Displaying all 13 publications

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  1. Enche Ady CNA, Lim SM, Teh LK, Salleh MZ, Chin AV, Tan MP, et al.
    J. Neurosci. Res., 2017 Oct;95(10):2005-2024.
    PMID: 28301062 DOI: 10.1002/jnr.24048
    The rapid increase in the older population has made age-related diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) a global concern. Given that there is still no cure for this neurodegenerative disease, the drastic growth in the number of susceptible individuals represents a major emerging threat to public health. The poor understanding of the mechanisms underlying AD is deemed the greatest stumbling block against progress in definitive diagnosis and management of this disease. There is a dire need for biomarkers that can facilitate early diagnosis, classification, prognosis, and treatment response. Efforts have been directed toward discovery of reliable and distinctive AD biomarkers but with very little success. With the recent emergence of high-throughput technology that is able to collect and catalogue vast datasets of small metabolites, metabolomics offers hope for a better understanding of AD and subsequent identification of biomarkers. This review article highlights the potential of using multiple metabolomics platforms as useful means in uncovering AD biomarkers from body fluids. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis*
  2. Jalil MA, Innate K, Suwanpayak N, Yupapin PP, Ali J
    PMID: 21999106 DOI: 10.3109/10731199.2011.618134
    By using a pair of tweezers to generate the intense optical vortices within the PANDA ring resonator, the required molecules (drug volumes) can be trapped and moved dynamically within the molecular bus networks, in which the required diagnosis or drug delivery targets can be performed within the network. The advantage of the proposed system is that the proposed diagnostic method can perform within the tiny system (thin film device or circuit), which can be available for a human embedded device for diagnostic use. The channel spacing of the trapped volumes (molecules) within the bus molecular networks can be provided.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis
  3. Thong KS, Chee KY, Ng CG, Walterfang M, Velakoulis D
    Asia Pac Psychiatry, 2016 Sep;8(3):238-40.
    PMID: 26615809 DOI: 10.1111/appy.12227
    This study aims to establish psychometric properties of the Malay Neuropsychiatry Unit Cognitive Assessment Tool (Malay NuCOG) in Alzheimer's disease. NuCOG was translated to Malay language and compared with Montreal Cognitive Assessment Tool on 80 individuals. The Malay NuCOG showed good internal consistency and reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.895). It demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity at the cutoff score of 78.50/100. The Malay NuCOG is a valid and reliable cognitive instrument that is sensitive and specific for the detection of dementia and has clinical advantages in its ability to examine individual cognitive domains.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis*
  4. Farzan A, Mashohor S, Ramli AR, Mahmud R
    Behav. Brain Res., 2015 Sep 1;290:124-30.
    PMID: 25889456 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbr.2015.04.010
    Boosting accuracy in automatically discriminating patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal controls (NC), based on multidimensional classification of longitudinal whole brain atrophy rates and their intermediate counterparts in analyzing magnetic resonance images (MRI).
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis*
  5. Srinivas P
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1999 Dec;54(4):541-9; quiz 550.
    PMID: 11072482
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become recognised as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the ageing population worldwide. Over 20 million people worldwide are affected by AD, which ensures that the disease imposes a major economic burden. Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with characteristic clinical and neuropathological features. Neurofibrillary tangles, neuritic plaques and amyloid angiopathy occur in varying severity in brains of patient's with Alzheimer's disease. Biological markers of AD allowing an early definitive premorbid diagnoses are currently not available. Memory loss for recent events is invariable and often the earliest prominent symptom. Language disorders, difficulties with complex tasks, depression, psychotic symptoms and behavioral changes are other common manifestations of AD. Diagnosis involves the early detection of cognitive decline and ruling out other causes of dementia like vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, fronto-temporal degeneration or reversible causes like hypothyroidism. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have shown to be effective in mild to moderate AD in improving the cognitive function of patients in clinical trials. Caregiver intervention programs have considerable potential to improve both the caregiver and patient quality of life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis*
  6. Orimaye SO, Wong JS, Golden KJ, Wong CP, Soyiri IN
    BMC Bioinformatics, 2017 Jan 14;18(1):34.
    PMID: 28088191 DOI: 10.1186/s12859-016-1456-0
    BACKGROUND: The manual diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related Dementias has been a challenge. Currently, these disorders are diagnosed using specific clinical diagnostic criteria and neuropsychological examinations. The use of several Machine Learning algorithms to build automated diagnostic models using low-level linguistic features resulting from verbal utterances could aid diagnosis of patients with probable AD from a large population. For this purpose, we developed different Machine Learning models on the DementiaBank language transcript clinical dataset, consisting of 99 patients with probable AD and 99 healthy controls.

