Clustering refers to reducing selected features involved in determining the clusters. Raw data might come with a lot of features, including unimportant ones. A hybrid similarity measure (discovered in 2014) used in selecting features can be improvised as it might select all the attributes, including insignificant ones. This paper suggests Fuzzy Lambda-Max to be used as a feature selection method since Lambda-Max is normally used in ranking of alternatives. A set of AIDS data is used to measure the performance. Results show that Fuzzy Lambda-Max has the ability to determine criteria weights and ranking the criteria. Hence, feature selection can be done by choosing only the important criteria.
We report a 39-year-old male who presented with tuberculous meningitis and was found also to be HIV-infected. In the course of his illness, he developed multiple opportunistic infections such as herpes genitalis, oesophageal candidiasis, CMV retinitis and finally succumbed to Penicillium marneffei septicaemia.
Tuberculosis is the top agenda among opportunistic diseases and the most leading cause of death in HIV/AIDS patients. A total of 406 AIDS patients were recruited in this retrospective and descriptive study. 123/406 (30.3%) were diagnosed as AIDS-related tuberculosis (TB). Their age range from 17 to 69 years with a mean (±SD) of 37.2 (±9.51. There were significant association between occupation, or mode of HIV transmission and tuberculosis infection (p< 0.05). Pulmonary tuberculosis 104/123 (84.6%) was the most common disease location among TB patients. We found the significant association between the clinical presentations i.e. fever, cough, sputum or hemoptysis and TB patients (p<0.05), moreover, the level of CD4 cell count plays a significant role in association with the disease (p<0.05) in this study.
Since the first case of HIV/AIDS was identified in 1986 in Malaysia, the number of infected individuals has increased steadily each year, so that by the end of 2002 the cumulative number of people living with HIV/AIDS was 57,835 (51,256 with HIV and 6,579 with AIDS), with 5,676 AIDS deaths. The epidemic in Malaysia, currently in a concentrated epidemic stage, is primarily fueled by drug use, but there is ample evidence that heterosexual transmission has increased over the last few years. A strategic plan that includes prevention, care, support, and treatment run by both the government and nongovernmental organizations has been in place since the beginning of the epidemic. However, Malaysia will need to take a more pragmatic approach to reduce new infections (which numbered 19 each day in 2002) among the youth on whom the country relies for development. Leaders need to recognize that HIV/AIDS is not just a health issue, but also a socioeconomic concern that can eliminate all the developmental gains achieved over the years. Working together, Malaysians can overcome the epidemic, but there is a need to act quickly and to act in effective ways so that the devastating effects (already evident in the number of AIDS orphans and widows) can be reduced.
Although around 70% of HIV+ cases used to have ocular manifestations, the late reporting of cases often results in severe forms of ocular morbidity that would otherwise have been prevented. The objective of this study was to describe the ocular manifestations of HIV and AIDS-related patients who had been admitted to TM Jafferji Hospital, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania.
In the light of present HIV worldwide epidemic. there is a need to teach the busy general practitioners how to recognise HIV & AIDS. Due to the deadly nature of this infection and its manifold presentations from opportunistic diseases. the busy general practitioners in primary care may be misled in making the correct diagnosis. In Malaysia. the doctors in the primary care level constitute 70 to 75% of the doctors' population. The rest are specialists in secondary and tertiary care institutions. Family Physicians from the Font liners to recognise and detect early cases of HlV in all its early manifestalions on the various systems. Any doctors in primary medicine whether from private or public sector, amy be confronted by patients who present with trivial complaints. These patients may be fee-paying, or particularly those doctors involved with welfare and health of factory workers and the other forms of the main work force should well arm themselves with updates in HIV and AIDS.
OBJECTIVE: Medical students are future doctors who are trained to treat all kind of diseases including people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) without prejudice. This study was to determine the factors associated with knowledge on HIV/AIDS and stigma towards PLWHA among medical students.
METHODS: This was a cross sectional study with stratified random sampling conducted in a public university, Malaysia. The participants were preclinical-year (year 1 and year 2) and clinical-year (year 3 and year 4) medical students. Simple randomisation was carried out after stratification of medical students into preclinical and clinical-year. The self-administered questionnaires were consisted of socio-demographic data, items assessing HIV/AIDS knowledge and items assessing stigmatisation attitudes towards PLWHA.
RESULTS: We had 100% response rate of 340 participants. Pre-clinical and clinical year medical students each contributed 170 (50%). Majority was female (64.1%). About two-thirds (60.6%) was Malay, followed by Chinese (31.2%) and Indian (7.1%). Pre-clinical students were significantly more stigmatizing in subscale of "attitudes towards imposed measures" (t=3.917, p<0.001), even with adjustment for previous encounter and ethnicity (B= 1.2, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.83, p=0.001). On the other hand, clinical students were found to be significantly less comfortable in handling HIV/AIDS cases (t=0.039, p=0.039), even after controlled for previous encounter and ethnicity (B=0.6, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.98, p< 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Clinical encounter with PLWHA was associated with higher knowledge in HIV/AIDS. Medical students in preclinical years were having stigmatizing attitude towards imposed measures compared to the clinical years who had more stigmatizing attitude in being less comfortable with PLWHA.
Urgent action is needed to fight the alarming spread of HIV/AIDS that infected 1.3 million people in Southeast Asia last year alone, Malaysia's foreign minister said July 24, 2000. Syed Hamid said the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) should tackle at regional and national level an epidemic that was taking its most drastic toll among the region's youth. "HIV/AIDS not only represents a major public health and social problem but is a serious challenge to development as well," Syed Hamid told the opening ceremony of ASEAN's 33rd annual foreign ministers' meeting. The crisis requires commitment at the "highest political level," he said, warning that HIV/AIDS could become a transnational problem within the 10-member group. Foreign ministers have recommended their leaders discuss the crisis later this year at an informal summit in Singapore and hold a summit on HIV/AIDS in conjunction with the 7th ASEAN Summit in Brunei next year. "I think people recognized the importance and the adverse impacts on our social development," Syed Hamid told reporters later. "I think it is a real issue that we cannot run away from." Among ASEAN members, Thailand, Cambodia, and Myanmar have some of the highest infection rates in Asia of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.