METHODS: Seventeen POAG patients with suboptimal IOP control despite pre-existing topical medications were subjected to adjunct SLT (50 applications 180 degrees) or second line medical therapy. Current medications were continued, and patients were followed up for 6 months for degree of intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering. HRQoL was assessed using Glaucoma Quality of Life 36-item (GlauQoL-36), Assessment of Quality of Life-7D (AQoL-7D) and Vision related Quality of Life (VisQoL). Costs involved were calculated and compared to the effect (IOP reduction) achieved in each arm.
RESULTS: Ten patients were in the SLT group and 7 in the topical medication (MED) group. Mean baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) was 18.90±3.48mmHg in SLT group and 15.57±2.23mmHg in MED group. Mean reduction of IOP was 4.30±1.64mmHg in SLT group and 2.71±2.56 mmHg in MED group at 6 months which was not statistically significant (p=0.14) between two groups. All the HRQoL questionnaires did not show significant changes in the groups or between groups when compared baseline with 6-month post treatment (p-values ranging from 0.247 to 0.987). For every 1mmHg reduction in IOP, cost involved in MED group (RM53.61) was 165% of the cost involved in SLT group (RM32.56).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study has shown that SLT was as effective clinically and tolerable as topical anti glaucoma medications and was possibly more cost effective in the step-up treatment of patients with POAG at 6 months follow- up.
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to investigate the use of movement sensor data from a smart watch to infer an individual's emotional state. We present our findings of a user study with 50 participants.
METHODS: The experimental design is a mixed-design study: within-subjects (emotions: happy, sad, and neutral) and between-subjects (stimulus type: audiovisual "movie clips" and audio "music clips"). Each participant experienced both emotions in a single stimulus type. All participants walked 250 m while wearing a smart watch on one wrist and a heart rate monitor strap on the chest. They also had to answer a short questionnaire (20 items; Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule, PANAS) before and after experiencing each emotion. The data obtained from the heart rate monitor served as supplementary information to our data. We performed time series analysis on data from the smart watch and a t test on questionnaire items to measure the change in emotional state. Heart rate data was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. We extracted features from the time series using sliding windows and used features to train and validate classifiers that determined an individual's emotion.
RESULTS: Overall, 50 young adults participated in our study; of them, 49 were included for the affective PANAS questionnaire and 44 for the feature extraction and building of personal models. Participants reported feeling less negative affect after watching sad videos or after listening to sad music, P
METHODS: Various databases were used to search relevant articles since 1995. Studies included were cohort and cross-sectional studies, all patients with dengue infection and must report the number of death or case fatality rate. The Joanna Briggs Institute appraisal checklist was used to evaluate the risk of bias of the full-texts. The studies were grouped according to the classification adopted: WHO 1997 and WHO 2009. Meta-regression was employed using a logistic transformation (log-odds) of the case fatality rate. The result of the meta-regression was the adjusted case fatality rate and odds ratio on the explanatory variables.
RESULTS: A total of 77 studies were included in the meta-regression analysis. The case fatality rate for all studies combined was 1.14% with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.82-1.58%. The combined (unadjusted) case fatality rate for 69 studies which adopted WHO 1997 dengue case classification was 1.09% with 95% CI of 0.77-1.55%; and for eight studies with WHO 2009 was 1.62% with 95% CI of 0.64-4.02%. The unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio of case fatality using WHO 2009 dengue case classification was 1.49 (95% CI: 0.52, 4.24) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.26, 2.63) respectively, compared to WHO 1997 dengue case classification. There was an apparent increase in trend of case fatality rate from the year 1992-2016. Neither was statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS: The WHO 2009 dengue case classification might have no effect towards the case fatality rate although the adjusted results indicated a lower case fatality rate. Future studies are required for an update in the meta-regression analysis to confirm the findings.
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to report a case of OTR with contralateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) and fifth and seventh cranial nerve palsies.
