Over the past decade, a number of unique zoonotic and non-zoonotic viruses have emerged in Malaysia. Several of these viruses have resulted in significant morbidity and mortality to those affected and they have imposed a tremendous public health and economic burden on the state. Amongst the most devastating was the outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in 1998, which resulted in 109 deaths. The culling of more than a million pigs, identified as the amplifying host, ultimately brought the outbreak under control. A year prior to this, and subsequently again in 2000 and 2003, large outbreaks of hand-foot-and-mouth disease due to enterovirus 71, with rare cases of fatal neurological complications, were reported in young children. Three other new viruses - Tioman virus (1999), Pulau virus (1999), and Melaka virus (2006) - whose origins have all been linked to bats, have been added to the growing list of novel viruses being discovered in Malaysia. The highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has also been detected in Malaysia with outbreaks in poultry in 2004, 2006, and 2007. Fortunately, no human infections were reported. Finally, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has seen the emergence of an HIV-1 recombinant form (CRF33_01B) in HIV-infected individuals from various risk groups, with evidence of ongoing and rapid expansion.
To assess the prevalence of major drug resistance mutations in antiretroviral (ARV)-treated patients with detectable viral load (VL) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, genotypic resistance testing was performed among treated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) patients attending the University Malaya Medical Center between July 2003 and November 2004. The reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease genes from 36 plasma samples with detectable VL were examined for major mutations associated with ARV resistance as reported by the International AIDS Society-USA Drug Resistance Mutations Group. The prevalence of patients with at least one major mutation conferring drug resistance to nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs), non-NRTIs (NNRTIs) or protease inhibitors (PIs) was 77.8%. In the RT gene, the frequency of mutations associated with NRTIs and NNRTIs resistance was 52.8 and 63.9%, respectively, with M184V and K103N mutations being selected most frequently by these drugs. A patient with Q151M mutation complex was also detected. Twenty-two percent of the patients had mutations associated with PIs. The following pattern of prevalence of ARV-resistant HIV-1 variants was observed: NNRTI-resistant > NRTI-resistant > PI-resistant. The prevalence of major drug resistance mutations among ARV-treated patients with detectable VL is high in Kuala Lumpur. Genotypic drug resistance testing is therefore important for monitoring patients experiencing ARV regimen failure.
To assess the prevalence of mutations associated with drug resistance in antiretroviral-naive patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, genotypic resistance testing was conducted among drug-naive HIV-1 patients attending the University Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) between July 2003 and June 2004. Reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease genes of plasma virions were sequenced from 100 individuals. The majority of the patients were recently diagnosed. Codons 20-255 of the RT and 1-96 of the protease gene were examined for major and minor mutations associated with antiretroviral resistance reported by the International AIDS Society- USA (IAS-USA) Drug Resistance Mutations Group. The prevalence of patients with at least one major mutation conferring drug resistance was 1%, with only one patient having a Y181C amino acid substitution in the RT gene that confers high-level resistance to nevirapine and delavirdine. Minor mutations were detected in high prevalence in the protease gene. Amino acid substitutions I13V, E35D, and M36I were associated with CRF01_AE while L63P, V77I, and I93L were associated with subtype B. Baseline prevalence of major mutations associated with resistance to antiretroviral drugs was low among antiretroviral-naive HIV-1 patients, suggesting that routine drug resistance testing may be unnecessary for all individuals newly diagnosed with HIV or all patients beginning antiretroviral therapy.
Pluralibacter gergoviae FB2, a bacterial strain isolated from packed food, has been found to exhibit quorum-quenching properties. Hence, we report the first, complete genome of P. gergoviae sequenced using the Pacific Biosciences single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) platform.
