Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 160 in total

  1. Tan KL
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1984 Apr;13(2):252-63.
    PMID: 6497323
    Perinatal mortality rates have been gradually declining in all countries. The initial decline mainly resulted from improvements in the late foetal mortality rates. Later with improvements in neonatal care, early neonatal mortality rates also improved. The developed countries have consistently shown better results than the developing countries, an indication of the higher standard of living, general health as well as the delivery of health care in these countries. In the Singapore situation, a rapid improvement in perinatal mortality was initially observed due to improvements in the late foetal mortality, followed later by reduction in the early neonatal mortality due to upgrading of neonatal intensive care. The perinatal mortality rate is lowest in the Chinese compared to the Indians and Malays, most likely due to the dietary practices of the three ethnic groups in Singapore; while the Chinese encourage extra nutrition in the pregnant female, the Malays and Indians tend to practise dietary restriction during this period. The improved nutrition of the pregnant mother is a factor in improving the perinatal mortality.
  2. Tan KH
    Bull. Entomol. Res., 2019 Jun 13.
    PMID: 31190651 DOI: 10.1017/S0007485319000208
    Two major fruit fly pest species, Bactrocera dorsalis and B. umbrosa, are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) found in >450 plant species. They are, however, exclusive pollinators of certain daciniphilous (attracting Dacini fruit flies) Bulbophyllum orchids. A comparison between the recaptures of feral males after feeding ad libitum on 0.6 mg ME (simulating an average floral quantity of an orchid flower - Trial 1) and 480 mg in Trial 2 was investigated using the non-invasive capture-mark-release-recapture (CMRR) technique. Based on daily CMRR over a 16-day period, using a different colour enamel paint each day, percentages of B. dorsalis males recaptured in Trial 1 were significantly higher than those in Trial 2. However, for B. umbrosa, percentages of recaptures for different day-specific colours were highly variable due to low fly numbers captured/day. In Trial 1, of 756 B. dorsalis males released, 36.4% were recaptured once, 7.7 twice, 2.4 three times and 0.4 four times. While in Trial 2 of 1157 released males, 6% were recaptured once and 0.3% twice. Of 67 B. umbrosa males released, 28.4% were recaptured once and none more than once in Trial 1. Nevertheless, of 119 flies released in Trial 2, 25.2% were recaptured once and 3.3% twice. Overall, many marked males did return to a single ME-source to 'refuel' ME (a sex pheromone precursor). The results also show that a relatively high number of flies paid multi-visitations to a single 0.6 mg ME-source and indicate that the presence of natural ME-sources may impact area-wide IPM programmes.
  3. Tan KL
    Malays J Nutr, 2009 Mar;15(1):11-8.
    PMID: 22691800 MyJurnal
    This is a cross-sectional study which investigated the association between non-exclusive breastfeeding and maternal, paternal, obstetric and infant factors. Data on maternal, paternal, obstetric and infant factors were collected through face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire from 498 mothers with four-week-old infants who attended government clinics in Klang district between 17 and 28 July 2006. The prevalence of non-exclusive breastfeeding at four weeks was 45.8%. Factors significantly associated with non-exclusive breastfeeding at four weeks included Indian ethnic mother (OR = 4.06), working mother (OR = 3.55), mother from high household income (OR = 1.90), mother who smokes (OR = 7.27), primiparous (OR = 1.97), infant not sharing a bed with mother (OR = 1.75) and infant born prematurely (OR = 7.69). Identification of risk factors should assist in targeting women who are at increased risk of non-exclusive breastfeeding.
  4. Tan KL
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 Oct;74(5):389-393.
    PMID: 31649214
    BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity remains the most important modifiable risk factor in preventing a variety of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and has been identified to be a risk factor for obesity, heart disease and cancers. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with physical inactivity among the suburban adult population in Port Dickson district, Negeri Sembilan, Peninsular Malaysia.
    MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a community based cross-sectional study involving 397 adult respondents conducted in February 2016. Data was collected by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. Data regarding socio-demographic factors (age, gender, ethnicity, education level, marital status and monthly income, working hours), current behavioural stage of physical activity and perceived benefits and barriers to physical activity were collected. Physical activity measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) with the cut-off point of less than 600 met-min per week was considered to be physically inactive.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of physical inactivity among adult population was 36.3%. Factors significantly associated with physical inactivity included age, gender, marital status, working hours and current behavioural stage of physical activity.
