Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 33 in total

  1. Wong, HS, YH, William Chang, Neeta, K.B., Lum, SG, Seet, KC, Tan, HL, et al.
    Medicine & Health, 2008;3(2):294-299.
    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is important among vas-cular surgical patients. Its effect can be devastating resulting in limb amputation and mortality. We performed a retrospective patients record analysis to determine the pat-tern of MRSA infection among vascular surgical patients in Hospital Kuala Lumpur from January 2005 to December 2007. We also attempted to identify the factors asso-ciated with poor clinical outcome after such infection. There were 999 patients who underwent vascular surgeries in HKL within  the analysis period. Of these 24 patients (2.4%) were detected to have MRSA surgical site infection. The infection was commoner among cigarette smokers, patients with diabetes melitus and those who had previous vascular surgery. Most infections occurred in the emergency surgery category and manifested as wound breakdown. Fifty-four percent of the infected pa-tients ended with graft removal, amputations or death. MRSA infection complicating vascular surgery resulted in poor clinical outcome. This serious threat requires intensi-fied preventive measures.
  2. Salleh NA, Wong HS, Mohd Isa HD
    Korean J Fam Med, 2016 May;37(3):197-201.
    PMID: 27274392 DOI: 10.4082/kjfm.2016.37.3.197
    In patients with thyroid disease, ocular involvement or thyroid ophthalmopathy is common, irrespective of their thyroid status. A common feature of thyroid eye disease is eyelid retraction, which leads to a classical starry gaze (Kocher sign). Treatment with radioactive iodine (RAI) is a known therapy for hyperthyroidism. However, this treatment may lead to or worsen thyroid ophthalmopathy. We report a case series of two patients with thyrotoxicosis, who presented with an atypical and subtle occurrence of thyroid eye disease (TED) soon after RAI therapy. One of the patients was initially diagnosed and treated for dry eyes; however, over a period of time, the patient's vision progressively deteriorated. Clinical and radiological investigations confirmed thyroid ophthalmopathy with low serum thyroid hormone levels. Both patients recovered well after immediate intensive intravenous steroid treatment. These cases highlight the importance of recognizing partial ptosis as one of the presenting signs of active TED among general practitioners and physicians.
  3. Wong HS, Islam MT, Kibria S
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:725806.
    PMID: 24967440 DOI: 10.1155/2014/725806
    A multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) antenna that comprises a printed microstrip antenna and a printed double-L sleeve monopole antenna for LTE 1800 wireless application is presented. The printed double-L sleeve monopole antenna is fed by a 50 ohm coplanar waveguide (CPW). A novel T-shaped microstrip feedline printed on the other side of the PCB is used to excite the waveguide's outer shell. Isolation characteristics better than -15 dB can be obtained for the proposed MIMO antenna. The proposed antenna can operate in LTE 1800 (1710 MHz-1880 MHz). This antenna exhibits omnidirectional characteristics. The efficiency of the antenna is greater than 70% and has high gain of 2.18 dBi.
  4. Wong HS, Then KY, Ramli R
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Oct;66(4):369-70.
    PMID: 22299563 MyJurnal
    We report the first case of Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) who successfully underwent surgery in Malaysia following a grade 4 (severe) chemical injury in both eyes in 2006. The patient's left eye was eviscerated and his right eye underwent penetrating keratoplasty. However, the corneal graft failed and became opaque. His right eye could only perceive light. The OOKP was offered to him hoping to recover some functional vision. He underwent a 2-stage surgery to implant the OOKP into his right eye. However, 2 months post-operation, he developed vitreous haemorrhage. A successful pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) was performed via the limited view through the lens. He attained a final visual acuity of 6/60 (N36). He was able to mobilize more independently, feed, dress himself and read large print.
  5. Foo SM, Wong HS, Morad Z
    Transplant Proc, 2004 Sep;36(7):2139-40.
    PMID: 15518776
    This study reviewed the incidence of post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) and risk factors for its development among renal transplant recipients in Malaysia.

    Records of all kidney recipients with no known diabetes mellitus prior to transplantation and followed for at least 6 months posttransplant were selected for this retrospective study. PTDM was diagnosed according to American Diabetic Association/WHO criteria or the need to start insulin or an oral hypoglycemic agent. The data set included recipient age, gender, race, weight, donor type, duration of transplant, HCV antibody status, and immunosuppressive medication.