CASE REPORT: A 51-year-old gentleman with underlying diabetes mellitus presented with sudden onset of diplopia for 3 days. On examination, his visual acuity was 20/30 bilaterally without a relative afferent pupillary defect. He had a right OTR consisting of a right head tilt, a skew deviation with a left eye hypertropia, and bilateral ocular torsion (right excyclotorsion and left incyclotorsion) with nystagmus. He also had a left adduction deficit and right abduction nystagmus consistent with a left INO. Ocular examination revealed evidence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy bilaterally. Two days after the initial presentation, the patient developed left seventh and fifth cranial nerve palsies. MRI showed left pontine infarction and multiple chronic lacunar infarctions. There was an incidental finding of a vascular loop compression on cisternal portions of the left trigeminal, facial, and vestibulocochlear nerves. Antiplatelet treatment was started on top of a better diabetic control. The diplopia was gradually resolved with improved clinical signs. In this case, the left pontine infarction had likely affected the terminal decussated part of the vestibulocochlear nerve from the right VOR pathway, medial longitudinal fasciculus, and cranial nerve nuclei in the left pons.
CONCLUSIONS: The OTR can be ipsilateral to the lesion if the lesion is before the decussation of the VOR pathway in the pons, or it can be contralateral to the lesion if the lesion is after the decussation. In case of an OTR that is associated with contralateral INO and other contralateral cranial nerves palsy, a pathology in the pons that is contralateral to the OTR should be considered. Neuroimaging study can hence be targeted to identify the possible cause.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 64-year-old man with underlying well controlled diabetes mellitus was treated with 2 weeks' course of intravenous antifungal fluconazole for pyelonephritis as his blood culture grew Candida albicans. Concurrently, he complained of 3 months of bilateral painless progressive blurring of vision. At presentation, his visual acuity (VA) was light perception both eyes. Ocular examination revealed non granulomatous inflammation with dense vitritis of both eyes.
DIAGNOSIS: He was diagnosed with EFE but the condition responded poorly with the medications.
INTERVENTIONS: He was treated with intravitreal (IVT) amphotericin B and fluconazole was continued. Vitrectomy was performed and intraoperative findings included bilateral fungal balls in the vitreous and retina with foveal traction in the left eye. Postoperatively, vision acuity was 6/24, N8 right eye and 2/60, N unable for left eye with extensive left macular scar and hole. Vitreous cultures were negative. He received multiple IVT amphotericin B and was started on topical steroid eye drops for persistent panuveitis with systemic fluconazole. Ocular improvement was seen after switching to IVT and topical voriconazole. Despite this, his ocular condition deteriorated and he developed neovascular glaucoma requiring 3 topical antiglaucoma agents. Panretinal photocoagulation was subsequently performed.
OUTCOMES: At 3 months' follow-up, his vision acuity remained at 6/24 for right eye and 2/60 for the left eye. There was no recurrence of inflammation or infection in both eyes.
LESSONS: Voriconazole could serve as a promising broad spectrum tri-azole agent in cases of failure in first-line treatment or drug-resistant fungus.
METHODS: This validated questionnaire-based study was conducted over 1-month during which Ngenuity 3D surgery was demonstrated. All surgeons and trainees exposed were recruited to complete a questionnaire comprising visualization, physical, ease of use, teaching and learning, and overall satisfaction.
RESULTS: All 7 surgeons and 33 postgraduate students responded. Surgeons reported no significant difference except overall (P = 0.047, paired t-test). Postgraduate trainees reported significantly better experience with 3D for illumination (P = 0.008), manoeuvrability (P = 0.01), glare (P = 0.037), eye strain (P = 0.008), neck and upper back strain (P = 0.000), lower back pain (P = 0.019), communication (P = 0.002), comfortable environment (P = 0.001), sharing of knowledge (P = 0.000), and overall (P = 0.009).
CONCLUSIONS: During early experience, surgeons and trainees reported better satisfaction with 3D overall. Trainees had better satisfaction with 3D in various subcomponents of visualization, physical, ease of use, and education.