Oil palm breeding involves crossing dura and pisifera palms to produce tenera progeny with greatly improved oil yield. Oil yield is controlled by variant alleles of a type II MADS-box gene, SHELL, that impact the presence and thickness of the endocarp, or shell, surrounding the fruit kernel. We identified six novel SHELL alleles in noncommercial African germplasm populations from the Malaysian Palm Oil Board. These populations provide extensive diversity to harness genetic, mechanistic and phenotypic variation associated with oil yield in a globally critical crop. We investigated phenotypes in heteroallelic combinations, as well as SHELL heterodimerization and subcellular localization by yeast two-hybrid, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and gene expression analyses. Four novel SHELL alleles were associated with fruit form phenotype. Candidate heterodimerization partners were identified, and interactions with EgSEP3 and subcellular localization were SHELL allele-specific. Our findings reveal allele-specific mechanisms by which variant SHELL alleles impact yield, as well as speculative insights into the potential role of SHELL in single-gene oil yield heterosis. Future field trials for combinability and introgression may further optimize yield and improve sustainability.
CYP2E1 encodes an enzyme that participates in the activation of several carcinogenic substances. Thus, numerous studies have investigated the association between CYP2E1 polymorphisms and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, but inconclusive results have been obtained. We performed a meta-analysis to precisely evaluate the relationship of CYP2E1 rs2031920, rs3813867, and rs6413432 polymorphisms with the susceptibility to CRC. Scopus, Web of Science and PubMed databases were searched to identify eligible studies, and the association between the polymorphisms and CRC risk was then quantitatively synthesized using different genetic models. Eighteen studies with 23,598 subjects were selected for inclusion into the analysis. Significant association between rs2031920 and an increased CRC risk was observed in homozygous (OR = 1.496, 95% CI 1.177-1.901, P = 0.001), recessive (OR = 1.467, 95% CI 1.160-1.857, P = 0.001) and allele (OR = 1.162, 95% CI 1.001-1.349, P = 0.048) models. Significant association was not found for rs3813867 and rs6413432 (P > 0.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that rs2031920, but not rs3813867 and rs6413432, is associated with the risk of CRC.
The extensive nucleotide diversity in drug-related genes predisposes individuals to different drug responses and is a major problem in current clinical practice and drug development. Striking allelic frequency differences exist in these genes between populations. In this study, we genotyped 240 sites known to be polymorphic in the Japanese population in each of 270 unrelated healthy individuals comprising 90 each of Malaysian Malays, Indians, and Chinese. These sites are distributed in 109 genes that are drug related, such as genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters. Allele frequency and linkage disequilibrium distributions of these sites were determined and compared. They were also compared with similar data of 752 Japanese. Extensive similarities in allele frequency and linkage disequilibrium distributions were observed among Japanese, Malaysian Chinese, and Malays. However, significant differences were observed between Japanese and Malaysian Chinese with Malaysian Indians. These four populations were grouped into two genetic clusters of different ancestries. However, a higher correlation was found between Malaysian Malays and Indians, indicating the existence of extensive admixture between them. The results also imply the possible and rational use of existing single nucleotide polymorphism databases as references to assist future pharmacogenetic studies involving populations of similar ancestry.
Genetic polymorphism of the 'X'-protein in red cells from Malaysian Katjang goats was demonstrated by starch gel electrophoresis at pH 7.3. Two new phenotypes were observed, suggesting that one new allele is involved. A new nomenclature for the 'X'-protein system in goats is proposed.
Duabanga moluccana (or locally known as sawih) is an indigenous fast growing tropical tree species that confers various advantages for the timber industry and for planted forests development. In this paper, we isolated and characterized 8 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the D. moluccana genome using ISSR-suppression PCR techniques. The number of alleles and PIC values ranged from 3 to 8 alleles per locus and from 0.488 to 0.792, respectively. Three microsatellite loci were deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P
Twelve single locus trinucleotide microsatellite markers were developed to characterize the Asian river catfish, Mystus nemurus, an important food fish in South East Asia. They were obtained by using a rapid method namely the 5' anchored PCR enrichment protocol. The specific primers were designed to flank the repeat sequences and these were subsequently used to characterize 90 unrelated fish from Malaysia. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 (MnVj2-281) to 12 (MnBp8-4-43b) while the levels of heterozygosity ranged from 0.0444 (MnVj2-1-19) to 0.7458 (MnVj2-291).