    Of the 316 patients who fulfilled the selection criteria, 13.3% had PTDM. Gender, race, type of donor, HCV serologic status, and use of tacrolimus did not differ significantly between recipients with versus without PTDM. However, recipients who developed PTDM were significantly older (median age 50.5 versus 42.0 years, P < 0.0001), had significantly longer posttransplant follow-up (median duration 125.5 versus 85.0 months, P = .0030) and weighed more at transplantation/first follow-up (median weight 57.6 versus 52.3 kg, P = .0103).

    The overall cumulative incidence of PTDM in this study was similar to the published reports. Older age, longer posttransplant duration, and heavier weight were the only variables significantly associated with PTDM.
  6. Wong HS, Boey LM, Morad Z
    Transplant Proc, 2004 Sep;36(7):2186-7.
    PMID: 15518795
    Bioelectrical impedance analysis was introduced more than a decade ago to measure body composition and nutritional status. There are presently limited data on the nutritional status and body composition measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis in renal transplant recipients, especially among the Asian population. The normal values for these data in renal transplant recipients remain unknown.
  7. Hooi LS, Wong HS, Morad Z
    Kidney Int Suppl, 2005 Apr.
    PMID: 15752245
    Renal replacement therapy in Malaysia has shown exponential growth since 1990. The dialysis acceptance rate for 2003 was 80 per million population, prevalence 391 per million population. There are now more than 10,000 patients on dialysis. This growth is proportional to the growth in gross domestic product (GDP). Improvement in nephrology and urology services with widespread availability of ultrasonography and renal pathology has improved care of renal patients. Proper management of renal stone disease, lupus nephritis, and acute renal failure has decreased these as causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in younger age groups. Older patients are being accepted for dialysis, and 51% of new patients on dialysis were diabetic in 2003. The prevalence of diabetes is rising in the country (presently 7%); glycemic control of such patients is suboptimal. Thirty-three percent of adult Malaysians are hypertensive and blood pressure control is poor (6%). There is a national coordinating committee to oversee the control of diabetes and hypertension in the country. Primary care clinics have been provided with kits to detect microalbuminuria, and ACE inhibitors for the treatment of hypertension and diabetic nephropathy. Prevention of renal failure workshops targeted at primary care doctors have been launched, opportunistic screening at health clinics is being carried out, and public education targeting high-risk groups is ongoing. The challenge in Malaysia is to stem the rising tide of diabetic ESRD.
  8. Wong HS, Abdul Rahman R, Choo SY, Yahya N
    Med J Malaysia, 2012 Aug;67(4):435-7.
    PMID: 23082461 MyJurnal
    We report a rare case of an 18 year old girl with Sturge-Weber syndrome, she had extensive facial port wine stains, right bupthalmos and advanced glaucoma involving both eyes. She underwent right eye glaucoma drainage device surgery under general anaesthesia, and had a difficult intubation due to extensive angiomatous like soft tissue swelling at her upper airway. This report highlights the importance of being aware of the need for continuous follow-up in Sturge-Weber syndrome patients as this syndrome can lead to blindness due to advance glaucoma and the awareness of possible difficult intubation for this group of patients.
  9. Koh KH, Wong HS, Go KW, Morad Z
    Perit Dial Int, 2010 06 30;31(5):574-82.
    PMID: 20592100 DOI: 10.3747/pdi.2009.00140
    BACKGROUND: While phase angle of bioimpedance analysis (BIA) has great survival-predicting value in dialysis populations, it is known to be higher in male than in female subjects. In this study, we aimed to explore the factors influencing the predictive value of phase angle and to identify the appropriate physics terms for normalizing capacitance (C) and resistance (R).

    METHODS: We formulated body capacitive index (BCI), C(BMI) (capacitance × height(2)/weight), body resistive index (BRI), R(BMI) (resistance × weight/height(2)), and CH(2) (capacitance × height(2)). We also studied H(2)/R, R/H, and reactance of a capacitor/height (X(C) /H). There are 3 components in this study design: (1) establishment of normal values in a control Malaysian population, (2) comparison of these with a CAPD population, and (3) prediction of survival within a CAPD population. We initially performed a BIA study in 206 female and 116 male healthy volunteers, followed by a prospective study in a cohort of 128 CAPD patients [47 with diabetes mellitus (DM), 81 non-DM; 59 males, 69 females] for at least 2 years. All the parameters during enrolment, including BIA, serum albumin, peritoneal equilibrium test, age, and DM status, were analyzed. Outcome measurement was survival.