To date, information on plasmid analysis in Pandoraea spp. is scarce. To address the gap of knowledge on this, the complete sequences of eight plasmids from Pandoraea spp. namely Pandoraea faecigallinarum DSM 23572(T) (pPF72-1, pPF72-2), Pandoraea oxalativorans DSM 23570(T) (pPO70-1, pPO70-2, pPO70-3, pPO70-4), Pandoraea vervacti NS15 (pPV15) and Pandoraea apista DSM 16535(T) (pPA35) were studied for the first time in this study. The information on plasmid sequences in Pandoraea spp. is useful as the sequences did not match any known plasmid sequence deposited in public databases. Replication genes were not identified in some plasmids, a situation that has led to the possibility of host interaction involvement. Some plasmids were also void of par genes and intriguingly, repA gene was also not discovered in these plasmids. This further leads to the hypothesis of host-plasmid interaction. Plasmid stabilization/stability protein-encoding genes were observed in some plasmids but were not established for participating in plasmid segregation. Toxin-antitoxin systems MazEF, VapBC, RelBE, YgiT-MqsR, HigBA, and ParDE were identified across the plasmids and their presence would improve plasmid maintenance. Conjugation genes were identified portraying the conjugation ability amongst Pandoraea plasmids. Additionally, we found a shared region amongst some of the plasmids that consists of conjugation genes. The identification of genes involved in replication, segregation, toxin-antitoxin systems and conjugation, would aid the design of drugs to prevent the survival or transmission of plasmids carrying pathogenic properties. Additionally, genes conferring virulence and antibiotic resistance were identified amongst the plasmids. The observed features in the plasmids shed light on the Pandoraea spp. as opportunistic pathogens.
Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell-to-cell communication system that uses autoinducers as signaling molecules to enable inter-species and intra-species interactions in response to external stimuli according to the population density. QS allows bacteria such as Acinetobacter baumannii to react rapidly in response to environmental changes and hence, increase the chances of survival. A. baumannii is one of the causative agents in hospital-acquired infections and the number of cases has increased remarkably in the past decade. In this study, A. baumannii strain 863, a multidrug-resistant pathogen, was found to exhibit QS activity by producing N-acyl homoserine lactone. We identified the autoinducer synthase gene, which we named abaI, by performing whole genome sequencing analysis of A. baumannii strain 863. Using high resolution tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, we reported that abaI of A. baumannii strain 863 produced 3-hydroxy-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone. A gene deletion mutant was constructed, which confirmed the functionality of abaI. A growth defect was observed in the QS-deficient mutant strain. Transcriptome profiling was performed to determine the possible genes regulated by QS. Four groups of genes that showed differential expression were discovered, namely those involved in carbon source metabolism, energy production, stress response and the translation process.
Cell-cell communication is also known as quorum sensing (QS) that happens in the bacterial cells with the aim to regulate their genes expression in response to increased cell density. In this study, a bacterium (L8A) isolated from dental plaque biofilm was identified as Citrobacter amalonaticus by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Its N-acylhomoserine-lactone (AHL) production was screened by using two types of AHL biosensors namely Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Escherichia coli [pSB401]. Citrobacter amalonaticus strain L8A was identified and confirmed producing numerous types of AHL namely N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL) and N-hexadecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C16-HSL). We performed the whole genome sequence analysis of this oral isolate where its genome sequence reveals the presence of QS signal synthase gene and our work will pave the ways to study the function of the related QS genes in this bacterium.
A novel Streptomyces strain, MUSC 119(T), was isolated from a soil collected from a mangrove forest. Cells of MUSC 119(T) stained Gram-positive and formed light brownish grey aerial mycelium and grayish yellowish brown substrate mycelium on ISP 2 medium. A polyphasic approach was used to determine the taxonomic status of strain MUSC 119(T), which shows a range of phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic properties consistent with those of the genus Streptomyces. The cell wall peptidoglycan consisted of LL-diaminopimelic acid. The predominant menaquinones were identified as MK-9(H8), MK-9(H6) and MK-9(H4). The polar lipid profile consisted of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, glycolipids, diphosphatidylglycerol and four phospholipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0, iso-C16:0, and anteiso-C17:0. The cell wall sugars were glucose, mannose, ribose and rhamnose. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity showed that strain MUSC119(T) to be closely related to Streptomyces rhizophilus JR-41(T) (99.0 % sequence similarity), S. panaciradicis 1MR-8(T) (98.9 %), S. gramineus JR-43(T) (98.8 %) and S. graminisoli JR-19(T) (98.7 %). These results suggest that MUSC 119(T) should be placed within the genus Streptomyces. DNA-DNA relatedness values between MUSC 119(T) to closely related strains ranged from 14.5 ± 1.3 to 27.5 ± 0.7 %. The G+C content was determined to be 72.6 mol %. The polyphasic study of MUSC 119(T) showed that this strain represents a novel species, for which the name Streptomyces humi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of S. humi is MUSC 119(T) (=DSM 42174(T) = MCCC 1K00505(T)).
Staphylococcus saprophyticus strain SU8 was isolated from a pristine water source in Malaysia and it exhibited degradation of N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone. Here we report the draft genome sequence of S. saprophyticus strain SU8 to further understand its quorum quenching abilities.
