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  1. Wu, S. K., Hasnah, H.
    MyJurnal
    This study aimed to determine the nutrient contents in tempe produced by five cottage industries in Selangor, Malaysia.
    Proximate contents were analysed by using standard methods of AOAC (1997) while carbohydrate content was calculated
    by difference. Mineral contents, total dietary fiber (TDF), total phenolic content and total isoflavone content were
    determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), enzymatic-gravimetric (AOAC 985.29), Folin-Ciocalteu
    colorimetric and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) respectively. Macronutrients were reported in 100
    g sample and the results showed the average nutrient contents were as follow: 63.07 ± 3.18% moisture, 19.63 ± 1.50%
    protein, 0.65 ± 0.17% fat, 0.70 ± 0.06% ash and 15.95 ± 1.88% total carbohydrate. The average mineral content in 100
    g samples (based on wet basis) were 29.45 ± 5.67 mg calcium, 13.28 ± 5.76 mg magnesium, 3.48 ± 1.09 mg sodium and
    2.06 ± 0.33 mg ferum. The results showed that the average of TDF content was 8.05 ± 3.65%. Total phenolic content
    was 259.87 ± 22.62 mg of GAE/g. The total isoflavone content in 100 g samples (wet basis) was 41.94 ± 10.42 mg/100
    g. This study had shown that total phenolic content was significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with total isoflavone content
    in all tempe samples. It can be concluded that there was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in nutrient contents among
    tempe samples produced by five cottage industries located in Selangor, Malaysia. However, the mineral and isoflavone
    contents in the present study were lower compared to previous studies.
  2. Hutagalung, Sabar D., Woon, Wu S., Khatijah A. Yaacob, Lockman, Zainovia
    MyJurnal
    P-type transparent conductive oxide of copper aluminum oxide (CuAlO2) thin films were prepared by using sol-gel method with nitrate solutions as starting precursor. Copper nitrate and aluminum nitrate were selected as raw materials that provide the copper and aluminum source. The CuAlO2 thin films were deposited on pre-cleaned silicon substrate by spin-coating technique. To study of phase formation of CuAlO2, as prepared sample was dried and subjected to heat treatment at various temperatures. The heat-treated samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray (EDX). From XRD analysis result found that CuAlO2 phase was formed after annealing at 1100 o C for 4 hrs. EDX result of annealed sample at 1100 o C shows composition of Cu and Al that indicate the possibility of forming CuAlO2.
  3. Wiener CM, Thompson SJ, Wu S, Chellappa M, Hasham S
    World Hosp Health Serv, 2012;48(4):4-6.
    PMID: 23484425
    Governments in emerging markets face mounting challenges in managing health spending, building capability and capacity, modernizing ageing infrastructure, and investing in skills and resources. One path to overcoming these challenges is to establish new public-private models of health care development and delivery based on United States academic medical centers, whose missions are to advance medical education and clinical delivery. Johns Hopkins Medicine is a participant in the collaboration developing between the Perdana University Hospital and the Perdana University Graduate School of Medicine in Malaysia. These two organizations comprise an academic health science center based on the United States model. The Perdana project provides constructive insights into the opportunities and challenges that governments, universities, and the private sector face when introducing new models of patient care that are integrated with medical education, clinical training, and biomedical research.
