A three day old male, term infant with hemothorax due to hemorrhagic disease of the newborn was treated successfully with vitamin K and thoracocentesis. Exclusive breast feeding and absence of vitamin K prophylaxis were important diagnostic clues, although hemothorax as a sole manifestation of hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is rare. This case highlighted the good prognosis of an uncommon complication when prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are instituted. The importance of vitamin K prophylaxis to all newborns is emphasized.
The antidiabetic potential of Alternanthera sessilis Red was investigated using the obese type 2 diabetic rats induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin. Three fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) were obtained from the crude ethanol extract of Alternanthera sessilis Red. Alternanthera sessilis Red ethyl acetate fraction (ASEAF) was found to possess the most potent antihyperglycemic effect through oral glucose tolerance test. The ASEAF was subsequently given to the diabetic rats for two weeks. It was found that two-week administration of ASEAF reduces the fasting blood glucose level, triglyceride level, and free fatty acid level of the rats. ASEAF-treated diabetic rats showed higher pancreatic insulin content and pancreatic total superoxide dismutase activity compared to the untreated diabetic rats. Also, the insulin sensitivity indexes suggested that ASEAF ameliorates the insulin resistant state of the diabetic rats. In conclusion, ASEAF could be developed into a potential antidiabetic agent for the management of type 2 diabetes.
Unilateral pulmonary agenesis is a rare disorder and is an unusual cause of respiratory distress in the newborn. It is often associated with other congenital abnormalities, as documented in about 200 cases of unilateral pulmonary agenesis in the current literature. The onset and mode of presentation are highly variable, from asymptomatic cases discovered incidentally to symptomatic cases diagnosed in early infancy. We report a newborn infant with right pulmonary agenesis associated with facial and skeletal abnormalities who presented with respiratory distress. Unilateral pulmonary agenesis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of respiratory distress in the newborn, particularly when there are other associated congenital abnormalities.
A 5-year-old Chinese boy presented with difficulty in walking and weakness of his lower limbs for one year, especially towards the evening. Bilateral equinovarus posturing of the feet and tremors of the upper limbs were noted on physical examination. Dopa-responsive dystonia was diagnosed after a remarkable symptomatic response to levodopa. This disorder is reported here to highlight an often misdiagnosed condition is children which is important because it is treatable. Dopa-responsive dystonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of gait disturbance in children.
Six hands from five patients were seen with full-thickness burns following a ritual practice between June 1993 and June 1994. Three hands were treated with excision and medium-thickness split-skin grafts, one patient was treated with a medium-thickness split skin graft taken from the instep of the foot. The first patient with bilateral burns of the palms refused surgery and returned 3 months later with contractures of the palms. The results of the treated hands are presented.
Scrub typhus is a common cause of febrile illness among children from rural regions in tropical countries. We described 2 cases of scrub typhus with an eschar localized in the genitalia that was missed during the routine medical examination of a febrile child.
Forty-two patients with traumatic blunt splenic injuries were admitted over a six year period. Vehicular-related collisions and fall from height accounted for the injuries in 38 (90.5%) of them. Eleven (26.2%) underwent immediate surgery (7 splenectomy and 4 splenorrhaphy), while the remaining 31 patients were treated nonoperatively of which 3 underwent angio-embolisation. Twenty seven patients had either grade III or IV splenic injuries. Operative management was more likely in patients with lower haemoglobin or with more severe splenic injury. Nonoperative management can be adopted in patients with blunt isolated splenic injuries but operative management is still indispensable in certain instances.
From 10th September 1998 till 5th June 1999, the Paediatric and Cardiothoracic Surgery Units of Sultanah Aminah Hospital Johor Bahru managed three children with lung collapse secondary to pneumonia. The dominant initial clinical presentation in all three cases was acute abdominal pain. Basal pneumonia was diagnosed in two cases post-operatively after surgical contributory causes were excluded intra-operatively. Thoracotomy, evacuation of infected debris and decortication of the collapsed lung was done in all three cases. In children presenting with acute abdominal pain, basal pneumonia should be considered as a possible contributory cause.
Recto-prostatic fistula is a rare complication of prostatic surgery, occurring usually because surgical planes are not appreciated. We describe a combined abdomino-perineal approach for the repair of a large recto-prostatic fistula with the interposition of omentum and gracilis without formally closing the fistula in layers.