We report the draft genome sequence of Pandoraea sp. strain E26 isolated from a former landfill site, sequenced by the Illumina MiSeq platform. This genome sequence will be useful to further understand the quorum-sensing system of this isolate.
Streptococcus parasanguinis causes invasive diseases. However, the mechanism by which it causes disease remains unclear. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of S. parasanguinis C1A, isolated from a patient diagnosed with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Several genes that might be associated with pathogenesis are also described.
Serratia multitudinisentens RB-25(T) (=DSM 28811(T) =LMG 28304(T)) is a newly proposed type strain in the genus of Serratia isolated from a municipal landfill site. Here, we present the complete genome of S. multitudinisentens RB-25(T) which contains a complete chitinase operon and other chitin and N-acetylglucosamine utilisation enzymes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the complete genome sequence of this novel isolate and its chitinase gene discovery.
Pandoraea pnomenusa RB-38 is a bacterium isolated from a former sanitary landfill site. Here, we present the complete genome of P. pnomenusa RB38 in which an oxalate utilization pathway was identified. The genome analysis suggested the potential of this strain as an effective biocontrol agent against oxalate-producing phytopathogens.
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes have been shown to differ in the rate of clinical progression. We studied the association between HIV-1 subtypes and the rate of CD4+ T-cell recovery in a longitudinal cohort of patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We studied 103 patients infected with CRF01_AE (69%) and subtype B (31%) who initiated cART between 2006 and 2013. Demographic data, CD4+ T-cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were abstracted from patient medical charts. Kaplan-Meier was used to estimate the time to CD4+ T-cell count increase to ≥350 between subtypes and effects of covariates were analysed using Cox proportional hazards. An 87% of the study population were male adults (mean age of 38.7 years old). Baseline CD4+ T-cell counts and viral loads, age at cART initiation, sex, ethnicity and co-infection did not differ significantly between subtypes. A shorter median time for CD4+ T-cell count increase to ≥350 cells/μL was observed for CRF01_AE (546 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], 186-906 days; P = .502) compared to subtype B (987 days; 95% CI, 894-1079 days). In multivariate analysis, female sex was significantly associated with a 2.7 times higher chance of achieving CD4+ T-cell recovery (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.75; 95% CI, 1.21-6.22; P = .025) and both baseline CD4+ T-cell count (P = .001) and viral load (P = .001) were important predictors for CD4+ T-cell recovery. Immunological recovery correlated significantly with female sex, baseline CD4+ T-cell counts and viral load but not subtype.
Here, we present the first complete genome sequence of Serratia fonticola DSM 4576(T), a potential plant growth promoting (PGP) bacterium which confers solubilization of inorganic phosphate, indole-3-acetic acid production, hydrogen cyanideproduction, siderophore production and assimilation of ammonia through the glutamate synthase (GS/GOGAT) pathway. This genome sequence is valuable for functional genomics and ecological studies which are related to PGP and biocontrol activities.
Staphylococcus haemolyticus is one of the pathogens that harbor a high level of antibiotic resistance. Here, we highlighted the potential determinants for multidrug resistance and virulence from the draft genome of Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain C10A, isolated from a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been divided into 10 genotypes, A to J, based on an 8% nucleotide sequence divergence between genotypes. The conventional practice of using a single set of primers to amplify a near-complete HBV genome is hampered by its low analytical sensitivity. The current practice of using overlapping conserved primer sets to amplify a complete HBV genome in a clinical sample is limited by the lack of pan-primers to detect all HBV genotypes. In this study, we designed six highly conserved, overlapping primer sets to cover the complete HBV genome. We based our design on the sequences of 5,154 HBV genomes of genotypes A to I downloaded from the GenBank nucleotide database. These primer sets were tested on 126 plasma samples from Malaysia, containing genotypes A to D and with viral loads ranging from 20 to >79,780,000 IU/ml. The overall success rates for PCR amplification and sequencing were >96% and >94%, respectively. Similarly, there was 100% amplification and sequencing success when the primer sets were tested on an HBV reference panel of genotypes A to G. Thus, we have established primer sets that gave a high analytical sensitivity for PCR-based detection of HBV and a high rate of sequencing success for HBV genomes in most of the viral genotypes, if not all, without prior known sequence data for the particular genotype/genome.
Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Aeromonas caviae strain L12, which shows quorum-sensing activity. The availability of this genome sequence is important to the research of the quorum-sensing regulatory system in this isolate.