Displaying all 19 publications

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  1. Djuanda A, Wiryadi BE, Sularsito SA, Hidayat D
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1988 Oct;17(4):536-40.
    PMID: 3265605
    An analysis of cutaneous amyloidosis cases during a five year period, from January 1, 1983 to December 31, 1987, showed that of 78 cases suffering from lichen amyloidosis, 9 patients (11.5%) were male and 71 patients (80.5%) female. Macular skin amyloidosis was observed. Sixty patients (76.9%) were found in the age range of 20-50 years. Forty-nine patients (62.8%) suffered from the disease for 2 years or less. Skin changes were mainly located on the shin areas, the posterior part of the lower thighs and posterior part of the forearms. Treatment with strong topical corticosteroids and keratolytic agents (salicylic acid ointment in higher than 3%) proved to be unsatisfactory. The literature mentions higher incidence of lichen amyloidosis in Chinese, Malaysians and Indonesians than in Caucasians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology
  2. Oweity T, West AB, Stokes MB
    Int. J. Surg. Pathol., 2001 Apr;9(2):149-54.
    PMID: 11484503
    A 71-year-old man with intestinal pseudo-obstruction was found to have a diffusely thickened adynamic small bowel with AA-amyloid in submucosal vessels and muscularis propria, foreign body giant cell reaction to amyloid, and necrotizing angiitis. The mucosa was unremarkable. Immunostains demonstrated numerous CD68+ monocyte/macrophages and CD8+ T cells associated with the amyloid deposits. The patient had no evidence of systemic vasculitis and no underlying cause for AA-amyloidosis was identified. Necrotizing angiitis coexistent with amyloid angiopathy has been reported in brain and temporal arteries, but not in the gastrointestinal tract and not with AA-amyloid. The inflammatory cell infiltrates in this case are consistent with a foreign-body and/or cell-mediated immunologic reaction to AA-amyloid, although a role for these cells in amyloid formation cannot be excluded.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology*
  3. Srinivas P, Liam CK, Jayaram G
    Med J Malaysia, 2000 Sep;55(3):385-7.
    PMID: 11200724
    A 52 year old Chinese woman with a 25 year history of sicca syndrome (primary Sjogrens syndrome) was investigated for 3 episodes of haemoptysis. Clinical examination was unremarkable except for the presence of dry eyes and xerostomia. Computed tomography of the chest revealed a lobulated mass in the posterior basal segment of the left lower lobe. Histopathological examination of this resected nodule confirmed the diagnosis of nodular amyloidosis. The normal radiolabelled serum amyloid P component scintigraphy and the absence of monoclonal plasma cell dyscrasia in the bone marrow strongly support the diagnosis of localised nodular pulmonary AL amyloidosis in this patient. Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis can be associated with sicca syndrome and often simulates bronchogenic carcinoma, bronchiectasis or pulmonary tuberculosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology
  4. Looi LM, Cheah PL
    Hum Pathol, 1997 Jul;28(7):847-9.
    PMID: 9224755
    A retrospective study was conducted to investigate whether there was a correlation between the histological pattern of renal amyloidosis, the chemical type of amyloid protein involved and the clinical presentation. Eighteen consecutive cases of systemic amyloidosis that had renal biopsies processed and examined histopathologically at the Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur were reviewed. The age range of patients was 25 to 64 yrs (mean, 46 yrs). The male:female ratio was 2.6:1. Three patients were Malay, 9 Chinese, 3 Indian, 1 Indonesian, 1 Iban, and 1 Bisaya. According to the predominant site of amyloid deposition, 14 cases showed a glomerular pattern and 4 a vascular pattern. 8 cases were designated as 2 anti-human amyloid-A (AA) amyloidosis on the basis of permanganate-sensitivity and immunoreactivity of deposits with anti-human AA protein antibody. Ten cases contained deposits that were permanganate-resistant and nonimmunoreactive for AA protein and were designated as AL in type. The histomorphologic pattern of renal amyloidosis did not provide a reliable means of differentiating AA from AL amyloidosis. The glomerular pattern tended to present with renal manifestations such as nephrotic syndrome and chronic renal failure, whereas the vascular pattern tended to present with nonrenal manifestations such as diarrhoea. These findings may have a bearing on the pathophysiology of amyloidosis and provide clues to appropriate management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology*
  5. Looi LM
    Histopathology, 1991 Aug;19(2):169-72.