Baby walker associated injuries are occurring in Malaysia. Most are not noticed as paediatricians are more concerned with the treatment of the injury and forget the preventive measures required to overcome this problem. We believe that baby walkers should be banned in Malaysia as the risks of injury far outweighs any benefits. We present 4 cases of baby walker associated scalding injuries.
A 27-year old male sustained a 60 per cent TBSA burn with inhalation injury following a road traffic accident. He developed respiratory distress on day 3 postburn, and was intubated and ventilated. He was noted to have greenish aspirate from his trachea on day 17 of ventilation. He succumbed from sepsis and died on day 21 post injury. At post-mortem, a large tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TOF) was found at the level of the cuff of the nasotracheal tube.
A 7-year-old Indian girl developed complete paralysis of her lower limbs and acute urinary retention 10 days after suffering from mumps. Encephalomyelitis due to mumps was not suspected initially since it is a rare complication of mumps, although relatively well-documented. However, the preceding history of parotitis and the presence of mumps-specific IgM in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid led to the diagnosis. The initially severe acute neurological deficits resolved completely three months after onset of her illness. Serological investigations were helpful in diagnosing neurological complications of mumps in this case, and especially where there is no preceding parotitis.
Keywords: Mumps, encephalomyelitis, infection, Pulau Pinang, general hospital, Malaysia
A case of sarcoidosis is reported in the hope that this seemingly rare disease in Malaysia will be better recognised. A brief review of the literature is made and various points regarding the aetiology, pathology, clinical features and diagnosis are discussed.
Dengue virus type 3 genotype III (DENV-3/III) is widely distributed in most dengue-endemic regions. It emerged in Malaysia in 2008 and autochthonously spread in the midst of endemic DENV-3/I circulation. The spread, however, was limited and the virus did not cause any major outbreak. Spatiotemporal distribution study of DENV-3 over the period between 2005 and 2011 revealed that dengue cases involving DENV-3/III occurred mostly in areas without pre-existing circulating DENV-3. Neutralisation assays performed using sera of patients with the respective infection showed that the DENV-3/III viruses can be effectively neutralised by sera of patients with DENV-3 infection (50% foci reduction neutralisation titres (FRNT50) > 1300). Sera of patients with DENV-1 infection (FRNT50 ⩾ 190), but not sera of patients with DENV-2 infection (FRNT50 ⩽ 50), were also able to neutralise the virus. These findings highlight the possibility that the pre-existing homotypic DENV-3 and the cross-reacting heterotypic DENV-1 antibody responses could play a role in mitigating a major outbreak involving DENV-3/III in the Klang Valley, Malaysia.
The records associated with 83 children from 16 months to 12 years of age who were admitted with snake bite to Kota Bharu General Hospital and University Hospital, Universiti Sains Malaysia over a 5 year period were reviewed. Elapid bites were more common than viper bites while sea-snake bites were not recorded. Symptoms were relatively mild, the common clinical features being pain and local swelling. Antivenom therapy was required in 11 children. Only three of the 11 children developed minor adverse reactions to antivenom. Four of the 83 required ventilatory support for respiratory failure and two children died.
Chloroform extract of bark of Artabotrys crassifolius Hook.f. & Thomson exhibited antibacterial activities against both American Type Culture Collection and clinical bacterial strains in vitro with zones of inhibition ranging from 7 to 14 mm. Further analysis of this extract yielded artabotrine, liridine, lysicamine and atherospermidine. Artabotrine displayed a broad array of antibacterial activity mostly against Gram-positive bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 1.25 μg/mL to 5 μg/mL. Of note, artabotrine, liridine and lysicamine are bactericidal against Gram-negative extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella with MIC values equal 2.5, 2.5 and 10 μg/mL, respectively, and minimum bactericidal concentrations values equal to 2.5, 5 and 20 μg/mL.
Oncologic outcomes following laparoscopic abdomino-perineal resection (APR) for distal rectal cancer are infrequently reported. This study aims to compare the long term outcomes between laparoscopic and open APR in distal rectal cancers.
Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a distinct but rare clinical entity often presents late with a diagnostic difficulty. Its non-specific manifestations require exclusion of several chronic inflammatory disorders and other humorous lesions but all investigations including highly predictive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopic examination are non-diagnostic demanding confirmatory tissue biopsy. A typical case of such lesion is presented to highlight some potential difficulties.