Displaying all 11 publications

  1. Yong MH, Che Hamzah J
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 07;75(4):342-348.
    PMID: 32723992
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical effectiveness, health related quality of life (HRQoL) and cost effectiveness of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) compared to topical anti-glaucoma medications in step-up treatment of patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG).

    METHODS: Seventeen POAG patients with suboptimal IOP control despite pre-existing topical medications were subjected to adjunct SLT (50 applications 180 degrees) or second line medical therapy. Current medications were continued, and patients were followed up for 6 months for degree of intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering. HRQoL was assessed using Glaucoma Quality of Life 36-item (GlauQoL-36), Assessment of Quality of Life-7D (AQoL-7D) and Vision related Quality of Life (VisQoL). Costs involved were calculated and compared to the effect (IOP reduction) achieved in each arm.

    RESULTS: Ten patients were in the SLT group and 7 in the topical medication (MED) group. Mean baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) was 18.90±3.48mmHg in SLT group and 15.57±2.23mmHg in MED group. Mean reduction of IOP was 4.30±1.64mmHg in SLT group and 2.71±2.56 mmHg in MED group at 6 months which was not statistically significant (p=0.14) between two groups. All the HRQoL questionnaires did not show significant changes in the groups or between groups when compared baseline with 6-month post treatment (p-values ranging from 0.247 to 0.987). For every 1mmHg reduction in IOP, cost involved in MED group (RM53.61) was 165% of the cost involved in SLT group (RM32.56).

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study has shown that SLT was as effective clinically and tolerable as topical anti glaucoma medications and was possibly more cost effective in the step-up treatment of patients with POAG at 6 months follow- up.

  2. Tanil CT, Yong MH
    PLoS One, 2020;15(8):e0219233.
    PMID: 32790667 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0219233
    Our aim was to examine the effect of a smartphone's presence on learning and memory among undergraduates. A total of 119 undergraduates completed a memory task and the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS). As predicted, those without smartphones had higher recall accuracy compared to those with smartphones. Results showed a significant negative relationship between phone conscious thought, "how often did you think about your phone", and memory recall but not for SAS and memory recall. Phone conscious thought significantly predicted memory accuracy. We found that the presence of a smartphone and high phone conscious thought affects one's memory learning and recall, indicating the negative effect of a smartphone proximity to our learning and memory.
  3. Yong MH, Amin A, Mushawiahti M, Bastion ML
    Med J Malaysia, 2015 Dec;70(6):358-60.
    PMID: 26988210
    We report a case of a middle-aged gentleman with recalcitrant macular oedema (RMO) secondary to ischaemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). He was given six injections of intravitreal ranibizumab (anti-VEGF) monthly. However, his visual acuity (VA) deteriorated and the macular oedema worsened. He then received an intravitreal dexamethasone implant eight months post-CRVO. His VA and macular oedema improved dramatically and significantly at first follow-up and remained stable at six months after implant. This case can be a reference for those who treating recalcitrant macular oedema. It shows the effect of an intravitreal dexamathasone implant might have in a patient with RMO due to CRVO. The patient enjoyed improvement of vision, with clinical evidence of reduction in central macular thickness (CMT) and with no serious adverse events after a single injection up to six months post implant.
  4. Quiroz JC, Geangu E, Yong MH
    JMIR Ment Health, 2018 Aug 08;5(3):e10153.
    PMID: 30089610 DOI: 10.2196/10153
    BACKGROUND: Research in psychology has shown that the way a person walks reflects that person's current mood (or emotional state). Recent studies have used mobile phones to detect emotional states from movement data.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to investigate the use of movement sensor data from a smart watch to infer an individual's emotional state. We present our findings of a user study with 50 participants.