    CONCLUSION: Physical inactivity is high among the adult community in Negeri Sembilan district, Peninsular Malaysia and was strongly associated with age, gender, marital status, working hours and current behavioural stage of physical activity. It is important to identify individuals with physical inactivity and its associated factors early as this could severely affect the quality of life of the individuals.
    Study site: Six housing areas in Port Dickson District, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
  5. Fai TK, Kumar PV
    Curr Pharm Des, 2021;27(21):2482-2504.
    PMID: 33504298 DOI: 10.2174/1381612827666210127121347
    This review article mainly focuses on the revolution of the synthesis of gold nanoplatform from the previous era to the present era. Initially, the gold nanoplatform was widely used by the electrical and electronic industries for their products due to its remarkable properties, such as large surface volume, redox activity, fluorescence quenching, and optical-electronic properties. In this era, due to the invention of localised surface plasmonic resonance, optoacoustic, photothermal and theragnostic characteristics of the gold nanoplatforms and their application in biosensors and various diagnostic methods, the pharmaceutical and biotechnological companies have started showing their interest in manufacturing gold nanoplatforms for their new product development. This colloidal dispersion is synthesized in various forms, such as a gold nanoparticle, gold nanoplatform, plasmonic gold nanoparticle, amphiphilic gold nanoparticle, and gold nanocrystal. This review article describes various methods for preparation of gold nanoplatforms with different size, shape, and physiobiological properties and their applications in different fields.
  6. Andrew Tan KK
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Feb;69(1):1.
    PMID: 24814619
    No abstract available.
  7. Tan KL, Harvinder S
    Med J Malaysia, 2010 Jun;65(2):101-2.
    PMID: 23756790 MyJurnal
    Onodi cell is a posterior ethmoid air cell that pneumatizes into the sphenoid sinus, It is an important entity for clinicians when performing endoscopic sinus surgery (EES) because it encroaches into the optic nerve and internal carotid artery. CT-scans are the road map for ESS to prevent damage to structures mentioned above. Its prevalence in Malaysia is unknown.
  8. Tan KL, Yadav H
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Mar;63(1):17-20.
    PMID: 18935725 MyJurnal
    This is a cohort study investigating the profile of children with disability registered with the primary health care clinics in Malaysia. The purpose of the study was to determine whether reassessment on the development of children with disability under rehabilitation should be done at three months interval or six months interval. Secondary data from the pilot project conducted by the Family Health Development Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia was used in this study. The study was carried out for seven months from 1st August 2004 until 28th February 2005. A total of 168 disabled children followed up for six months were selected in this study. Schedule of Growing Scale (SGS) II was the tool used for analysis. Results showed a statistically significant difference in the mean total SGS score at six months interval but not at three months interval. The result suggests that reassessment on children with Down Syndrome, Autism, Cerebral Palsy, mental retardation and delayed speech under rehabilitation should be carried out every six months while children with gross developmental delay and slow learner might need a longer interval for reassessment.
  9. Tan KL, Yadav H
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Aug;63(3):199-202.
    PMID: 19248689 MyJurnal
    This is a cross-sectional study investigating the profile of children with disability registered with the primary health care clinics in Malaysia. The purpose of the study was to assess the developmental stage of children with disability. Secondary data from the pilot project conducted by the Family Health Development Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia was used in this study. The study period was for six months from 1st August 2004 until 31st January 2005. A total of 900 disabled children were selected in this study. Schedule of Growing Scale (SGS) II was used for analysis. Results showed more boys than girls were affected with a ratio of 6:4. The mean total SGS score increases as the age of the child increased. The score was highest in delayed speech cases and lowest in cerebral palsy cases. The performance among children with delayed speech was the highest while children with cerebral palsy were the lowest. There was a statistically significant difference between the major ethnic groups in delayed speech and attention deficit hyperactive disorder.
    Questionnaire: Denver Developmental Assessment Test II chart; DSST; Schedule of Growing Scale II; SGS
  10. Thuraisingham S, Tan KH
    Int J Clin Pract, 1999 Dec;53(8):604-7.