    RESULTS: Our models learned several syntactic, lexical, and n-gram linguistic biomarkers to distinguish the probable AD group from the healthy group. In contrast to the healthy group, we found that the probable AD patients had significantly less usage of syntactic components and significantly higher usage of lexical components in their language. Also, we observed a significant difference in the use of n-grams as the healthy group were able to identify and make sense of more objects in their n-grams than the probable AD group. As such, our best diagnostic model significantly distinguished the probable AD group from the healthy elderly group with a better Area Under the Receiving Operating Characteristics Curve (AUC) using the Support Vector Machines (SVM).

    CONCLUSIONS: Experimental and statistical evaluations suggest that using ML algorithms for learning linguistic biomarkers from the verbal utterances of elderly individuals could help the clinical diagnosis of probable AD. We emphasise that the best ML model for predicting the disease group combines significant syntactic, lexical and top n-gram features. However, there is a need to train the diagnostic models on larger datasets, which could lead to a better AUC and clinical diagnosis of probable AD.

    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis*
  7. Lim L, Ng TP, Ong AP, Tan MP, Cenina AR, Gao Q, et al.
    Alzheimers Res Ther, 2018 01 22;10(1):6.
    PMID: 29370825 DOI: 10.1186/s13195-017-0333-z
    BACKGROUND: Cognitive screeners are imperative for early diagnosis of dementia. The Visual Cognitive Assessment Test (VCAT) is a language-neutral, visual-based test which has proven useful for a multilingual population in a single-center study. However, its performance utility is unknown in a wider and more diverse Southeast Asian cohort.

    METHODS: We recruited 164 healthy controls (HC) and 120 cognitively impaired (CI) subjects- 47 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 73 mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia participants, from four countries between January 2015 and August 2016 to determine the usefulness of a single version of the VCAT, without translation or adaptation, in a multinational, multilingual population. The VCAT was administered along with established cognitive evaluation.

    RESULTS: The VCAT, without local translation or adaptation, was effective in discriminating between HC and CI subjects (MCI and mild AD dementia). Mean (SD) VCAT scores for HC and CI subjects were 22.48 (3.50) and 14.17 (5.05) respectively. Areas under the curve for Montreal Cognitive Assessment (0.916, 95% CI 0.884-0.948) and the VCAT (0.905, 95% CI 0.870-0.940) in discriminating between HCs and CIs were comparable. The multiple languages used to administer VCAT in four countries did not significantly influence test scores.

    CONCLUSIONS: The VCAT without the need for language translation or cultural adaptation showed satisfactory discriminative ability and was effective in a multinational, multilingual Southeast Asian population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis*
  8. Suppiah S, Ching SM, Nordin AJ, Vinjamuri S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2018 06;73(3):141-146.
    PMID: 29962497
    BACKGROUND: Imaging such as Tc99m-HMPAO single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and positron emission tomography/ computed tomography (PET/CT) amyloid scans are used to aid the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to correlate the ability of these modalities to differentiate Probable AD and Possible AD using the clinical diagnosis as a gold standard. We also investigated the correlation of severity of amyloid deposit in the brain with the diagnosis of AD.

    METHODS: A retrospective study of 47 subjects (17 Probable AD and 30 Possible AD) who were referred for PET/CT amyloid scans to our centre was conducted. Hypoperfusion in the temporo-parietal lobes on Tc99m-HMPAO SPECT and loss of grey-white matter contrast in cortical regions on PET/CT Amyloid scans indicating the presence of amyloid β deposit were qualitatively interpreted as positive for AD. SPECT and PET/CT were also read in combination (Combo reading). The severity of amyloid β deposit was semiquantitatively assessed in a visual binary method using a scale of Grade 0-4. The severity of amyloid β deposit was assessed in a visual binary method and a semi-quantitative method using a scale of Grade 0-4.

    RESULTS: There was significant correlation of Tc99m-HMPAO SPECT, PET/CT amyloid findings and Combo reading with AD. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 87.5%, 73.7%, 58.3% and 93.3% (SPECT); 62.5%, 77.4%, 58.8% and 80.0% (PET/CT) and 87.5%, 84.2%, 70.0% and 30.0% (Combo reading) respectively. The grade of amyloid deposition was not significantly correlated with AD (Spearman's correlation, p=0.687).