    PMID: 1757071
    Seventeen consecutive patients with dystrophic amyloidosis are reported here (eight Chinese, three Indian, three Iban, two Malay and one Caucasian). Ten were females and seven males, with ages ranging from 12 to 80 years (mean of 48 years). Five instances of dystrophic amyloidosis occurred in areas of tissue damage in the cardiovascular system, including fibrotic cardiac valves and an atheromatous plaque. Three occurred in osteoarthritic joint tissue. Of note were three occurrences in endometriotic cyst walls, four in the fibrotic walls of epidermal cysts, one in a hernial sac and one at the edge of a skin ulcer. All deposits were congophilic and exhibited green-birefringence and permanganate-resistance. Immunohistochemistry did not reveal reactivity for AA protein or immunoglobulin lambda or kappa light-chains. AP protein was detected in 35% of cases. Our results show that, besides the usual sites of osteoarthritic joints and damaged heart valves, dystrophic amyloidosis can complicate other areas of chronic tissue damage and fibrosis such as walls of cysts and ulcers. While the pathogenesis and biochemical nature remain unresolved, immunohistochemistry indicates that neither AA nor AL proteins are present in the deposits, and suggests that a different amyloid protein is involved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology*
  6. Looi LM
    Australas. J. Dermatol., 1991;32(1):39-44.
    PMID: 1930004
    A review of consecutive biopsies from 85 Malaysian patients with primary localised cutaneous amyloidosis (PLCA) revealed 63 with papular amyloidosis (PA) and 22 with macular amyloidosis (MA). PLCA appeared to affect the Chinese more frequently than the other major ethnic groups but MA was more common than expected among the Indians. Of patients with PA, one had systemic lupus erythematosus, one scleroderma and in another, connective tissue disease was suspected. MA was not found to be associated with any other disease. Histologically, PA differed from MA by the larger size of amyloid deposits in the papillary dermis. There was no difference in their tinctorial and immunohistochemical characteristics. Deposits were permanganate-resistant and negative for AA protein, immunoglobulin light chains and keratin. A few cases exhibited positively for cytokeratin. Strong immunoreactivity for AP protein was observed. PA and MA appear chemically similar and are likely to be of epidermal origin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology
  7. Looi LM
    Histopathology, 1989 Feb;14(2):111-20.
    PMID: 2707747
    The histological location of amyloid within various organs in 25 cases of systemic AA amyloidosis was studied with a view to determine whether different morphological patterns exist in this category of amyloidosis. Although morphological variations due to progressive severity of disease were observed, there were appreciable variations in the patterns of amyloid deposition in the kidney and spleen that could not be simply explained on those grounds. Eleven (61%) of 18 kidneys examined showed severe glomerular involvement with mild degrees of vascular deposition while the remaining seven showed predominantly vascular involvement. The glomerular pattern appeared to be more ominous, being significantly associated with severe proteinuria or chronic renal failure. In nine (69%) of 13 spleens examined, amyloid was confined to the walls of small and medium-sized arteries while in the remaining four, vascular involvement was less severe and amyloid was deposited mainly along the reticulin of the white pulp. Possible explanations for these different patterns included resorption and redistribution of amyloid within the body during the course of the disease, and variation in tissue deposition as a manifestation of polymorphism of amyloid proteins. The latter appeared more feasible in view of the recent demonstration of SAA polymorphism and AA heterogeneity in man.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology*
  8. Looi LM
    Cancer, 1983 Nov 15;52(10):1833-6.
    PMID: 6627203
    Congo-red screening demonstrated intratumor deposits of amyloid in 35 of 53 unselected cases of basal cell carcinoma. Male subjects had a higher amyloid positivity rate than female subjects. The amyloid deposits were permanganate-resistant and located in the stroma between clumps of tumor cells, as well as abutting the advancing front of the neoplasm. Solar elastosis was often observed in the overlying and adjacent subepidermis. The relationship between amyloid positivity and the different histological subtypes of basal cell carcinoma, tumor ulceration, and density of the lymphoplasmacytic stromal infiltrate were also studied. The possibility that amyloid originates from the tumor cells and is a result of tumor apoptosis (degeneration) is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology*
  9. Looi LM, Sumithran E
    Hum Pathol, 1988 Jun;19(6):732-5.