    PMID: 10692754
    Direct coronary angioplasty with stent implantation is an effective treatment for acute myocardial infarction. The use of adjunctive abciximab, a platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist is expensive. We report on three cases of direct coronary angioplasty complicated by extensive thrombus formation that were successfully treated with attenuated dosing of abciximab via the intracoronary route. All patients presented with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock or eminent cardiogenic shock. Abciximab was administered after balloon dilatation when extensive thrombus formation was noted and persisted despite repeated inflations. In all three patients a single 10 mg vial of intracoronary abciximab was administered, resulting in complete dissolution of thrombus, allowing successful deployment of stents. Thus, a single 10 mg intracoronary bolus dose of abciximab may be sufficient to achieve high local concentrations of antiplatelet activity. This facilitates thrombus dissolution and allows the safe deployment of a stent to normalise intracoronary rheology.
  11. Kaur P, Tan KK
    Acta Paediatr Jpn, 1994 Feb;36(1):95-6.
    PMID: 8165919
    A three day old male, term infant with hemothorax due to hemorrhagic disease of the newborn was treated successfully with vitamin K and thoracocentesis. Exclusive breast feeding and absence of vitamin K prophylaxis were important diagnostic clues, although hemothorax as a sole manifestation of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is rare. This case highlighted the good prognosis of an uncommon complication when prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are instituted. The importance of vitamin K prophylaxis to all newborns is emphasized.
  12. Ooi, Yin Yin, Soyza, R. M., Low, Z. X., Tan, K. L.
    Introduction: Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) have become increasingly prevalent in recent years. Microglia, the resident myeloid cells of the Central Nervous System (CNS) are primarily responsible for the production of inflammatory mediators that accumulate and become toxic during a chronic inflammatory response. The accumulation of inflammatory mediators over time inadvertently contributes to the functional impairment of surrounding neurons. Hence, suppressing microglial cell activation can be a solution to control the progress of neurodegenerative disorders. Symptomatic treatments are available, but no curative treatment is currently available, and some are linked to several side effects associated with their use. Honey is a natural product derived from the nectar harvested and modified by honeybees. Its therapeutic effects are widely documented, have been tested and verified extensively in literature. Honey is recognized in modern medicine for its varied pharmacological activities. While the medicinal properties of honeys such as Manuka honey are well established, further investigation is required to elucidate the medicinal properties of locally sourced honeys, namely Tualang (TH) and Kelulut (KH) honeys. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of local TH and KH honey on microglial cell activities. Methods: BV2 cells, an immortalized microglial cell line was used in this in vitro study to assess the cell survival when treated with the TH and KH honey. Expression of CD40, CD11b and CD86 were measured using flowcytometry. Results: BV2 cells incubated with TH at concentrations of 0.1% and 0.5%, and KH at concentrations of 0.1% and 0.25% for 24 and 48 hours showed cell survivability above 75%. Both TH and KH decreased ROS production significantly on LPS-induced BV2 cells, but increased ROS production on unstimulated BV2 cells. Additionally, the expression levels of CD40, CD11b and CD86 were also reduced on honey- treated LPS-induced BV2 cells. Conclusion: These results have demonstrated that both TH and KH are capable of suppressing microglial activation. Therefore, we propose the idea of utilizing these honeys as a complementary treatment to suppress the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.
  13. Tan K H
    Aliran Monthly, 2008;28(10):24-25.
    Commemorative articles on M K Rajakumar
  14. Tan YY, Tan K
    Clin Med (Lond), 2019 Nov;19(6):511-513.
    PMID: 31732595 DOI: 10.7861/clinmed.2019-0247
    Hypertensive encephalopathy (HE) is a subset of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. It typically involves the posterior supratentorial structures, but variations do occur. However, isolated brainstem involvement in HE is rare, with a few cases reported in the literature. Herein, we report a case of acute hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy in which the patient had mild symptoms with very high blood pressure and normal neurological examination. The computed tomography of the brain showed diffuse hypodensity at brainstem. The patient's symptoms improved drastically after hypertension had been controlled. Marked clinical-radiologic dissociation in this particular case was highly suggestive of hypertensive brainstem encephalopathy. Prompt recognition of the condition and aggressive treatment of hypertension in such patients is crucial to relieve oedema and to prevent life-threatening progression. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of awareness among physicians and radiologists regarding this rare clinical entity.