  4. Zhang H, Liao W, Chao W, Chen Q, Zeng H, Wu C, et al.
    J. Dermatol., 2008 Sep;35(9):555-61.
    PMID: 18837699 DOI: 10.1111/j.1346-8138.2008.00523.x
    Sebaceous gland diseases are a group of common dermatological diseases with multiple causes. To date, a systematic report of the risk factors for sebaceous gland diseases in adolescents has not been published. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and risk factors for certain sebaceous gland diseases (seborrhea, seborrheic dermatitis, acne, androgenetic alopecia and rosacea) and their relationship to gastrointestinal dysfunction in adolescents. From August-October, 2002-2005, a questionnaire survey was carried out to obtain epidemiological data about sebaceous gland diseases. Using random cluster sampling, 13 215 Han adolescents aged 12-20 years were recruited from four countries or districts (Macau; Guangzhou, China; Malaysia; and Indonesia). The statistical software SPSS ver. 13.0 was used to analyze the data. The prevalence of seborrhea, seborrheic dermatitis, acne, androgenetic alopecia and rosacea was 28.27%, 10.17%, 51.03%, 1.65% and 0.97%, respectively. Based on multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk factors for sebaceous gland diseases included: age; duration of local residency; halitosis; gastric reflux; abdominal bloating; constipation; sweet food; spicy food; family history of acne; late night sleeping on a daily basis; excessive axillary, body and facial hair; excessive periareolar hair; and anxiety. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms (halitosis; gastric reflux; abdominal bloating; constipation) between patients with and without sebaceous gland diseases (chi(2) = 150.743; P = 0.000). Gastrointestinal dysfunction is an important risk factor for diseases of the sebaceous glands and is correlated with their occurrence and development.
  5. Hu W, Yu XG, Wu S, Tan LP, Song MR, Abdulahi AY, et al.
    J. Helminthol., 2016 Jul;90(4):392-7.
    PMID: 26123649 DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X15000413
    Ancylostoma ceylanicum is a common zoonotic nematode. Cats act as natural reservoirs of the hookworm and are involved in transmitting infection to humans, thus posing a potential risk to public health. The prevalence of feline A. ceylanicum in Guangzhou (South China) was surveyed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). In total, 112 faecal samples were examined; 34.8% (39/112) and 43.8% (49/112) samples were positive with hookworms by microscopy and PCR method, respectively. Among them, 40.8% of samples harboured A. ceylanicum. Twelve positive A. ceylanicum samples were selected randomly and used for cox 1 sequence analysis. Sequencing results revealed that they had 97-99% similarity with A. ceylanicum cox 1 gene sequences deposited in GenBank. A phylogenetic tree showed that A. ceylanicum isolates were divided into two groups: one comprising four isolates from Guangzhou (South China), and the other comprising those from Malaysia, Cambodia and Guangzhou. In the latter group, all A. ceylanicum isolates from Guangzhou were clustered into a minor group again. The results indicate that the high prevalence of A. ceylanicum in stray cats in South China poses a potential risk of hookworm transmission from pet cats to humans, and that A. ceylanicum may be a species complex worldwide.
  6. Bain O, Chandrasekharan SA, Partono F, Mak JW, Zheng HJ, Seo BS, et al.
    Ann Parasitol Hum Comp, 1988;63(3):209-23.
    PMID: 3190122
    A comparative study of five periodic human strains of Brugia malayi, originating from India, China, Korea, Malaysia and Indonesia, is given. This morphological analysis is based on males; the "standard" characters (oesophagus, papillae, spicules...) appear identical. On the contrary, the cuticular ornamentation of the posterior region--which is composed of the area rugosa and of a system of bosses and constitutes a secondary non-skid copulatory apparatus--differs following the geographical origin of the strain. A key is given, based on this character. 1(2) At 800-1,200 micron from the tip of tail, numerous cuticular bosses present on the right side of the body (fig. 2 and 8 B). 2(1) At 800-1,200 micron from the tip of tail, cuticular bosses absent or scarce on the right side of the body (fig. 8 D). 3(4) At 1,800-1,200 micron from the tip of tail (fig. 4), scarce and slightly projecting cuticular bosses on the dorsal side of the body contrasting with well projecting lateral cuticular bosses (fig. 9 E and F). Anterior extremity of the area rugosa made by a few stripes of tiny bosses linked transversally (fig. 9 A). 4(3) At 1,800-2,200 micron, numerous cuticular bosses on the dorsal side of the body (figs. 5, 6 and 7). Anterior extremity of the area rugosa made by the stripes of longitudinal rods (fig. 9C). 5(6) Oblong transversally stretched cuticular bosses on the dorsal and left sides of the body, anteriorly to the area rugosa (fig. 5); big oblong bosses on the left side (fig. 9 B). Transversal wrinkles and stripes of rods absent on the dorsal side of the body. 6(5) Round cuticular bosses on the dorsal and left sides of the body anteriorly to the area rugosa (figs. 6 and 7): no big oblong bosses on the left side. Transversal wrinkles or stripes of rods present on the dorsal side of the body (fig. 9 D). Nomenclaturally, such differences could be used in defining different taxa, but it could be useful to perform "blind determination" (material without labelling), to study conveniently the morphology of microfilariae (often an excellent indication for speciation in that group of Nematodes) and, evenly, to proceed to parallel studies on isoenzymes. However, whatever could be the taxonomical conclusion, the differences observed in Brugia malayi originating from different regions appear to the sufficient to consider the existence of four distinct diseases.
