Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 63 in total

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  1. Tan SH
    Disabil Health J, 2015 Jul;8(3):414-23.
    PMID: 25595295 DOI: 10.1016/j.dhjo.2014.11.003
    BACKGROUND: Planning and evaluation of health care services for children with disabilities requires information on their caregivers' needs.
    OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to present the development and psychometric properties of the Caregiver Needs Scale (CNS), a scale assessing the needs of caregivers of children with disabilities aged 0-12 years in Malaysia.
    METHODS: Development of the scale went through a multistage process of literature review, modification of an existing instrument, input from experts and feedback from service users. Literature review identified content domains and response options. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was undertaken to identify subscales of caregiver needs. The internal consistency reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity of the new scale were examined.
    RESULTS: 273 caregivers of children with disabilities completed the fielded questionnaire. EFA revealed 4 subscales of caregiver needs: need for 'Help getting information and services for the child,' 'Help coping with the child,' 'Help getting child care' and 'Help with finances.' Three items with factor loading <0.4 were dropped. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of the subscales ranged from 0.813 to 0.903. Total CNS score correlated with number of child's needs and unmet needs. The score was also higher in families with financial and employment problems.
    CONCLUSION: A new instrument was developed to assess the needs of caregivers of children with disabilities for use in the Malaysian population. The CNS showed satisfactory psychometric properties but further examination is warranted to confirm its validity.
    KEYWORDS: Caregivers; Children with disabilities; Instrument development; Needs assessment; Psychometric properties
  2. Tan SH
    Health Soc Care Community, 2017 03;25(2):447-457.
    PMID: 26833929 DOI: 10.1111/hsc.12325
    Disability in a child not only affects the child but also presents socioeconomic and psychological impacts to the child's family. This study aims to describe the service needs of caregivers of children with disabilities in the state of Penang, Malaysia, and to determine the child and family characteristics predisposing to having more caregiver needs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February and June 2013 among caregivers of children aged 0-12 years with disabilities registered with the Penang Department of Social Welfare. Caregivers completed a self-administered mailed questionnaire containing a 20-item Caregiver Needs Scale (CNS). Each item in the CNS was rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 'help not at all needed' to 'help extremely needed'. A total of 273 surveys were available for analysis (response rate 34.0%). The CNS contained four domains. The 'Help getting Information and Services for child' domain had the highest mean score (3.61, 95% CI: 3.46, 3.77) followed by 'Help with Finances' (3.29, 95% CI: 3.13, 3.45) and 'Help Coping with child' (3.11, 95% CI: 2.97, 3.25), while the 'Help getting Childcare' domain had the lowest mean score (2.30, 95% CI: 2.13, 2.47). Multivariate regression analysis identified caregivers of younger children and with more severe disability as having more caregiver needs in all domains. Besides that, caregivers of children with learning disability needed more help getting information and help with coping. Caregivers of children with learning and multiple disabilities needed more help getting childcare compared to children with other disability. Caregivers of Indian ethnicity, who had less than a tertiary education and who themselves had medical problems needed more help with finances. The findings on caregiver needs in this study can help inform planning of family support services for children with disabilities in Penang, Malaysia.
  3. Tan SH
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Nov;27(8 Suppl):41S-51S.
    PMID: 26122314 DOI: 10.1177/1010539515592461
    Information on unmet health care needs reveal problems that are related to unavailability and inaccessibility of services. The study objectives were to determine the prevalence, and the reasons for unmet service needs among children with disabilities in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Caregivers of children with disabilities aged 0 to 12 years registered with the Penang Social Welfare Department in 2012 answered a self-administered mailed questionnaire. A total of 305 questionnaires were available for analysis (response rate 37.9%). Services that were very much needed and yet highly unmet were dental services (49.6% needed, 59.9% unmet), dietary advice (30.9% needed, 63.3% unmet), speech therapy (56.9% needed, 56.8% unmet), psychology services (25.5% needed, 63.3% unmet), and communication aids (33.0% needed, 79.2% unmet). Access problems were mainly due to logistic issues and caregivers not knowing where to obtain services. Findings from this study can be used to inform strategies for service delivery and advocacy for children with disabilities in Penang, Malaysia.
  4. Tan SH, Prepageran N
    J Laryngol Otol, 2015 Sep;129(9):928-31.
    PMID: 26193981 DOI: 10.1017/S0022215115001838
    This case report presents our experience of endoscopic transnasal management of medial intra- and extraconal lesions.
  5. Tan SH, Prepageran N
    QJM, 2018 Oct 01;111(10):743.
    PMID: 29660085 DOI: 10.1093/qjmed/hcy084
  6. Tan SH, Mohd Aris E, Kurahashi H, Mohamed Z
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Aug;27(2):287-93.
    PMID: 20962727
    Iranihindia martellata (Senior-White, 1924) is recorded from peninsular Malaysia for the first time. Male and female specimens in the recent collections of forensically important sarcophagid flies were examined and identified based on morphology and DNA sequencing analysis. Male genitalia offer unambiguous species identification characteristics in the traditional taxonomy of flesh flies but the female flies are very similar to one another in general morphology. Female of I. martellata was determined by DNA sequencing (COI and COII) and PCR-RFLP (COI) analysis. Identified females were carefully examined and compared with the morphologically similar species, Liopygia ruficornis (Fabricius, 1794). Female genitalia are re-described and illustrated in this paper.
  7. Tan SH, Ong KC, Wong KT
    J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 2014 Nov;73(11):999-1008.
    PMID: 25289894 DOI: 10.1097/NEN.0000000000000122
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71)-associated hand, foot, and mouth disease may be complicated by encephalomyelitis. We investigated EV71 brainstem infection and whether this infection could be ameliorated by passive immunization in a mouse model. Enterovirus 71 was injected into unilateral jaw/facial muscles of 2-week-old mice, and hyperimmune sera were given before or after infection. Harvested tissues were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and viral titration. In unimmunized mice, viral antigen and RNA were detected within 24 hours after infection only in ipsilateral cranial nerves, motor trigeminal nucleus, reticular formation, and facial nucleus; viral titers were significantly higher in the brainstem than in the spinal cord samples. Mice given preinfection hyperimmune serum showed a marked reduction of ipsilateral viral antigen/RNA and viral titers in the brainstem in a dose-dependent manner. With optimum hyperimmune serum given after infection, brainstem infection was significantly reduced in a time-dependent manner. A delay in disease onset and a reduction of disease severity and mortality were also observed. Thus, EV71 can directly infect the brainstem, including the medulla, via cranial nerves, most likely by retrograde axonal transport. This may explain the sudden cardiorespiratory collapse in human patients with fatal encephalomyelitis. Moreover, our results suggest that passive immunization may still benefit EV71-infected patients who have neurologic complications.
  8. Tan SH, Chong AW, Prepageran N
    Iran J Otorhinolaryngol, 2015 Sep;27(82):391-4.
    PMID: 26568944
    INTRODUCTION: Atypical infratemporal fossa infections are rare and potentially fatal.