    METHODS: The experimental design is a mixed-design study: within-subjects (emotions: happy, sad, and neutral) and between-subjects (stimulus type: audiovisual "movie clips" and audio "music clips"). Each participant experienced both emotions in a single stimulus type. All participants walked 250 m while wearing a smart watch on one wrist and a heart rate monitor strap on the chest. They also had to answer a short questionnaire (20 items; Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule, PANAS) before and after experiencing each emotion. The data obtained from the heart rate monitor served as supplementary information to our data. We performed time series analysis on data from the smart watch and a t test on questionnaire items to measure the change in emotional state. Heart rate data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. We extracted features from the time series using sliding windows and used features to train and validate classifiers that determined an individual's emotion.

    RESULTS: Overall, 50 young adults participated in our study; of them, 49 were included for the affective PANAS questionnaire and 44 for the feature extraction and building of personal models. Participants reported feeling less negative affect after watching sad videos or after listening to sad music, P

  5. Yong MH, Lim XL, Schaefer A
    Neurosci Lett, 2020 02 16;720:134759.
    PMID: 31952988 DOI: 10.1016/j.neulet.2020.134759
    Past research has found that several brain event-related potentials (ERPs) were sensitive to the perception of ethnic differences displayed on human faces. This body of research suggests that the phenomenon of "race perception" involves a cascade of cognitive processes that includes both automatic and overt attentional mechanisms. However, most of these studies used stimuli depicting whole faces rather than stimuli depicting separate facial features. Therefore, it is still largely unknown if ERP responses to racial differences are the result of a holistic processing of the whole face, or whether they can be accounted for by the perception of single facial features. To address this issue, we examined whether a single facial feature, the eyes region, can provide sufficient information to trigger known ERP correlates of race perception such as the P2, the N400 and the Late Positive Complex (LPC). Specifically, we showed pictures depicting only the eyes region of Caucasian and Asian faces to a sample of Asian participants. We found that the P2 was larger for other-race (OR) compared to same-race (SR) eyes, and that the N400 was larger for SR compared to OR eyes. The effects on the P2 may suggest an enhanced vigilance response to OR eyes whereas the N400 effect could reflect a signal of familiarity triggered by SR eyes. These results indicate that a specific facial feature, the eyes region, can account for known effects of race perception on early brain potentials. Our findings also indicate that well-known early neural correlates of race perception can be triggered in the absence of a holistic processing of the whole face.
  6. Low GK, Looi SY, Yong MH, Sharma D
    J Vector Borne Dis, 2018 10 4;55(2):79-88.
    PMID: 30280705 DOI: 10.4103/0972-9062.242568
    Diagnosing severe dengue from those who do not develop complication is important to prevent death. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the diagnostic test accuracy of ultrasonography in differentiating severe dengue from nonsevere dengue; and to assess if ultrasonography/ultrasound can be used as a predictive (screening) and diagnostic tool in the course of dengue infection. An electronic search was conducted in different databases via OvidSP platform. The included studies were cohort studies between 1995 and 2016 wherein cases were confirmed by dengue blood test. Severity of dengue was assessed and compared using standard WHO references. The methodological quality of the paper was assessed by two independent reviewers by using QUADAS-2 tool. In total 12 studies were included in this review after suitable screening. Overall, the studies included had a low and unclear risk of bias. Seven out of nine studies that compared severe dengue and nonsevere dengue, performed an ultrasonography on gallbladder (wall thickness cutoff-3 mm) with a sensitivity of 24.2-100% and a specificity of 13.2-98.7%. Other parameters such as splenic subcapsular fluid collection, pericardial fluid and hepatic subcapsular fluid collection had a specificity of >90%, though the sensitivity was poor. There were insufficient evidence that ultrasonography is able to differentiate severe dengue from nonsevere dengue accurately. The predictive and diagnostic value of ultrasonography could not be concluded due to insufficient reporting on the temporality of the ultrasonography performed with regard to the diagnosis. However, it might serve as an adjunct investigation to support the clinical diagnosis.
  7. Low GK, Ogston SA, Yong MH, Gan SC, Chee HY
    Acta Trop, 2018 Jun;182:237-245.
    PMID: 29545158 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.014
    BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of 2009 WHO dengue case classification, no literature was found regarding its effect on dengue death. This study was to evaluate the effect of 2009 WHO dengue case classification towards dengue case fatality rate.