  7. Chen Y, Huang J, Yeap ZQ, Zhang X, Wu S, Ng CH, et al.
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2018 Jun 15;199:271-282.
    PMID: 29626818 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2018.03.061
    Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae) is a precious traditional Chinese medicinal herb and has been perennially used to treat various illness. However, there were unethical sellers who adulterated wild A. roxburghii with tissue cultured and cultivated ones. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an effective authentication method to differentiate between these different types of A. roxburghii. In this research, the infrared spectroscopic tri-step identification approach including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Second derivative infrared spectra (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectra (2D-IR) was used to develop a simple and rapid method to discriminate between wild, cultivated and tissue cultivated A. roxburghii plant. Through this study, all three types of A. roxburghii plant were successfully identified and discriminated through the infrared spectroscopic tri-step identification method. Besides that, all the samples of wild, cultivated and tissue cultivated A. roxburghii plant were analysed with the Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) pattern recognition technique to test and verify the experimental results. The results showed that the three types of A. roxburghii can be discriminated clearly as the recognition rate was 100% for all three types and the rejection rate was more than 60%. 70% of the validated samples were also identified correctly by the SIMCA model. The SIMCA model was also validated by comparing 70 standard herbs to the model. As a result, it was demonstrated that the macroscopic IR fingerprint method and the classification analysis could discriminate not only between the A. roxburghi samples and the standard herbs, it could also distinguish between the three different types of A. roxburghi plant in a direct, rapid and holistic manner.
  8. Ousey K, Chadwick P, Jawien A, Tariq G, Nair HKR, Lázaro-Martínez JL, et al.
    J Wound Care, 2018 05 01;27(Sup5):S1-S52.
    PMID: 29738280 DOI: 10.12968/jowc.2018.27.Sup5.S1
  9. Lou H, Lu Y, Lu D, Fu R, Wang X, Feng Q, et al.
    Am. J. Hum. Genet., 2015 Jul 2;97(1):54-66.
    PMID: 26073780 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.05.005
    Tibetan high-altitude adaptation (HAA) has been studied extensively, and many candidate genes have been reported. Subsequent efforts targeting HAA functional variants, however, have not been that successful (e.g., no functional variant has been suggested for the top candidate HAA gene, EPAS1). With WinXPCNVer, a method developed in this study, we detected in microarray data a Tibetan-enriched deletion (TED) carried by 90% of Tibetans; 50% were homozygous for the deletion, whereas only 3% carried the TED and 0% carried the homozygous deletion in 2,792 worldwide samples (p < 10(-15)). We employed long PCR and Sanger sequencing technologies to determine the exact copy number and breakpoints of the TED in 70 additional Tibetan and 182 diverse samples. The TED had identical boundaries (chr2: 46,694,276-46,697,683; hg19) and was 80 kb downstream of EPAS1. Notably, the TED was in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD; r(2) = 0.8) with EPAS1 variants associated with reduced blood concentrations of hemoglobin. It was also in complete LD with the 5-SNP motif, which was suspected to be introgressed from Denisovans, but the deletion itself was absent from the Denisovan sequence. Correspondingly, we detected that footprints of positive selection for the TED occurred 12,803 (95% confidence interval = 12,075-14,725) years ago. We further whole-genome deep sequenced (>60×) seven Tibetans and verified the TED but failed to identify any other copy-number variations with comparable patterns, giving this TED top priority for further study. We speculate that the specific patterns of the TED resulted from its own functionality in HAA of Tibetans or LD with a functional variant of EPAS1.
  10. Housseau F, Wu S, Wick EC, Fan H, Wu X, Llosa NJ, et al.
    Cancer Res., 2016 04 15;76(8):2115-24.
