Clustering refers to reducing selected features involved in determining the clusters. Raw data might come with a lot of features, including unimportant ones. A hybrid similarity measure (discovered in 2014) used in selecting features can be improvised as it might select all the attributes, including insignificant ones. This paper suggests Fuzzy Lambda-Max to be used as a feature selection method since Lambda-Max is normally used in ranking of alternatives. A set of AIDS data is used to measure the performance. Results show that Fuzzy Lambda-Max has the ability to determine criteria weights and ranking the criteria. Hence, feature selection can be done by choosing only the important criteria.
We report a 39-year-old male who presented with tuberculous meningitis and was found also to be HIV-infected. In the course of his illness, he developed multiple opportunistic infections such as herpes genitalis, oesophageal candidiasis, CMV retinitis and finally succumbed to Penicillium marneffei septicaemia.
OBJECTIVE: Medical students are future doctors who are trained to treat all kind of diseases including people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) without prejudice. This study was to determine the factors associated with knowledge on HIV/AIDS and stigma towards PLWHA among medical students.
METHODS: This was a cross sectional study with stratified random sampling conducted in a public university, Malaysia. The participants were preclinical-year (year 1 and year 2) and clinical-year (year 3 and year 4) medical students. Simple randomisation was carried out after stratification of medical students into preclinical and clinical-year. The self-administered questionnaires were consisted of socio-demographic data, items assessing HIV/AIDS knowledge and items assessing stigmatisation attitudes towards PLWHA.
RESULTS: We had 100% response rate of 340 participants. Pre-clinical and clinical year medical students each contributed 170 (50%). Majority was female (64.1%). About two-thirds (60.6%) was Malay, followed by Chinese (31.2%) and Indian (7.1%). Pre-clinical students were significantly more stigmatizing in subscale of "attitudes towards imposed measures" (t=3.917, p<0.001), even with adjustment for previous encounter and ethnicity (B= 1.2, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.83, p=0.001). On the other hand, clinical students were found to be significantly less comfortable in handling HIV/AIDS cases (t=0.039, p=0.039), even after controlled for previous encounter and ethnicity (B=0.6, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.98, p< 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Clinical encounter with PLWHA was associated with higher knowledge in HIV/AIDS. Medical students in preclinical years were having stigmatizing attitude towards imposed measures compared to the clinical years who had more stigmatizing attitude in being less comfortable with PLWHA.
Tuberculosis is the top agenda among opportunistic diseases and the most leading cause of death in HIV/AIDS patients. A total of 406 AIDS patients were recruited in this retrospective and descriptive study. 123/406 (30.3%) were diagnosed as AIDS-related tuberculosis (TB). Their age range from 17 to 69 years with a mean (±SD) of 37.2 (±9.51. There were significant association between occupation, or mode of HIV transmission and tuberculosis infection (p< 0.05). Pulmonary tuberculosis 104/123 (84.6%) was the most common disease location among TB patients. We found the significant association between the clinical presentations i.e. fever, cough, sputum or hemoptysis and TB patients (p<0.05), moreover, the level of CD4 cell count plays a significant role in association with the disease (p<0.05) in this study.
Although around 70% of HIV+ cases used to have ocular manifestations, the late reporting of cases often results in severe forms of ocular morbidity that would otherwise have been prevented. The objective of this study was to describe the ocular manifestations of HIV and AIDS-related patients who had been admitted to TM Jafferji Hospital, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.
Since the first case of HIV/AIDS was identified in 1986 in Malaysia, the number of infected individuals has increased steadily each year, so that by the end of 2002 the cumulative number of people living with HIV/AIDS was 57,835 (51,256 with HIV and 6,579 with AIDS), with 5,676 AIDS deaths. The epidemic in Malaysia, currently in a concentrated epidemic stage, is primarily fueled by drug use, but there is ample evidence that heterosexual transmission has increased over the last few years. A strategic plan that includes prevention, care, support, and treatment run by both the government and nongovernmental organizations has been in place since the beginning of the epidemic. However, Malaysia will need to take a more pragmatic approach to reduce new infections (which numbered 19 each day in 2002) among the youth on whom the country relies for development. Leaders need to recognize that HIV/AIDS is not just a health issue, but also a socioeconomic concern that can eliminate all the developmental gains achieved over the years. Working together, Malaysians can overcome the epidemic, but there is a need to act quickly and to act in effective ways so that the devastating effects (already evident in the number of AIDS orphans and widows) can be reduced.
