This paper seeks to answer an empirical question of whether clean biomass energy consumption lowers CO2 emissions while controlling for technical innovation in eight selected countries from Africa for the 1980-2015 period. The countries which are chosen based on availability of data on biomass energy and technological innovation include Egypt, Algeria, South Africa, Mauritius, Kenya, Morocco, Tunisia, and Zambia. Applying pooled mean group, mean group, and dynamic fixed effect panel estimators, the results indicate that clean biomass energy use decreases CO2 emission in the long run. But the effect of biomass energy consumption on CO2 emission is insignificant in the short run. The findings imply that CO2 emission can be reduced by increasing clean biomass energy in the energy mix of these countries. Similarly, environmental quality and economic growth can be achieved simultaneously by increasing the share of biomass energy in large-scale production process. Furthermore, the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), which hypothesizes an inverted U-shaped relationship between CO2 emission and economic growth, was validated in the long run. This suggests that the EKC pattern is only observed in the long run. Thus, as part of recommendation from this study, policy makers in these countries should formulate more policies that will enhance clean biomass energy production and its usage to substitute significant percentage of fossil fuel use in production process.
The aim of the present study was to characterize the physical, biochemical and antioxidant properties of Algerian honey samples (n = 4). Physical parameters, such as pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), color intensity, total sugar and sucrose content were measured. Several biochemical and antioxidant tests were performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the honey samples. The mean pH was 3.84 ± 0.01, and moisture the content was 13.21 ± 0.16%. The mean EC was 0.636 ± 0.001, and the mean TDS was 316.92 ± 0.92. The mean color was 120.58 ± 0.64 mm Pfund, and the mean 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content was 21.49 mg/kg. The mean total sugar and reducing sugar contents were 67.03 ± 0.68 g/mL and 64.72 ± 0.52 g/g, respectively. The mean sucrose content was 2.29 ± 0.65%. High mean values of phenolic (459.83 ± 1.92 mg gallic acid/kg), flavonoid (54.23 ± 0.62 mg catechin/kg), ascorbic acid (159.70 ± 0.78 mg/kg), AEAC (278.15 ± 4.34 mg/kg), protein (3381.83 ± 6.19 mg/kg) and proline (2131.47 ± 0.90) contents, as well as DPPH (39.57% ± 4.18) and FRAP activities [337.77 ± 1.01 µM Fe (II)/100 g], were also detected, indicating that Algerian honey has a high antioxidant potential. Strong positive correlations were found between flavonoid, proline and ascorbic acid contents and color intensity with DPPH and FRAP values. Thus, the present study revealed that Algerian honey is a good source of antioxidants.
Samples of natural and manufactured building materials collected from Algiers have been analysed for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K using a high-resolution HPGe gamma-spectrometry system. The specific concentrations for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, from the selected building materials, ranged from (12-65 Bq kg(-1)), (7-51 B qkg(-1)) and (36-675 Bq kg(-1)), respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these natural radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the world average activity of soil. Radium-equivalent activities were calculated for the measured samples to assess the radiation hazards arising from using those materials in the construction of dwellings. All building materials showed Ra(eq) activities lower than the limit set in the OECD report (370 Bq kg(-1)), equivalent to external gamma-dose of 1.5 mSv yr(-1).
We have systematically analyzed beta-thalassemia genes using polymerase chain reaction-related techniques, dot-blot hybridization with oligonucleotide probes, allele specific-polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing of amplified DNA fragments from 41 unrelated patients, including 37 beta-thalassemia homozygotes, three with beta-thalassemia/Hb E, and one with beta-thalassemia/Hb S. Four different beta-thalassemia mutations were detected in 78 alleles. These are the IVS-I-5 (G-->C), codon 30 (AGG-->ACG) [also indicated as IVS-I (-1)], IVS-I-1 (G-->A), and codons 41/42 (-TTCT) mutations. The distribution of the beta-thalassemia mutations in the Maldives is 58 alleles (74.3%) with the IVS-I-5 (G-->C) mutation, 12 (15.4%) with the codon 30 (AGG-->ACG) mutation, seven (9%) with the IVS-I-1 (G-->A) mutation, and one with the codons 41/42 (-TTCT) mutation. The first three mutations account for 98.7% of the total number of beta-thalassemia chromosomes studied. These mutations are clustered in the region spanning 6 bp around the junction of exon 1 and the first intervening sequence of the beta-globin gene. These observations have significant implications for setting up a thalassemia prevention and control program in the Maldives. Analysis of haplotypes and frameworks of chromosomes bearing each beta-thalassemia mutation suggested that the origin and spread of these mutations were reflected by the historical record.