    PMID: 26880802 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-0749
    IL17-producing Th17 cells, generated through a STAT3-dependent mechanism, have been shown to promote carcinogenesis in many systems, including microbe-driven colon cancer. Additional sources of IL17, such as γδ T cells, become available under inflammatory conditions, but their contributions to cancer development are unclear. In this study, we modeled Th17-driven colon tumorigenesis by colonizing Min(Ap) (c+/-) mice with the human gut bacterium, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF), to investigate the link between inflammation and colorectal cancer. We found that ablating Th17 cells by knocking out Stat3 in CD4(+) T cells delayed tumorigenesis, but failed to suppress the eventual formation of colonic tumors. However, IL17 blockade significantly attenuated tumor formation, indicating a critical requirement for IL17 in tumorigenesis, but from a source other than Th17 cells. Notably, genetic ablation of γδ T cells in ETBF-colonized Th17-deficient Min mice prevented the late emergence of colonic tumors. Taken together, these findings support a redundant role for adaptive Th17 cell- and innate γδT17 cell-derived IL17 in bacteria-induced colon carcinogenesis, stressing the importance of therapeutically targeting the cytokine itself rather than its cellular sources. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2115-24. ©2016 AACR.
  11. Zhang WJ, Chen C, Zhou ZH, Gao ST, Tee TJ, Yang LQ, et al.
    J Cancer, 2017;8(10):1818-1825.
    PMID: 28819379 DOI: 10.7150/jca.19057
    Background: Hypoxia was a common feature for accelerating tumor metastasis by both inducting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells and polarization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). The association and roles between hypoxia, EMT and TAMs in the biological behavior of gastric cancer (GC) for the time being recurrence is unclear. Material and methods: hypoixa by expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α), polarized functional status of infiltrated TAMs by immunohistochemical staining of CD68 and CD163, and the expression of E-cadherin as EMT property had been evaluated in 236 patients consecutive with histologically confirmed GC. Clinical significance was assessed for all these patients. Results: High expression of HIF-1α was found in patients with aggressive features, especially for recurrent patients. High infiltration of TAMs and abnormal expression of EMT-marker were also related to aggressive characteristics and predicted poor prognosis in GC. Meanwwhile, there existed a significant correlation among expression of HIF-1α, infiltration of TAMs and EMT marker in GC tissues. Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that high expression of HIF-1α combined TAMs infiltration were independent prognostic factors for disease-specific survival rate. Conclusion: HIF-1α is an unfavorable indicator for prognosis, may promote tumor progression through the induction of EMT and establishment of a pro-tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment. Further investigation into the therapeutic effects of blocking hypoxia is possible a potential strategy for GC treatment.
  12. Dejea CM, Wick EC, Hechenbleikner EM, White JR, Mark Welch JL, Rossetti BJ, et al.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2014 Dec 23;111(51):18321-6.
    PMID: 25489084 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1406199111
    Environmental factors clearly affect colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence, but the mechanisms through which these factors function are unknown. One prime candidate is an altered colonic microbiota. Here we show that the mucosal microbiota organization is a critical factor associated with a subset of CRC. We identified invasive polymicrobial bacterial biofilms (bacterial aggregates), structures previously associated with nonmalignant intestinal pathology, nearly universally (89%) on right-sided tumors (13 of 15 CRCs, 4 of 4 adenomas) but on only 12% of left-sided tumors (2 of 15 CRCs, 0 of 2 adenomas). Surprisingly, patients with biofilm-positive tumors, whether cancers or adenomas, all had biofilms on their tumor-free mucosa far distant from their tumors. Bacterial biofilms were associated with diminished colonic epithelial cell E-cadherin and enhanced epithelial cell IL-6 and Stat3 activation, as well as increased crypt epithelial cell proliferation in normal colon mucosa. High-throughput sequencing revealed no consistent bacterial genus associated with tumors, regardless of biofilm status. However, principal coordinates analysis revealed that biofilm communities on paired normal mucosa, distant from the tumor itself, cluster with tumor microbiomes as opposed to biofilm-negative normal mucosa bacterial communities also from the tumor host. Colon mucosal biofilm detection may predict increased risk for development of sporadic CRC.