    CASE REPORT: A case of an aspergillosis localized in the infratemporal fossa and another case of tuberculosis of the infratemporal fossa originating from the maxillary sinus, is described. The first patient was immunocompromised and showed symptoms of facial numbness; whereas the other was an immunocompetent man who complained of trigeminal neuralgia type pain. It was difficult to differentiate between infection and tumour despite the utilization of computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging.

    CONCLUSION: These cases illustrate the need for a high index of suspicion; in addition to endoscopic confirmation and histopathology to establish precise diagnosis and early intervention.

  9. Au SL, Tan SH, Harikrishna K, Napis S
    J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Biophys., 2002 Oct;6(5):301-8.
    PMID: 12385964
    Four ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase cDNA clones were isolated from mature leaves and pith of sago palm by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Three of them (agpp10, agpp12 and agpl19) encoded the AGP large subunit, while the fourth clone (agpl1) encoded the small subunit. agpp10 and agpp12 were isolated from pith, agpl19 was isolated from mature leaves, while agpl1 from both tissues. In addition, a full-length cDNA of agpl1 was successfully isolated from a cDNA library of mature leaves by a PCR-based screening technique. Semi-quantitative analysis suggests that agpp10 and agpp12 were detectable only in pith, agpl19 only in leaves, while agpl1 was expressed in both leaves and pith tissues.
  10. Tan SH, Balachandran R, Prepageran N
    Eur. J. Intern. Med., 2019 02;60:e3-e4.
    PMID: 29759815 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejim.2018.05.012
  11. Tan SH, Ong KC, Perera D, Wong KT
    Antiviral Res., 2016 Aug;132:196-203.
    PMID: 27340013 DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2016.04.015
    BACKGROUND: Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) encephalomyelitis is an often fatal disease for which there is no specific treatment available. Passive immunization with a specific monoclonal antibody to EV-A71 was used on a murine model of EV-A71 encephalomyelitis to evaluate its therapeutic effectiveness before and after established central nervous system (CNS) infection.