  15. Tan K, Kwek E
    Malays Orthop J, 2020 Mar;14(1):24-27.
    PMID: 32296478 DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.2003.004
    Introduction: Orthopaedic surgeons are significantly predisposed to musculoskeletal injury, and these injuries can have negative effects on surgeon function and patient outcomes. While this phenomenon has been studied in the non-Asian population of surgeons, no study has been carried out in the local or regional Asian setting. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics and associations of occupational injuries in orthopaedic surgeons and residents, and to assess its functional impact.

    Materials and Methods: The Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was sent out to all orthopaedic consultants and residents at two institutions in Singapore, via an email link to an online survey. Separately, further questions on symptom description, severity and treatment were surveyed. Additional information like age, gender, height and weight were obtained as well.

    Results: A total of 87.5% respondents have at least one injury. Neck symptoms (66.1%) were the most prevalent, and back symptoms had the highest median severity score (4.5/10). The 74.1% of these injuries were reported as directly attributable to work. Age was found to be associated with an increase in the total number of anatomical areas affected (p = 0.016). A seated operating position was associated with more severe back pain (p = 0.040).

    Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of occupational injuries sustained in our population of orthopaedic surgeons. Neck symptoms, followed by back and wrist symptoms, were the predominant symptoms in our population. Targeted ergonomic interventions may be considered to prevent specific musculoskeletal injuries in our population of orthopaedic surgeons.

  16. Syedhussain S, Tan K, Abu Bakar M
    Malays J Nutr, 1996 Mar;2(1):79-86.
    PMID: 22692100
    Our earlier report showed that diet rich in calcium and sodium fed to guinea pigs can be urolithogenic. In this study, we investigated the effect of adding 3% or 15% cellulose as a source of fiber into similar diet to asses the formation of kidney calculus. From the result, animals fed diet with 3% cellulose showed a relatively high concentration of urinary oxalate, urate and large number of crystals in the kidneys. When the cellulose level was raised to 15%, the concentrations of urinary calcium, urate and the number of crystals formed in the kidneys were lowered. We therefore, conclude that high fiber diet may be beneficial in reducing the incidence of kidney stones of calcium origin.
  17. Chee KH, Tan KS
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Jun;69(3):119-23.
    PMID: 25326351 MyJurnal
    OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a well-recognised, major risk factor for ischaemic stroke. The presence of atrial fibrillation in a stroke patient translates into higher mortality rates and significant disability. There is lack of data on the impact of atrial fibrillation on stroke patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of AF in a hospital setting and determine the risk factors, clinical profile and discharge outcomes in ischaemic stroke patients with and without atrial fibrillation from a tertiary centre in Malaysia.
    METHODS: This was a retrospective review of patients admitted consecutively to the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur with the diagnosis of stroke during the first six months of 2009. The presence of AF was confirmed with a 12- lead ECG. All patients had neuroimaging with either cranial computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Other variables such as clinical features, risk factors, stroke subtypes, length of acute ward stay, complications and evaluation at discharge (mortality) with modified Rankin scale (mRS) were also recorded.
    RESULTS: A total of 207 patients were admitted with stroke during the study duration. Twenty two patients (10.6%) were found to have non valvular AF. Patients with AF were found to be older with a mean age of 71.0 ± 2.2 than those without AF with a mean age of 63.6 ± 0.89 (p<0.05). Risk factors for stroke such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension were equally common between the two groups while the proportion of patients with ischaemic heart disease was higher among patients with AF (p<0.005). Most of the stroke subtypes among patients with AF were of ischaemic type (n=192; 92.8%) while haemorrhagic stroke was uncommon (n=15; 6.2%). Patients with AF had a longer median hospital stay, higher mortality rate and greater functional disability on hospital discharge compared to non AF patients.
    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of AF among stroke patients in a tertiary centre in Malaysia was 10.6%. Stroke patients with AF were observed to have a higher mortality rate and disability on hospital discharge.
    Study site: University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
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