    PMID: 2454214
    Biopsy and necropsy tissue from 31 unselected patients with systemic amyloidosis, in which there was histologic evidence of liver involvement, were reviewed with reference to the location and pattern of amyloid deposition in the liver. Amyloidosis was classified into AA and AL types on the basis of immunohistochemistry and permanganate reaction of the amyloid deposits. Nineteen were categorized as AA (secondary) and 12 as AL (primary) amyloidosis. Deposition of AA amyloid was limited to the walls of vessels in the portal tract, constituting a "vascular" pattern. In AL amyloidosis, the deposits exhibited a "sinusoidal" pattern in that they were seen along hepatic sinusoids as well as in vessel walls. This difference was statistically significant (P less than .001). The histologic pattern of liver infiltration offers a valuable clue in the classification of systemic amyloidosis and provides information that may be useful in the selection of patients for therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology*
  10. Mun KS, Pailoor J, Reddy SC
    Malays J Pathol, 2005 Dec;27(2):113-5.
    PMID: 17191394
    A 62-year-old lady presented with a six-month history of swelling of the left upper eyelid, resulting in mild mechanical ptosis. Clinical assessment suggested a provisional diagnosis of dermoid cyst. The lesion was excised and histology revealed nodular deposits of amorphous eosinophilic material surrounded by lymphocytes and plasma cells. Special histochemistry and immunoperoxidase stain results showed deposition of amyloid, non-AA type. The lesion recurred 6 months later.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology*
  11. Roslan A, Kamsani SH, Nay TW, Tan KL, Hakim N, Tan AM, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2018 12;73(6):388-392.
    PMID: 30647209
    OBJECTIVE: Cardiac amyloidosis is under diagnosed and its prevalence is unknown. This is a retrospective, nonrandomised, single centre study of patients with endomyocardial biopsy-proven cardiac amyloidosis focusing on their echocardiographic and electrocardiogram (ECG) presentations. This is the first case series in Malaysia on this subject.

    METHODS: We identified all of our endomyocardial biopsyproven cardiac amyloidosis patients from January 2010 to January 2018 and reviewed their medical records. All patients echocardiographic and ECG findings reviewed and analysed comparing to basic mean population value.

    RESULTS: In total there are 13 biopsy-proven cardiac amyloidosis patients. All of the biopsies shows light chain (AL) amyloid. Majority of the patients (8, 61.5%) is male, and most of our patients (8, 61.5%) is Chinese. All seven patients on whom we performed deformation imaging have apical sparing pattern on longitudinal strain echocardiogram. Mean ejection fraction is 49.3%, (SD=7.9). All patients have concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and right ventricular hypertrophy. Diastolic dysfunction was present in all of our patients with nine out of 13 patients (69.2%) having restrictive filling patterns (E/A ≥2.0 E/e' ≥15). On electrocardiogram, 12 (92%) patients have prolonged PR interval (median 200ms, IQR 76.50ms) and 9 (69.2%) patients have pseudoinfarct pattern.

    CONCLUSION: Echocardiography plays an important role in diagnosing cardiac amyloidosis. The findings of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy with preserved ejection fraction without increased in loading condition should alert the clinician towards its possibility. This is further supported by right ventricular hypertrophy and particularly longitudinal strain imaging showing apical sparing pattern.

    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology
  12. Looi LM
    Malays J Pathol, 1995 Jun;17(1):1-10.
    PMID: 8906998
    Two forms of abnormal fibrillary protein deposition are considered: amyloidosis and fibrillary (immunotactoid) glomerulonephritis. Amyloid is characterised by an antiparallel, beta-pleated configuration which imparts to it a unique apple-green birefringence after Congo red staining. Inspite of its fairly constant physical properties, the chemical composition of amyloid fibrils is amazingly diverse, encomposing AA protein, light chain fragments, transthyretin, procalcitonin, islet amyloid polypeptide, atrial natriuretic peptides, beta-amyloid protein, beta-2-microglobulin, cystatin C, gelsolin, apolipoprotein A1, lyzozyme and their mutant variants. Amyloid P component and heparan sulphate proteoglycan are ubiquitous non-fibrillary amyloid components which have significant roles in the amyloidogenetic process, as do also precursor fibril proteins. Different amyloid fibril proteins relate to different amyloidosis syndromes and different histological patterns, and provide the basis for new diagnostic approaches to this disorder. Glomerular deposits in fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN), although often mistaken for amyloid, differ from it in its negative Congophilia, wider fibril width and highly organised, microtubular-tactoidal appearance ultrastructurally. FGN is essentially a primary glomerulopathy resulting in progressive renal failure. Despite certain differences, intriguing similarities between both entities of fibrillary deposition pose a challenge to researchers as to the mechanisms of abnormal protein crystallization and fibril formation in tissues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology*
  13. Looi LM
    Malays J Pathol, 1994 Jun;16(1):11-3.