The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the resulting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health concern in many parts of the world, and mathematical models are commonly applied to understand the spread of the HIV epidemic. To understand the spread of HIV and AIDS cases and their parameters in a given population, it is necessary to develop a theoretical framework that takes into account realistic factors. The current study used this framework to assess the interaction between individuals who developed AIDS after HIV infection and individuals who did not develop AIDS after HIV infection (pre-AIDS). We first investigated how probabilistic parameters affect the model in terms of the HIV and AIDS population over a period of time. We observed that there is a critical threshold parameter, R0, which determines the behavior of the model. If R0 ≤ 1, there is a unique disease-free equilibrium; if R0 < 1, the disease dies out; and if R0 > 1, the disease-free equilibrium is unstable. We also show how a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach could be used as a supplement to forecast the numbers of reported HIV and AIDS cases. An approach using a Monte Carlo analysis is illustrated to understand the impact of model-based predictions in light of uncertain parameters on the spread of HIV. Finally, to examine this framework and demonstrate how it works, a case study was performed of reported HIV and AIDS cases from an annual data set in Malaysia, and then we compared how these approaches complement each other. We conclude that HIV disease in Malaysia shows epidemic behavior, especially in the context of understanding and predicting emerging cases of HIV and AIDS.
Urgent action is needed to fight the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS that infected 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia last year alone, Malaysia's foreign minister said July 24, 2000. Syed Hamid said the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) should tackle at regional and national level an epidemic that was taking its most drastic toll among the region's youth. "HIV/AIDS not only represents a major public health and social problem but is a serious challenge to development as well," Syed Hamid told the opening ceremony of ASEAN's 33rd annual foreign ministers' meeting. The crisis requires commitment at the "highest political level," he said, warning that HIV/AIDS could become a transnational problem within the 10-member group. Foreign ministers have recommended their leaders discuss the crisis later this year at an informal summit in Singapore and hold a summit on HIV/AIDS in conjunction with the 7th ASEAN Summit in Brunei next year. "I think people recognized the importance and the adverse impacts on our social development," Syed Hamid told reporters later. "I think it is a real issue that we cannot run away from." Among ASEAN members, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar have some of the highest infection rates in Asia of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.
The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) requires no further introduction. Since 1981, when the AIDS was first recognized in the United States, much interest, anxiety and fear have been generated among people all over the world. It has spread inexorably in the United States, Europe and Africa such that the World Health Organization has warned of the beginning of a worldwide epidemic of AIDS. Asia has been relatively spared; nonetheless cases have been reported from Thailand, India, Taiwan, China and Japan.' Malaysia has anticipated the appearance of the disease; an AI DS task force under the auspices of the Ministry of Health was established in early 1986. However, it is only a year later that we now report the first case of AIDS in this country.
HIV/AIDS poses a serious threat to young people, both in Malaysia and throughout the world. A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HIV/AIDS among the Malaysian public. This article reports the findings of knowledge about HIV/AIDS among young adults.
This paper examines the impact of cultural values and government policies on the content of AIDS educational literature prepared by public health agencies in Malaysia and the Philippines. The literature from these countries, which has been distributed to the public and is intended to inform them of the danger of AIDS, how the HIV is and is not transmitted, and how to avoid infection, is analyzed and evaluated for effectiveness and congruence with the dominant religious tenets and cultural practices in each country, and attitudes to sexual behavior. The paper also describes the response of these countries to the AIDS pandemic, and concludes with suggestions about how this form of AIDS education can be improved.