  13. Wei L, Lim SG, Xie Q, Văn KN, Piratvisuth T, Huang Y, et al.
    Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2019 Feb;4(2):127-134.
    PMID: 30555048 DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(18)30343-1
    BACKGROUND: Treatment with combined sofosbuvir and velpatasvir has resulted in high sustained virological response rates in patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) with genotypes 1-6 in clinical trials and real-world settings, but its efficacy and safety has not been assessed in Asia, a region with diverse HCV genotypes.

    METHODS: In this single-arm, open-label, phase 3 trial, we recruited patients from 38 sites across China, Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, and Malaysia, who were chronically infected with HCV genotypes 1-6, and were HCV treatment-naive or treatment-experienced, either without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis. Patients self-administered a combined sofosbuvir (400 mg) and velpatasvir (100 mg) tablet once daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was sustained virological response, defined as HCV RNA less than 15 IU/mL at 12 weeks after completion of treatment (SVR12), assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. The primary safety endpoint was the proportion of adverse events leading to premature discontinuation of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02671500, and is completed.

    FINDINGS: Between April 14, 2016, and June 30, 2017, 375 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 374 completed the full treatment course and one discontinued treatment. Overall, 362 (97% [95% CI 94-98]) of 375 patients achieved SVR12. Among 42 patients with HCV genotype 3b, all of whom had baseline resistance-associated substitutions in NS5A, 25 (89% [95% CI 72-98]) of 28 patients without cirrhosis and seven (50% [23-77]) of 14 patients with cirrhosis achieved SVR12. The most common adverse events were upper respiratory tract infection (36 [10%] patients) and headache (18 [5%] patients). There were no discontinuations due to adverse events. Serious adverse events were reported in three (1%) patients, none of which was judged to be related to sofosbuvir-velpatasvir treatment.

    INTERPRETATION: Consistent with data from other phase 3 studies, single-tablet sofosbuvir-velpatasvir for 12 weeks is an efficacious and safe treatment for Asian patients with chronic HCV infection, but might have lower efficacy in those infected with HCV genotype 3b and with cirrhosis.

    FUNDING: Gilead Sciences.

  14. Adachi I, Adye T, Ahmed H, Ahn JK, Aihara H, Akar S, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2018 Dec 28;121(26):261801.
    PMID: 30636113 DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.261801
    We present first evidence that the cosine of the CP-violating weak phase 2β is positive, and hence exclude trigonometric multifold solutions of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) Unitarity Triangle using a time-dependent Dalitz plot analysis of B^{0}→D^{(*)}h^{0} with D→K_{S}^{0}π^{+}π^{-} decays, where h^{0}∈{π^{0},η,ω} denotes a light unflavored and neutral hadron. The measurement is performed combining the final data sets of the BABAR and Belle experiments collected at the ϒ(4S) resonance at the asymmetric-energy B factories PEP-II at SLAC and KEKB at KEK, respectively. The data samples contain (471±3)×10^{6}BB[over ¯] pairs recorded by the BABAR detector and (772±11)×10^{6}BB[over ¯] pairs recorded by the Belle detector. The results of the measurement are sin2β=0.80±0.14(stat)±0.06(syst)±0.03(model) and cos2β=0.91±0.22(stat)±0.09(syst)±0.07(model). The result for the direct measurement of the angle β of the CKM Unitarity Triangle is β=[22.5±4.4(stat)±1.2(syst)±0.6(model)]°. The measurement assumes no direct CP violation in B^{0}→D^{(*)}h^{0} decays. The quoted model uncertainties are due to the composition of the D^{0}→K_{S}^{0}π^{+}π^{-} decay amplitude model, which is newly established by performing a Dalitz plot amplitude analysis using a high-statistics e^{+}e^{-}→cc[over ¯] data sample. CP violation is observed in B^{0}→D^{(*)}h^{0} decays at the level of 5.1 standard deviations. The significance for cos2β>0 is 3.7 standard deviations. The trigonometric multifold solution π/2-β=(68.1±0.7)° is excluded at the level of 7.3 standard deviations. The measurement resolves an ambiguity in the determination of the apex of the CKM Unitarity Triangle.
  15. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
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