METHODS: We performed a systematic search of four databases for relevant studies. Meta-analysis was done based on United Nations geoscheme regions, individual countries and study period. We used a random-effects model to calculate pooled prevalence and mortality estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), weighted by study size.
RESULTS: Among 6445 reports screened, we identified 126 relevant studies, comprising data from 29 countries. The overall prevalence of multidrug-resistance among A. baumannii causing HAP and VAP pooled from 114 studies was 79.9% (95% CI 73.9-85.4%). Central America (100%) and Latin America and the Caribbean (100%) had the highest prevalence, whereas Eastern Asia had the lowest (64.6%; 95% CI, 50.2-77.6%). The overall mortality estimate pooled from 27 studies was 42.6% (95% CI, 37.2-48.1%).
CONCLUSIONS: We observed large amounts of variation in the prevalence of multidrug-resistance among A. baumannii causing HAP and VAP and its mortality rate among regions and lack of data from many countries. Data from this review can be used in the development of customized strategies for infection control and antimicrobial stewardship.
Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane register of trials systematically for studies that examined treatment options for patients with MDR- and XDR-AB infections until April 2016. Network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed to estimate the risk ratio (RR) and 95% CI from both direct and indirect evidence. Primary outcomes were clinical cure and microbiological cure. Secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality and nephrotoxic and non-nephrotoxic adverse events.
Results: A total of 29 studies with 2529 patients (median age 60 years; 65% male; median APACHE II score 19.0) were included. Although there were no statistically significant differences between treatment options, triple therapy with colistin, sulbactam and tigecycline had the highest clinical cure rate. Colistin in combination with sulbactam was associated with a significantly higher microbiological cure rate compared with colistin in combination with tigecycline (RR 1.23; 95% CI 1.03-1.47) and colistin monotherapy (RR 1.21; 95% CI 1.06-1.38). No significant differences in all-cause mortality were noted between treatment options. Tigecycline-based therapy also appeared less effective for achieving a microbiological cure and is not appropriate for treating bloodstream MDR- and XDR-AB infections.
Conclusions: Combination therapy of colistin with sulbactam demonstrates superiority in terms of microbiological cure with a safety profile similar to that of colistin monotherapy. Thus, our findings support the use of this combination as a treatment for MDR- and XDR-AB infections.
AIM: To determine the susceptibility of A. baumannii isolates to commonly-used biocides, investigate their biofilm-forming capacities and the prevalence of biocide resistance and biofilm-associated genes.
METHODOLOGY: . The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 100 A. baumannii hospital isolates from Terengganu, Malaysia, towards the biocides benzalkonium chloride (BZK), benzethonium chloride (BZT) and chlorhexidine digluconate (CLX), were determined by broth microdilution. The isolates were also examined for their ability to form biofilms in 96-well microplates. The prevalence of biocide resistance genes qacA, qacE and qacDE1 and the biofilm-associated genes bap and abaI were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
RESULTS: Majority of the A. baumannii isolates (43%) showed higher MIC values (> 50 µg/mL) for CLX than for BZK (5% for MIC > 50 µg/mL) and BZT (9% for MIC > 50 µg/mL). The qacDE1 gene was predominant (63%) followed by qacE (28%) whereas no isolate was found harbouring qacA. All isolates were positive for the bap and abaI genes although the biofilm-forming capacity varied among the isolates.
CONCLUSION: The Terengganu A. baumannii isolates showed higher prevalence of qacDE1 compared to qacE although no correlation was found with the biocides' MIC values. No correlation was also observed between the isolates' biofilm-forming capacity and the MIC values for the biocides.