    METHODS: Mice were intraperitoneally-infected with a mouse-adapted EV-A71 strain and treated with a dose of monoclonal antibody (MAb) daily for 3 days on day 1, 2 and 3 post-infection or for 3 days on 3, 4 and 5 post-infection. Treatment effectiveness was evaluated by signs of infection and survival rate. Histopathology and qPCR analyses were performed on mice sacrificed a day after completing treatment.

    RESULTS: In mock-treated mice, CNS infection was established from day 3 post-infection. All mice treated before established CNS infection, survived and recovered completely without CNS infection. All mice treated after established CNS infection survived with mild paralysis, and viral load and antigens/RNA at day 6 post-infection were significantly reduced.

    CONCLUSIONS: Passive immunization with our MAb could prevent CNS infection in mice if given early before the establishment of CNS infection. It could also ameliorate established CNS infection if optimal and repeated doses were given.

  12. Tan SH, Chung HH, Shu-Chien AC
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2010 Mar 12;393(3):397-403.
    PMID: 20138842 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.01.130
    Despite the known importance of long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) during development, very little is known about their utilization and biosynthesis during embryogenesis. Combining the advantages of the existence of a complete range of enzymes required for LC-PUFA biosynthesis and the well established developmental biology tools in zebrafish, we examined the expression patterns of three LC-PUFA biosynthesis genes, Elovl2-like elongase (elovl2), Elovl5-like elongase (elovl5) and fatty acyl desaturase (fad) in different zebrafish developmental stages. The presence of all three genes in the brain as early as 24 hours post fertilization (hpf) implies LC-PUFA synthesis activity in the embryonic brain. This expression eventually subsides from 72 hpf onwards, coinciding with the initiation of elovl2 and fad expression in the liver and intestine, 2 organs known to be involved in adult fish LC-PUFA biosynthesis. Collectively, these patterns strongly suggest the necessity for localized production of LC-PUFA in the brain during in early stage embryos prior to the maturation of the liver and intestine. Interestingly, we also showed a specific expression of elovl5 in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of the zebrafish pronephros, suggesting a possible new role for LC-PUFA in kidney development and function.
  13. Woo SP, Yasin Z, Tan SH, Kajihara H, Fujita T
    Zookeys, 2015.
    PMID: 26798290 DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.545.6415
    Five sea cucumber species including one new species of the genus Stichopus are reported from the shallow coral reefs of Straits of Malacca. The new species Stichopus fusiformiossa has unusual fusiform spicules in the tentacles, which are not found in the other species of the genus. Pseudo-tables and large perforated plates are newly recorded for Stichopus hermanni Semper, 1868 and Stichopus vastus Sluiter, 1887, respectively.
  14. Tan SH, Chong AW, Nazarina AR, Prepageran N
    Otolaryngol Pol, 2014 Sep-Oct;68(5):268-70.
    PMID: 25283325 DOI: 10.1016/j.otpol.2013.09.003
    We describe a rare case of BSCC in the retromolar trigone with only 3 other cases in the literature and also compare the differences between 2 cases of BSCC in terms of presentation and progression. The first patient had a markedly slower progression with painful retromolar trigone swelling over 4 months without nodal metastases. In contrast, the second patient gave a 2-week history of neck swelling with nodal involvement, indicating extremely rapid progression. Our management was tailored accordingly with the first patient undergoing intraoral excision of tumour and adjuvant radiotherapy while the other had bilateral neck dissection with postoperative chemoradiotherapy. Both patients achieved good outcome and are free from disease.
  15. Tan SH, Brand Y, Prepageran N, Waran V
    Neurol India, 2015 Sep-Oct;63(5):673-80.
    PMID: 26448224 DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.166539
    We present our experience in managing pathologies involving the anterior and middle cranial base using an endoscopic transnasal approach, highlighting the surgical technique, indications, and complications. The different types of endoscopic approaches used include the transtuberculum/transplanum, transcribiform, transsellar, and cavernous sinus approaches. The common indications include repair of cerebrospinal fluid leaks (both spontaneous and post traumatic) and excision of pituitary adenomas, meningiomas, craniopharyngiomas, esthesioneuroblastomas, and other malignancies of the anterior cranial base. Careful reconstruction is performed with the multilayer technique utilizing fat, fascia lata, and fibrin sealant. The endoscopic transnasal approach, coupled with the present-day sophisticated neuronavigation systems, allows access to lesions in the midline extending from the cribriform plate to the craniovertebral junction. However, preoperative planning and careful selection of cases with evaluation of each case on an individual basis with regard to the lateral extension of the lesion are imperative.
  16. Tan SH, Hindi KW, Chandran PA, Chong AW
    Iran J Otorhinolaryngol, 2015 May;27(80):243-6.
    PMID: 26082908
    INTRODUCTION: A rare case of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) of the larynx, which has not been previously reported, is described.