    METHODS: Various databases were used to search relevant articles since 1995. Studies included were cohort and cross-sectional studies, all patients with dengue infection and must report the number of death or case fatality rate. The Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal checklist was used to evaluate the risk of bias of the full-texts. The studies were grouped according to the classification adopted: WHO 1997 and WHO 2009. Meta-regression was employed using a logistic transformation (log-odds) of the case fatality rate. The result of the meta-regression was the adjusted case fatality rate and odds ratio on the explanatory variables.

    RESULTS: A total of 77 studies were included in the meta-regression analysis. The case fatality rate for all studies combined was 1.14% with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.82-1.58%. The combined (unadjusted) case fatality rate for 69 studies which adopted WHO 1997 dengue case classification was 1.09% with 95% CI of 0.77-1.55%; and for eight studies with WHO 2009 was 1.62% with 95% CI of 0.64-4.02%. The unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio of case fatality using WHO 2009 dengue case classification was 1.49 (95% CI: 0.52, 4.24) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.26, 2.63) respectively, compared to WHO 1997 dengue case classification. There was an apparent increase in trend of case fatality rate from the year 1992-2016. Neither was statistically significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: The WHO 2009 dengue case classification might have no effect towards the case fatality rate although the adjusted results indicated a lower case fatality rate. Future studies are required for an update in the meta-regression analysis to confirm the findings.

  8. Teo SK, Mohd Khialdin S, Yong MH, Othman O, Ami M
    Optom Vis Sci, 2020 Dec;97(12):1018-1022.
    PMID: 33252541 DOI: 10.1097/OPX.0000000000001607
    SIGNIFICANCE: Ocular tilt reaction (OTR) is an abnormal eye-head postural reaction that consists of skew deviation, head tilt, and bilateral ocular torsion. Understanding of the pathway of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is essential because this will help to localize the pathology.

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to report a case of OTR with contralateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) and fifth and seventh cranial nerve palsies.

    CASE REPORT: A 51-year-old gentleman with underlying diabetes mellitus presented with sudden onset of diplopia for 3 days. On examination, his visual acuity was 20/30 bilaterally without a relative afferent pupillary defect. He had a right OTR consisting of a right head tilt, a skew deviation with a left eye hypertropia, and bilateral ocular torsion (right excyclotorsion and left incyclotorsion) with nystagmus. He also had a left adduction deficit and right abduction nystagmus consistent with a left INO. Ocular examination revealed evidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy bilaterally. Two days after the initial presentation, the patient developed left seventh and fifth cranial nerve palsies. MRI showed left pontine infarction and multiple chronic lacunar infarctions. There was an incidental finding of a vascular loop compression on cisternal portions of the left trigeminal, facial, and vestibulocochlear nerves. Antiplatelet treatment was started on top of a better diabetic control. The diplopia was gradually resolved with improved clinical signs. In this case, the left pontine infarction had likely affected the terminal decussated part of the vestibulocochlear nerve from the right VOR pathway, medial longitudinal fasciculus, and cranial nerve nuclei in the left pons.

    CONCLUSIONS: The OTR can be ipsilateral to the lesion if the lesion is before the decussation of the VOR pathway in the pons, or it can be contralateral to the lesion if the lesion is after the decussation. In case of an OTR that is associated with contralateral INO and other contralateral cranial nerves palsy, a pathology in the pons that is contralateral to the OTR should be considered. Neuroimaging study can hence be targeted to identify the possible cause.