The genetic relationship between any two populations is a function of the differences between them in allele frequencies, with this relationship commonly expressed in terms of a genetic distance. For example if the two populations are homozygous for different alleles at a particular locus, the distance is the maximum possible whereas if the allele frequencies in the two populations are identical, the distance is zero. The estimated genetic distances may vary among loci. Thus, the most accurate measures of relationships will be obtained by averaging many loci (Nei, 1978). In plant and animal breeding, it is expected that a cross between two individuals originating from two populations with a large genetic distance between them will result in maximum heterosis or hybrid vigour. Many estimates of genetic distances are available in the literature but Nei’s standard genetic distance, D, (Nei, 1972, 1978) had been extensively used in studies of human, animal and plant varieties, races, breeds, strains, populations, species and genera.
Insertion/deletion polymorphisms (INDELs) are a relatively new class of a DNA marker to be used in forensic casework; used most commonly as a supplementary method to STR-based typing. INDELs, like SNPs, are particularly useful for the analysis of highly degraded DNA as the amplicon sizes are typically below 160 bp; they can also be valuable as an additional tool to help resolve kinship cases, with the advantage over STRs that they do not have high mutation rates. INDELs have an advantage over SNPs in that they are length polymorphisms and so can be analyzed by simply measuring the length of the allele(s). The Qiagen Investigator(®) DIPplex Kit is currently only one of two commercially available kits for the amplification of INDEL polymorphisms; it amplifies 30 biallelic INDEL loci and the amelogenin locus. The primers used are fluorescence labeled with 6-FAM, BTG, BTY, and BTR. This technique is robust, relatively simple, and the results are analyzed using the same capillary electrophoresis equipment and software as used for STR typing.
The population structure of Probarbus jullieni from Malaysia and Thailand stocks was based on seven microsatellite primers and truss network measurements. Truss morphometric measurements were made on Temoleh, Probarbus jullieni to demonstrate the degree of speciation that can be induced by both biotic and abiotic conditions and contribute to the definition of different stocks of Probarbus sp. At the momment no relevant information on stock definition has been produced recently concerning Probarbus spp., which is now in IUCN threatened red list. We also summarize the possible discriminant morphological characteristics that shows differentiation between Malaysia and Thailand stocks. We also compare the levels of morphology and genetic differences for Malaysian stocks throughout one year of sampling to determine whether sampling season and possible sexual dimorphism can be detected in this fishes. A total of 25 different alleles were found across the two populations by the seven microsatellites, of which 21 and 19 alleles were detected in Pahang, Malaysia and Thailand, respectively At the population level, the mean number of alleles of Pahang (3.4991) per locus was higher than that (3.1665) of Thailand. From both molecular and morphometric measurements showed that there were two distinct populations. However the differences between these two populations showed that they belong to the same species with least degree of separation
Seven single locus dinucleotide microsatellite markers were developed to characterize an economically important sport fish and food fish in Malaysia and in Southeast Asia. They were obtained by using a rapid method namely the 5' anchored PCR enrichment protocol. The specific primers were designed to flank the repeat sequences and these were subsequently used to characterize 120 unrelated fish from Malaysia and 30 fishes from Indonesia. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 (SYKVJ1-11) to 6 (SYKVJ1-4) while the levels of heterozygosity ranged from 0.0472 (SYKVJ1-11) to 0.7745 (SYKVJ1-2).
1. Three natural populations and a laboratory strain of Aedes albopictus were analysed for glucose phosphate isomerase by means of horizontal starch-gel electrophoresis. 2. The electrophoretic phenotypes were governed by five codominant Gpi alleles. 3. The commonest allele in all the four population samples was GpiC which encoded an electrophoretic band with intermediate mobility. 4. The distributions of GPI phenotypes were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. 5. The four population samples could be differentiated by the presence of a unique Gpi allele or the absence of a particular Gpi allele.
Cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are quickly becoming a useful model for infectious disease and transplantation research. Even though cynomolgus macaques from different geographic regions are used for these studies, there has been limited characterization of full-length major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I immunogenetics of distinct geographic populations. Here, we identified 48 MHC class I cDNA nucleotide sequences in eleven Indonesian cynomolgus macaques, including 41 novel Mafa-A and Mafa-B sequences. We found seven MHC class I sequences in Indonesian macaques that were identical to MHC class I sequences identified in Malaysian or Mauritian macaques. Sharing of nucleotide sequences between these geographically distinct populations is also consistent with the hypothesis that Indonesia was a source of the Mauritian macaque population. In addition, we found that the Indonesian cDNA sequence Mafa-B7601 is identical throughout its peptide binding domain to Mamu-B03, an allele that has been associated with control of Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) viremia in Indian rhesus macaques. Overall, a better understanding of the MHC class I alleles present in Indonesian cynomolgus macaques improves their value as a model for disease research, and it better defines the biogeography of cynomolgus macaques throughout Southeast Asia.
We shall explore a nonlinear discrete dynamical system that naturally occurs in population systems to describe a transmission of a trait from parents to their offspring. We consider a Mendelian inheritance for a single gene with three alleles and assume that to form a new generation, each gene has a possibility to mutate, that is, to change into a gene of the other kind. We investigate the derived models and observe chaotic behaviors of such models.
Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) derived from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are valuable markers because they represent transcribed regions and often transferable to related taxa. Here, we report the development and characterization of EST-SSRs from Shorea leprosula. Fifty-four sequences containing SSRs were identified in 2003 unigenes assembled from 3159 ESTs. Twenty-four EST-SSRs were developed, of which four gave multiple amplifications, five were found to be monomorphic and 15 showed polymorphism, with allele numbers ranging from two to 17 in a single Pasoh Forest Reserve population of 24 individuals. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.05 to 0.91 and from 0.16 to 0.93, respectively. Cross-species transferability of the 15 loci to 36 species within Dipterocarpaceae revealed between four and 14 loci that gave positive amplification and 10 loci were found to be transferable to more than 15 species.
β-thalassaemia is one of the most common single-gene disorders worldwide. Each ethnic population has its own common mutations, accounting for the majority of cases, with a small number of mutations for the rarer alleles. Due to the heterogeneity of β-thalassaemia and the multi-ethnicity of Malaysians, molecular diagnostics may be expensive and time consuming.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the ACE I/D gene polymorphism on athletic status and physical performance of well-trained Malaysian athletes. The distribution of ACE I/D gene polymorphism among 180 well trained athletes was compared with 180 sedentary controls. 20 meter Yo-Yo intermittent recovery and leg strength tests were used to measure maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and leg strength value of athletes with different ACE I/D genotype, respectively. Chi-Square and one way ANOVA tests were used for data analysis. The II and DD genotype were more prevalent among the endurance athletes and the strength/ power athletes compared to the other groups, respectively (p=0.00). The VO2max was not significantly associated with ACE genotype in athlete (p=0.828). However, athletes with the DD genotype had recorded a greater result for leg strength (113.8 ± 36.2) than those with the II (96.2 ± 28.0) and the ID (112.2 ± 33.5) genotype (p=0.047). This study supports the notion that ACE I/D gene polymorphism might be a genetic factor associated with athletic status and strength performance among the Malaysian population. Future studies with more representation of endurance athletes might able to detect the association between I allele and endurance performance.
Aromatic rice cultivars constitute a small but special group of rice and are considered the best in terms of quality and aroma. Aroma is one of the most significant quality traits of rice, and variety with aroma has a higher price in the market. This research was carried out to study the genetic diversity among the 50 aromatic rice accessions from three regions (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak) with 3 released varieties as a control using the 32 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The objectives of this research were to quantify the genetic divergence of aromatic rice accessions using SSR markers and to identify the potential accessions for introgression into the existing rice breeding program. Genetic diversity index among the three populations such as Shannon information index (I) ranged from 0.25 in control to 0.98 in Sabah population. The mean numbers of effective alleles and Shannon's information index were 0.36 and 64.90%, respectively. Similarly, the allelic diversity was very high with mean expected heterozygosity (H e ) of 0.60 and mean Nei's gene diversity index of 0.36. The dendrogram based on UPGMA and Nei's genetic distance classified the 53 rice accessions into 10 clusters. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 89% of the total variation observed in this germplasm came from within the populations, while 11% of the variation emanated among the populations. These results reflect the high genetic differentiation existing in this aromatic rice germplasm. Using all these criteria and indices, seven accessions (Acc9993, Acc6288, Acc6893, Acc7580, Acc6009, Acc9956, and Acc11816) from three populations have been identified and selected for further evaluation before introgression into the existing breeding program and for future aromatic rice varietal development.