    CASE REPORT: A 60-year-old man was presented to the Otolaryngology Department with progressive dyspnoea and dysphagia to solids for over a period of 1 week. Direct laryngoscopy revealed a tumour at the laryngeal aspect of the epiglottis, which prolapsed into the laryngeal inlet each time the patient inspired. This resulted in an inspiratory stridor despite adequate glottic opening and normal mobility of the vocal cords.

    CONCLUSION: Therefore, in cases where a ball-valve lesion causes intermittent life-threatening airway obstruction, BSCC of the larynx, though rare, must be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  17. Teo CH, Tan SH, Othman YR, Schwarzacher T
    J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Biophys., 2002 Jun;6(3):193-201.
    PMID: 12186754
    Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons have been identified and investigated in several plant species. Here, the internal region of the reverse transcriptase (RT) gene of Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons was amplified by PCR from total genomic DNA of 10 varieties of banana. Two to four clones from each variety were sequenced. Extreme heterogeneity in the sequences of Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons from all the varieties was revealed following sequence analysis of the reverse transcriptase (RT) fragments. The size of the individual RT gene fragments varied between 213 and 309 bp. Southern blots of genomic DNA digested from Musa acuminata and other banana varieties probed with W8 clone from M. acuminata and A4 clone from Pisang Abu Nipah showed similar strong, multiple restriction fragments together with other faint hybridization band patterns with variable intensities indicating the presence of many copies of the Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons in the genomes. There was no correlation between retroelement sequence and the banana species (with A or B genomes) from which it arose, suggesting that the probes are not useful for tracking genomes through breeding populations.
  18. Ross IN, Madhavan HN, Tan SH, Abdul Rahim K
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1985 Dec;40(4):301-6.
    PMID: 3025569
    Serological markers were used to determine the infective agents causing acute viral hepatitis in 246 patients. The frequencies of the five viral infections investigated were: non-A, non-B hepatitis - 99 patients (40.2%); hepatitis A - 98 patients (39.8%); hepatitis B - 43 patients (17.5%); cytomegalovirus - 4 patients (1.6%); and Epstein-Barr virus - 2 patients (0.8%). The log mean ages of presentation for the three predominant infections were: hepatitis A - 18 years; hepatitis B - 25 years; and non-A, non-B hepatitis - 30 years (F = 18.8, p =< 0.001). 52% of all cases were Malays (expected 32. 7%); 32% Chinese (expected 54.6%); and 16% Indians (expected 1l.5%) (X2 = 53, p = < 0.001). Hepatitis A virus infection was more common amongst Malays whilst non-A, non-B hepatitis was more frequent amongst Chinese and Indians. 28% of children <16 years) and 50% of adults had serological markers of previous hepatitis B infection. The variation in frequency for the different forms of hepatitis amongst the three main ethnic groups would suggest that socioeconomic and/or cultural factors are important in the propagation of acute viral hepatitis in Malaysia. HBsAg-negative chronic liver disease in our community may be a product of the high incidence of non-A, non-B hepatitis.
  19. Tan SH, Habibullah MS, Tan SK, Choon SW
    J. Environ. Manage., 2017 Dec 01;203(Pt 1):603-611.
    PMID: 28285804 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.02.029
    This study investigates the impact of the aggregate and individual dimensions of environmental performance (EP) on financial performance (FP), based on a dataset covering the travel and tourism industry (airlines, casinos, hotels, and restaurants) across different economic regions over the period 2003-2014. The results reveal that EP positively affects the FP in the hotel industry when aggregate EP is used. When individual dimensions of EP are considered, resource reduction is found to positively (negatively) affect the performance in the hotel (airline) industry, while product innovation positively affects the performance in the restaurant industry. Hence, the trade-off effect seems to be dominant in the airline industry, and the 'heterogeneous resources and reputation-building' hypothesis is evident in both the hotel and restaurant industries. In addition, in general, the findings support the positive moderating effect of slack resources on the relationship between the individual dimensions of EP and FP in the travel and tourism industry, and, hence, are supportive of the slack resources hypothesis. These effects, however, vary depending on the travel and tourism industry under investigation.
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