    RESULTS: In healthy volunteers, both genders had the same BCI (2.0 nF kg/m(2)). On the contrary, female normal subjects had higher BRI than male normal subjects (median 15 642 vs 13242 Ω kg/m(2), p < 0.001) due to higher fat percentage (35.4% ± 0.4% vs 28.0% ± 0.6%, p < 0.001), resulting in a lower phase angle (mean 5.82 ± 0.04 vs 6.86 ± 0.07 degrees, p < 0.001). Logistic regression showed that BCI was the best risk indicator in 128 CAPD patients versus 322 normal subjects. In age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched head-to-head comparison, BCI had the highest χ(2) value (χ(2) = 102.63), followed by CH(2) (or H(2)/X(C); χ(2) = 81.00), BRI (χ(2) = 20.54), and X(C)/H (χ(2) = 20.48), with p value < 0.001 for these parameters. In comparison, phase angle (χ(2) = 11.42), R/H (χ(2) = 7.19), and H(2)/R (χ(2) = 5.69) had lower χ(2) values. 35 (27.3%) patients died during the study period. Univariate analysis adjusted for DM status and serum albumin level demonstrated that non-surviving patients had significantly higher CH(2) (245 vs 169 nF m(2), p < 0.001) and BCI (4.0 vs 2.9 nF m(2)/kg, p = 0.005) than patients that survived. CH(2) was the best predictor for all-cause mortality in Cox regression analysis, followed by BCI, phase angle, and X(C)/H.

    CONCLUSION: Measures that normalize, such as BCI and CH(2), have higher risk discrimination and survival prediction ability than measures that do not normalize, such as phase angle. Unlike phase angle, measurement of BCI overcomes the gender effect. In this study, the best risk indicator for CAPD patients versus the general population is BCI, reflecting deficit in nutritional concentration, while CH(2) reflects total nutritional deficit and thus is the major risk indicator for survival of CAPD patients.