Aqueous and ethanol extracts prepared from leaves of Olea europaea L. were evaluated for in vitro antioxidant and in vivo hypocholesterolemic effect. The result of administration of O. europaea leaf extracts on serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) in hypercholesterolaemic mice was evaluated. In addition, rutin and luteolin, reported to occur naturally in O. europaea leaves, were docked against HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol metabolism. Mice treated with both extracts showed reduced total cholesterol (246.6 and 163.4 mg/dl, for mice groups treated with respective extracts) and LDL (150.16 and 81.28 mg/dl, for mice groups treated with respective extracts) levels as compared to the hypercholesterolaemic group (total cholesterol 253.00 mg/dl and LDL 160.00 mg/dl). Mice treated with aqueous extract (200 mg/kg body weight) showed significantly reduced triglyceride and VLDL levels as compared to the group treated with atorvastatine. HDL level of mice administered with O. europaea aqueous extract was comparable to the atorvastatine-treated group. The ethanol extract of O. europeae leaves was a potent antioxidant (IC50 69.15 mg/ml, % inhibition 54.98, 82.63 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/g extract, 7.53 mol of Fe2+/g extract, and % inhibition 49.71, for the DPPH, β-carotene bleaching, total antioxidant capacity, FRAP, and ferric thiocyanate assays, respectively). Docking studies revealed that rutin showed higher binding affinity with HMG-CoA reductase as compared to luteolin. Data gathered from this study support the development of a prophylactic biomedicine from O. europaea leaves for the management of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis.
Claims of effective therapy against diabetes using plants including Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllum album, Anacyclus valentinus L., Ammodaucus leucotrichus, Lupinus albus, and Marrubium vulgare in Algerian empirical medicine prompted our interest in evaluating their antidiabetic activity by screening their free radical scavenging (DPPH), α-glucosidase, and nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activities as well as the total phenolic content (TPC). Extracts of the selected plants were prepared using different ratios of ethanol (0, 50, 80, and 100%). In this study, 100%, and 80% ethanol extracts of L. albus were found to be the most potent, in inhibiting α-glucosidase activity with IC50 values of 6.45 and 8.66 μg/mL, respectively. The 100% ethanol extract of A. leucotrichus exhibited the highest free radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 26.26 μg/mL. Moreover, the highest TPC of 612.84 μg GAE/mg extract was observed in M. vulgare, extracted with 80% ethanol. Metabolite profiling of the active extract was conducted using 1H-NMR metabolomics. Partial least square analysis (PLS) was used to assess the relationship between the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of L. albus and the metabolites identified in the extract. Based on the PLS model, isoflavonoids (lupinoisoflavone G, lupisoflavone, lupinoisolone C), amino acids (asparagine and thiamine), and several fatty acids (stearic acid and oleic acid) were identified as metabolites that contributed to the inhibition of α-glucosidase activity. The results of this study have clearly strengthened the traditional claim of the antihyperglycemic effects of L. albus.
Aim: This study aimed to assess the cost-effectiveness of starting insulin therapy with biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in people with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on oral glucose-lowering drugs in Saudi Arabia, India, Indonesia, and Algeria.
Methods: The IMS CORE Diabetes Model was used to evaluate economic outcomes associated with starting BIAsp 30, using baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes from the A(1)chieve study. Time horizons of 1 and 30 years were applied, with country-specific costs for complications, therapies, and background mortality. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) are expressed as cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) in local currencies, USD, and fractions of local GDP per capita (GDPc). Cost-effectiveness was pre-defined using the World Health Organization definition of <3.0 times GDPc. Comprehensive sensitivity analyses were performed.
Results: In the primary 30-year analyses, starting BIAsp 30 was associated with a projected increase in life expectancy of >1 year and was highly cost-effective, with ICERs of -0.03 (Saudi Arabia), 0.25 (India), 0.48 (India), 0.47 (Indonesia), and 0.46 (Algeria) GDPc/QALY. The relative risk of developing selected complications was reduced in all countries. Sensitivity analyses including cost of self-monitoring, treatment costs, and deterioration of glucose control with time showed the results to be robust. In a 1-year analysis, ICER per QALY gained was still cost-effective or highly cost-effective.
Conclusion: Starting BIAsp 30 in people with type 2 diabetes in the A(1)chieve study was found to be cost-effective across all country settings at 1- and 30-year time horizons, and usefully increased predicted life expectancy.
"The present paper attempts to provide an analytical profile of development and human resources in  selected [Islamic] countries." The countries--Bangladesh, Somalia, Pakistan, Indonesia, Egypt, Turkey, Malaysia, Algeria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and United Arab Emirates--vary in income levels from low to high and in population size from 1 million to 159 million. Using data from the World Bank and the Population Council, comparisons are made on the basis of mortality and fertility levels, family size, income, urbanization, labor force size and growth, education, nutrition, and health. Governmental policy changes and future directions are discussed.