non-Western societies. The current study explored these sociocultural predictors of drive for muscularity among Malaysian male college students, specifically in terms of ethnicity and exposure to media (i.e., Internet and social media). In total, 166 male college students from two universities in Kuala Lumpur were asked to rate the questionnaires as to muscularity-oriented attitudes and behaviours. Multivariable general linear model analyses revealed that being Chinese was a strong predictor of muscularity-oriented attitudes and behaviours. In addition, modern media, particularly, Internet use and the number of followers on Instagram, was found to significantly predict males' drive for muscularity. Overall findings suggest that males of particular ethnic groups may be at higher risk for negative body image compared to the other ethnic populations and modern media use may accelerate drive for muscularity, which may also in turn place males at higher risk for excess muscularity-oriented thoughts and behaviours.
The binding of imidazolium salts to cucurbituril, CB, triggers a stepwise self-assembly process with semiflexible polymer chains and crystalline nanostructures as early- and late-stage species, respectively. In such a process, which involves the crystallization of the host-guest complexes, the guest plays a critical role in directing self-assembly toward desirable morphologies. These include platelet-like aggregates and two-dimensional (2D) fibers, which, moreover, exhibit viscoelastic and lyotropic properties. Our observations provide a deeper understanding of the self-assembly of CB complexes, with fundamental implications in the design of functional 2D systems and crystalline materials.