    CONCLUSION: There is an incremental benefit in utilizing PET/CT amyloid imaging in cases with atypical presentation and indeterminate findings on conventional imaging of Alzheimer's disease.

    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis
  9. Chin AV
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2019 08;74(4):359-362.
    PMID: 31424053
    No abstract provided.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis*
  10. Jalil MA, Kamoldilok S, Saktioto T, Ong CT, Yupapin PP
    PMID: 22384850 DOI: 10.3109/10731199.2012.657203
    In this investigation, a new design based on a PANDA ring resonator as an optical trapping tool for tangle protein, molecular motor storage, and delivery is proposed. The optical vortices are generated and the trapping mechanism is controlled in the same way as the conventional optical tweezers. The trapping force is produced by a combination of the gradient field and scattering photons. The required molecular volume is trapped and moved dynamically within the molecular network. The tangle protein and molecular motor can be transported and delivered to the required destinations for Alzheimer's diagnosis by molecular buffer and bus network.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis*
  11. Mohd Hasni DS, Lim SM, Chin AV, Tan MP, Poi PJH, Kamaruzzaman SB, et al.
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2017 May;17(5):839-846.
    PMID: 27215446 DOI: 10.1111/ggi.12783
    AIM: Cytokines released from chronically-activated microglia could result in neuroinflammation. An accurate profile of the relationship between cytokines and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, as well as the patterns of these inflammatory mediators in AD patients could lead to the identification of peripheral markers for the disease. The present study was undertaken to identify pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines associated with AD in the Malaysian population.

    METHODS: Further to informed consent from 39 healthy subjects and 39 probable AD patients, 8.5 mL of peripheral blood was collected and serum was extracted. The differential levels of 12 serum cytokines extracted from peripheral blood samples were measured using Procarta Multiplex Cytokine and enzyme-linked immunoassay kits. Concentrations of cytokines were measured at 615 nm using a fluorometer.

    RESULTS: Except for tumor necrosis factor-α, all classical pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-12 and interferon-γ) were found to be significantly upregulated (P 53.65 ρg/mL and <9.315 ρg/mL, respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: Both the non-classical pro-inflammatory CXCL-10 and anti-inflammatory IL-13 cytokines showed promising potential as blood-based cytokine biomarkers for AD. This is the first study of non-classical cytokine profiles of Malaysian AD patients. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 839-846.

    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis
  12. Bukhari SN, Jantan I
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2015;15(13):1110-21.
    PMID: 26420724
    There is a crucial need to develop new effective drugs for Alzheimer's disease (AD) as the currently available AD treatments provide only momentary and incomplete symptomatic relief. Amongst natural products, curcumin, a major constituent of turmeric, has been intensively investigated for its neuroprotective effect against β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced toxicity in cultured neuronal cells. The ability of curcumin to attach to Aβ peptide and prevent its accumulation is attributed to its three structural characteristics such as the presence of two aromatic end groups and their co-planarity, the length and rigidity of the linker region and the substitution conformation of these aromatics. However, curcumin failed to reach adequate brain levels after oral absorption in AD clinical trials due to its low water solubility and poor oral bioavailability. A number of new curcumin analogs that mimic the active site of the compound along with analogs that mimic the curcumin anti-amyloid effect combined with anticholinesterase effect have been developed to enhance the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, water solubility, stability at physiological conditions and delivery of curcumin. In this article, we have summarized all reported synthetic analogs of curcumin showing effects on β-amyloid and discussed their potential as therapeutic and diagnostic agents for AD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis
  13. Darawi MN, Ai-Vyrn C, Ramasamy K, Hua PP, Pin TM, Kamaruzzaman SB, et al.
    BMC Med. Genet., 2013;14:27.
    PMID: 23419238 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-14-27
    The incidence of Alzheimer's disease, particularly in developing countries, is expected to increase exponentially as the population ages. Continuing research in this area is essential in order to better understand this disease and develop strategies for treatment and prevention. Genome-wide association studies have identified several loci as genetic risk factors of AD aside from apolipoprotein E such as bridging integrator (BIN1), clusterin (CLU), ATP-binding cassette sub-family A member 7 (ABCA7), complement receptor 1 (CR1) and phosphatidylinositol binding clathrin assembly protein (PICALM). However genetic research in developing countries is often limited by lack of funding and expertise. This study therefore developed and validated a simple, cost effective polymerase chain reaction based technique to determine these single nucleotide polymorphisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis*
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