METHODS: We identified all of our endomyocardial biopsyproven cardiac amyloidosis patients from January 2010 to January 2018 and reviewed their medical records. All patients echocardiographic and ECG findings reviewed and analysed comparing to basic mean population value.
RESULTS: In total there are 13 biopsy-proven cardiac amyloidosis patients. All of the biopsies shows light chain (AL) amyloid. Majority of the patients (8, 61.5%) is male, and most of our patients (8, 61.5%) is Chinese. All seven patients on whom we performed deformation imaging have apical sparing pattern on longitudinal strain echocardiogram. Mean ejection fraction is 49.3%, (SD=7.9). All patients have concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and right ventricular hypertrophy. Diastolic dysfunction was present in all of our patients with nine out of 13 patients (69.2%) having restrictive filling patterns (E/A ≥2.0 E/e' ≥15). On electrocardiogram, 12 (92%) patients have prolonged PR interval (median 200ms, IQR 76.50ms) and 9 (69.2%) patients have pseudoinfarct pattern.
CONCLUSION: Echocardiography plays an important role in diagnosing cardiac amyloidosis. The findings of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy with preserved ejection fraction without increased in loading condition should alert the clinician towards its possibility. This is further supported by right ventricular hypertrophy and particularly longitudinal strain imaging showing apical sparing pattern.