  10. Chiu SF, Wong HS, Morad Z, Loo LH
    Transplant Proc, 2004 Sep;36(7):2030-1.
    PMID: 15518734
    To examine the quality of life in cadaver (CAD) and living-related (LRRT) renal transplant recipients.
  11. Hamzah S, Teh LK, Siew JS, Ahmad G, Wong HS, Zakaria ZA, et al.
    Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 2014 Jan;92(1):50-7.
    PMID: 24383873 DOI: 10.1139/cjpp-2013-0128
    Tacrolimus (FK506) is a calcineurin inhibitor with a narrow therapeutic index that exhibits large interindividual variation. Seventy-eight kidney transplant patients treated with tacrolimus were recruited to study the correlation of dose adjusted trough level (level/dose; L/D) of tacrolimus with CYP3A5 and ABCB1 genotypes, as well as the mRNA copy number of ABCB1 in blood. Patients were genotyped for ABCB1 (C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T) and CYP3A5 (G6986A), while ABCB1 mRNA transcript copy number was determined by absolute quantification (real-time PCR) in 46 patients. CYP3A5*3 genotypes were found to be a good predictor of tacrolimus L/D in kidney-transplant patients. Significantly higher L/D was observed among non-expressors (2.85, 95%: 2.05-3.70 (ng·mL(-1))/(mg·kg(-1))) as compared with the expressors (1.15, 95%: 0.95-1.80 (ng·mL(-1))/(mg·kg(-1))) of CYP3A5 (Mann-Whitney U test; P < 0.001). No correlation was observed between L/D and the ABCB1 genotypes. A significant inverse correlation of blood ABCB1 mRNA level with L/D was demonstrated (Spearman's Rank Order correlation; P = 0.016, rs = -0.348). However, in multiple regression analysis, only CYP3A5*3 genotype groups were found to be significantly correlated with tacrolimus L/D (P < 0.001). These findings highlight the importance of CYP3A5*3 pharmacogenotyping among kidney-transplant patients treated with tacrolimus, and confirm the role of blood cell P-glycoprotein in influencing the L/D for tacrolimus.
  12. Bastion ML, Then KY, Faridah HA, Mushawiahti M, Othmaliza O, Wong HS
    Med J Malaysia, 2011 Mar;66(1):10-4.
    PMID: 23765135 MyJurnal
    This retrospective study investigated the role of antivascular endothelial growth factor agents (VEGF), ranibizumab, bevacizumab and pegaptanib sodium in patients with iris neovascularisation (INV), in which 9 eyes received intraocular injections for various ischaemic ocular conditions. Ocular sequelae included recurrence of rubeosis (n=2) and hyphaema (n=2). Systemic complication included one case of cerebrovascular accident. INV regressed in all cases from day one. INV recurrence occurred in 2 cases. The mean intraocular pressure of the study eyes decreased from 25.3 mmHg to 18.3 mmHg at one month. Five eyes are medication free. Visual acuity improved in 5 eyes. Four eyes achieved a Snellen visual acuity of 6/24 or better. We conclude that the use of intraocular anti-VEGF agents are safe and effective for inducing the regression of INV. Patients with multiple systemic risk factors should be counseled on stroke risk.
  13. Yahya R, Bavanandan S, Yap YC, Jazilah W, Shaariah W, Wong HS, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Sep;63 Suppl C:18-9.
    PMID: 19230242
  14. Lim YN, Lim TO, Lee DG, Wong HS, Ong LM, Shaariah W, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Sep;63 Suppl C:5-8.
    PMID: 19230240
    The Malaysian National Renal Registry was set up in 1992 to collect data for patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT). We present here the report of the Malaysian dialysis registry. The objectives of this papar are: (1) To examine the overall provision of dialysis treatment in Malaysia and its trend from 1980 to 2006. (2) To assess the treatment rate according to the states in the country. (3) To describe the method, location and funding of dialysis. (4) To characterise the patients accepted for dialysis treatment. (5) To analyze the outcomes of the dialysis treatment. Data on patients receiving dialysis treatment were collected at initiation of dialysis, at the time of any significant outcome, as well as yearly. The number of dialysis patients increased from 59 in 1980 to almost 15,000 in 2006. The dialysis acceptance rate increased from 3 per million population in 1980 to 116 per million population in 2006, and the prevalence rate from 4 to 550 per million population over the same period. The economically advantaged states of Malaysia had much higher dialysis treatment rates compared to the less economically advanced states. Eighty to 90% of new dialysis patients were accepted into centre haemodialysis (HD), and the rest into the chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) programme. The government provided about half of the funding for dialysis treatment. Patients older than 55 years accounted for the largest proportion of new patients on dialysis since the 1990s. Diabetes mellitus has been the main cause of ESRD and accounted for more than 50% of new ESRD since 2002. Annual death rate averaged about 10% on HD and 15% on CAPD. The unadjusted 5-year patient survival on both HD and CAPD was about 80%. Fifty percent of dialysis patients reported very good median QoL index score. About 70% of dialysis patients were about to work full or part time. There has been a very rapid growth of dialysis provision in Malaysia particularly in the older age groups. ESRD caused by diabetes mellitus, despite being a preventable and treatable cause of ESRD--has increased and accounted for more than 50% of incident dialysis patients. Death and survival rates on dialysis are comparable to those from other countries.
  15. Hooi LS, Lim TO, Goh A, Wong HS, Tan CC, Ahmad G, et al.
    Nephrology (Carlton), 2005 Feb;10(1):25-32.
    PMID: 15705178 DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-1797.2005.00360.x
    BACKGROUND: This is a multi-centre study to determine cost efficiency and cost effectiveness of the Ministry of Health centre haemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) programme.
    METHODS: Forty-four haemodialysis and 11 CAPD centres were enrolled in this study in 2001. Sixty patients, 30 from each modality, were evaluated. Micro-costing was used to determine costs.
    RESULTS: The number of haemodialyses conducted ranged from 402 to 23,000 procedures per year, while for CAPD, output ranged from 70 to 2300 patient months/year. Cost ranged from RM79.61 to RM475.79 per haemodialysis treatment, with a mean cost of RM169 per HD (USD 1 = RM 3.80). The cost of CAPD treatment ranged from RM1400 to RM3200 per patient month, with a mean of RM2186. Both modalities incurred similar outpatient costs. The cost of erythropoeitin per year is RM4500 and RM2500 for haemodialysis and CAPD, respectively. The number of life years saved is 10.96 years for haemodialysis and 5.21 years for CAPD. Cost per life year saved is RM33 642 for haemodialysis and RM31 635 for CAPD. The cost for land, building, equipment, overheads, and staff were higher for haemodialysis, while consumables and hospitalization cost more for CAPD. Sensitivity analysis was performed for two discount rates (3 and 5%), varying erythropoietin doses and maximum and minimum overheads. Relative cost effectiveness of haemodialysis and CAPD was unchanged in all sensitivity scenarios, except for overhead costs, which influenced the cost effectiveness of HD.
    CONCLUSION: It is economically viable to promote the use of both CAPD and haemodialysis because the cost effectiveness of both are nearly equal.
  16. Wong JG, Lai XJ, Sarafian RY, Wong HS, Smith JB
    Retin Cases Brief Rep, 2016;10(3):221-4.
    PMID: 26509999 DOI: 10.1097/ICB.0000000000000233
    PURPOSE: Choroidal nevus is the most common ocular fundus tumor in adults. Previous studies have widely discussed the features of choroidal neovascularization secondary to nevus and its treatment options. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is an exudative chorioretinopathy that is often underdiagnosed. Clinical features, natural history, and treatment response of PCV are distinct from occult choroidal neovascularization. Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy secondary to choroidal nevus has not been previously documented. We report a patient with a history of stable choroidal nevus who developed a polypoidal lesion at the edge of the nevus lesion.

