METHODS: We formulated body capacitive index (BCI), C(BMI) (capacitance × height(2)/weight), body resistive index (BRI), R(BMI) (resistance × weight/height(2)), and CH(2) (capacitance × height(2)). We also studied H(2)/R, R/H, and reactance of a capacitor/height (X(C) /H). There are 3 components in this study design: (1) establishment of normal values in a control Malaysian population, (2) comparison of these with a CAPD population, and (3) prediction of survival within a CAPD population. We initially performed a BIA study in 206 female and 116 male healthy volunteers, followed by a prospective study in a cohort of 128 CAPD patients [47 with diabetes mellitus (DM), 81 non-DM; 59 males, 69 females] for at least 2 years. All the parameters during enrolment, including BIA, serum albumin, peritoneal equilibrium test, age, and DM status, were analyzed. Outcome measurement was survival.
RESULTS: In healthy volunteers, both genders had the same BCI (2.0 nF kg/m(2)). On the contrary, female normal subjects had higher BRI than male normal subjects (median 15 642 vs 13242 Ω kg/m(2), p < 0.001) due to higher fat percentage (35.4% ± 0.4% vs 28.0% ± 0.6%, p < 0.001), resulting in a lower phase angle (mean 5.82 ± 0.04 vs 6.86 ± 0.07 degrees, p < 0.001). Logistic regression showed that BCI was the best risk indicator in 128 CAPD patients versus 322 normal subjects. In age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched head-to-head comparison, BCI had the highest χ(2) value (χ(2) = 102.63), followed by CH(2) (or H(2)/X(C); χ(2) = 81.00), BRI (χ(2) = 20.54), and X(C)/H (χ(2) = 20.48), with p value < 0.001 for these parameters. In comparison, phase angle (χ(2) = 11.42), R/H (χ(2) = 7.19), and H(2)/R (χ(2) = 5.69) had lower χ(2) values. 35 (27.3%) patients died during the study period. Univariate analysis adjusted for DM status and serum albumin level demonstrated that non-surviving patients had significantly higher CH(2) (245 vs 169 nF m(2), p < 0.001) and BCI (4.0 vs 2.9 nF m(2)/kg, p = 0.005) than patients that survived. CH(2) was the best predictor for all-cause mortality in Cox regression analysis, followed by BCI, phase angle, and X(C)/H.
CONCLUSION: Measures that normalize, such as BCI and CH(2), have higher risk discrimination and survival prediction ability than measures that do not normalize, such as phase angle. Unlike phase angle, measurement of BCI overcomes the gender effect. In this study, the best risk indicator for CAPD patients versus the general population is BCI, reflecting deficit in nutritional concentration, while CH(2) reflects total nutritional deficit and thus is the major risk indicator for survival of CAPD patients.
METHODS: A white woman who presented with a choroidal nevus and clinical features of PCV was examined using fundoscopy, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography.
RESULTS: A polypoidal lesion with an associated branching vascular network adjacent to the nevus was demonstrated by optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography. The patient was asymptomatic and was managed conservatively.
CONCLUSION: Our case showed that PCV developing in association with a stable choroidal nevus. Pathogenic mechanisms of this condition may include chronic degenerative or inflammatory changes at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium resulting in vascular changes. Unlike treatment of occult choroidal neovascularization secondary to nevus, optimal management of PCV secondary to nevus may vary. Indocyanine green angiography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of PCV and is a useful investigation in atypical choroidal neovascularization.
AIM AND METHODS: This study used microcosting methods to determine the cost and health outcomes of living and deceased donor kidney transplantation in adult and pediatric recipients. The perspective used was from the Ministry of Health Malaysia. Cost-effectiveness measures were cost per life year (LY) and cost per quality-adjusted LYs. The time horizon was the lifetime of the transplant recipient from transplant to death.
RESULTS: Records of 206 KT recipients (118 adults and 88 children) were obtained for microcosting. In adults, discounted cost per LY was US $8609(Malaysian Ringgit [RM]29 482) and US $13 209(RM45 234) for living-donor kidney transplant (LKT) and deceased donor kidney transplant (DKT), respectively, whereas in children, it was US $10 485(RM35 905) and US $14 985(RM51 317), respectively. Cost per quality-adjusted LY in adults was US $8826 (RM30 224) for LKT and US $13 592(RM46 546) for DKT. Total lifetime discounted costs of adult transplants were US $119 702 (RM409 921) for LKT, US $147 152 (RM503 922) for DKT. Total costs for pediatric transplants were US $154 841(RM530 252) and US $159 313(RM545 566) for the 2 categories respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Both LKT and DKT are economically favorable for Malaysian adult and pediatric patients with ESRD and result in improvement in quality of life.