  9. Phillips LH, Lawrie L, Schaefer A, Tan CY, Yong MH
    Front Psychol, 2021;12:631458.
    PMID: 33692728 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.631458
    Planning ability is important in everyday functioning, and a key measure to assess the preparation and execution of plans is the Tower of London (ToL) task. Previous studies indicate that older adults are often less accurate than the young on the ToL and that there may be cultural differences in performance on the task. However, potential interactions between age and culture have not previously been explored. In the current study we examined the effects of age on ToL performance in an Asian culture (Malaysia) and a Western culture (British) (n = 191). We also explored whether working memory, age, education, and socioeconomic status explained variance in ToL performance across these two cultures. Results indicated that age effects on ToL performance were greater in the Malaysian sample. Subsequent moderated mediation analysis revealed differences between the two cultures (British vs Malaysians), in that the age-related variance in ToL accuracy was accounted for by WM capacity at low and medium education levels only in the Malaysian sample. Demographic variables could not explain additional variance in ToL speed or accuracy. These results may reflect cultural differences in the familiarity and cognitive load of carrying out complex planning tasks.
  10. Abu Talib DN, Yong MH, Nasaruddin RA, Che-Hamzah J, Bastion MC
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2021 Apr 09;100(14):e25459.
    PMID: 33832156 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000025459
    RATIONALE: Endogenous fungal endophthalmitis (EFE) is a sight-threatening complication of systemic fungemia. As the prevalence rises, treatment remains a challenge especially when there is a failure in first-line treatment or drug-resistant fungus. This case report studies a case of chronic EFE, focusing on the diagnostic procedures, treatment options, monitoring parameters and the treatment outcome.

    PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old man with underlying well controlled diabetes mellitus was treated with 2 weeks' course of intravenous antifungal fluconazole for pyelonephritis as his blood culture grew Candida albicans. Concurrently, he complained of 3 months of bilateral painless progressive blurring of vision. At presentation, his visual acuity (VA) was light perception both eyes. Ocular examination revealed non granulomatous inflammation with dense vitritis of both eyes.

    DIAGNOSIS: He was diagnosed with EFE but the condition responded poorly with the medications.

    INTERVENTIONS: He was treated with intravitreal (IVT) amphotericin B and fluconazole was continued. Vitrectomy was performed and intraoperative findings included bilateral fungal balls in the vitreous and retina with foveal traction in the left eye. Postoperatively, vision acuity was 6/24, N8 right eye and 2/60, N unable for left eye with extensive left macular scar and hole. Vitreous cultures were negative. He received multiple IVT amphotericin B and was started on topical steroid eye drops for persistent panuveitis with systemic fluconazole. Ocular improvement was seen after switching to IVT and topical voriconazole. Despite this, his ocular condition deteriorated and he developed neovascular glaucoma requiring 3 topical antiglaucoma agents. Panretinal photocoagulation was subsequently performed.

    OUTCOMES: At 3 months' follow-up, his vision acuity remained at 6/24 for right eye and 2/60 for the left eye. There was no recurrence of inflammation or infection in both eyes.

    LESSONS: Voriconazole could serve as a promising broad spectrum tri-azole agent in cases of failure in first-line treatment or drug-resistant fungus.

  11. Cheng TC, Yahya MFN, Mohd Naffi AA, Othman O, Seng Fai T, Yong MH, et al.
    J Craniofac Surg, 2021 Mar 24.
    PMID: 33770023 DOI: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007645
    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the satisfaction of surgeons and trainees with three-dimensional (3D) ophthalmic surgery during a demonstration compared to traditional surgery.

    METHODS: This validated questionnaire-based study was conducted over 1-month during which Ngenuity 3D surgery was demonstrated. All surgeons and trainees exposed were recruited to complete a questionnaire comprising visualization, physical, ease of use, teaching and learning, and overall satisfaction.

    RESULTS: All 7 surgeons and 33 postgraduate students responded. Surgeons reported no significant difference except overall (P = 0.047, paired t-test). Postgraduate trainees reported significantly better experience with 3D for illumination (P = 0.008), manoeuvrability (P = 0.01), glare (P = 0.037), eye strain (P = 0.008), neck and upper back strain (P = 0.000), lower back pain (P = 0.019), communication (P = 0.002), comfortable environment (P = 0.001), sharing of knowledge (P = 0.000), and overall (P = 0.009).

    CONCLUSIONS: During early experience, surgeons and trainees reported better satisfaction with 3D overall. Trainees had better satisfaction with 3D in various subcomponents of visualization, physical, ease of use, and education.

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