    METHODS: A white woman who presented with a choroidal nevus and clinical features of PCV was examined using fundoscopy, optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography.

    RESULTS: A polypoidal lesion with an associated branching vascular network adjacent to the nevus was demonstrated by optical coherence tomography, fluorescein angiography, and indocyanine green angiography. The patient was asymptomatic and was managed conservatively.

    CONCLUSION: Our case showed that PCV developing in association with a stable choroidal nevus. Pathogenic mechanisms of this condition may include chronic degenerative or inflammatory changes at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium resulting in vascular changes. Unlike treatment of occult choroidal neovascularization secondary to nevus, optimal management of PCV secondary to nevus may vary. Indocyanine green angiography is the gold standard for the diagnosis of PCV and is a useful investigation in atypical choroidal neovascularization.

  17. Bavanandan S, Yap YC, Ahmad G, Wong HS, Azmi S, Goh A
    Transplant Direct, 2015 Nov;1(10):e45.
    PMID: 27500211 DOI: 10.1097/TXD.0000000000000553
    Kidney transplantation is the optimal therapy for the majority of patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the cost and health outcomes of transplantation have not been assessed in a middle-income nation with a low volume of transplantation, such as Malaysia.

    AIM AND METHODS: This study used microcosting methods to determine the cost and health outcomes of living and deceased donor kidney transplantation in adult and pediatric recipients. The perspective used was from the Ministry of Health Malaysia. Cost-effectiveness measures were cost per life year (LY) and cost per quality-adjusted LYs. The time horizon was the lifetime of the transplant recipient from transplant to death.

    RESULTS: Records of 206 KT recipients (118 adults and 88 children) were obtained for microcosting. In adults, discounted cost per LY was US $8609(Malaysian Ringgit [RM]29 482) and US $13 209(RM45 234) for living-donor kidney transplant (LKT) and deceased donor kidney transplant (DKT), respectively, whereas in children, it was US $10 485(RM35 905) and US $14 985(RM51 317), respectively. Cost per quality-adjusted LY in adults was US $8826 (RM30 224) for LKT and US $13 592(RM46 546) for DKT. Total lifetime discounted costs of adult transplants were US $119 702 (RM409 921) for LKT, US $147 152 (RM503 922) for DKT. Total costs for pediatric transplants were US $154 841(RM530 252) and US $159 313(RM545 566) for the 2 categories respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both LKT and DKT are economically favorable for Malaysian adult and pediatric patients with ESRD and result in improvement in quality of life.

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