    PMID: 16329569
    Congo red screening of routine biopsies at the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur revealed the following categories of amyloidosis: systemic AL (5.9%); systemic AA (3.2%); isolated atrial (14%); primary localized cutaneous (7.5%); other primary localized deposits (3.2%); localized intratumour (58%); and dystrophic (8.6%). Unlike in the West, AA amyloidosis in this population was usually secondary to leprosy or tuberculosis. Liver involvement in AL amyloidosis was shown to exhibit a sinusoidal pattern and differed from the vascular pattern of AA amyloidosis. Within the category of AA amyloidosis, there were two patterns of renal involvement--glomerular and vascular, with the glomerular pattern carrying a more ominous clinical picture. Notable among the localized amyloidoses were isolated atrial amyloidosis complicating chronic rheumatic heart disease, intratumour amyloidosis within nasopharyngeal carcinomas and dystrophic amyloidosis which occurred in fibrotic tissues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology*
  14. Looi LM
    Histopathology, 1991 Feb;18(2):133-41.
    PMID: 1901294
    Congo red screening of 27,052 routine biopsy specimens from 22,827 patients over a 5 1/2-year period in the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya detected 186 cases of amyloidosis. The categories of amyloidosis encountered and their prevalences in relation to each other were: systemic AL (5.9%); systemic AA (3.2%); isolated atrial (14%); primary localized cutaneous (7.5%); other primary localized deposits (3.2%); localized intratumour (58%); and dystrophic (8.6%). A third of patients with systemic AL amyloidosis had coexistent immunocyte abnormality. The commonest underlying pathology for systemic AA amyloidosis was leprosy. Notable among the types of localized amyloidosis revealed by this study were isolated atrial amyloidosis, which appeared to complicate chronic rheumatic heart disease, and intratumour amyloidosis complicating nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Other tumours in which amyloid deposits were observed included basal cell carcinoma, islet cell tumour and medullary carcinoma of the thyroid. Dystrophic amyloidosis was observed in fibrotic tissues, such as damaged cardiac valves and osteoarthritic joints. Heredofamilial amyloidosis, senile systemic amyloidosis and degenerative cerebral amyloidosis were notably absent from this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology*
  15. Looi LM
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1986 Jan;15(1):52-6.
    PMID: 3010797
    Congo red screening of tumour material examined at the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya revealed intratumour deposits of amyloid in 12% of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, 66% of basal cell carcinomas, 100% of medullary carcinomas of the thyroid, 56% of islet cell tumours of the pancreas, 1 out of 16 carcinoids and 1 out of 100 thyroid adenomas. All the deposits were permanganate resistant and did not contain AA protein, indicating that what was encountered was not secondary amyloid. The deposits showed variable staining for immunoglobulin light chains and amyloid P component with a standard peroxidase antiperoxidase method. The possibility that intratumour amyloid has a neoplastic origin is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology*
  16. Looi LM, Jayalakshim P, Lim KJ, Rajagopalan K
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1988 Oct;17(4):573-8.
    PMID: 3223746
    Congo red screening of tissue blocks from 37 consecutive autopsies on leprosy patients revealed 7 cases of systemic amyloidosis, indicating a prevalence rate of 19%. 5 were males and 2 females. All were ethnic Chinese. Their ages ranged from 52 to 85 years with a mean of 69 years. Six had lepromatous leprosy while the remaining 1 had tuberculoid leprosy. In all 7 cases, the amyloid was AA in type, being permanganate-sensitive and immunoreactive with anti-human AA protein antiserum. Hepatic deposition was limited to blood vessels, a pattern typical of AA (secondary) amyloidosis. With regard to renal involvement, 4 showed a predominantly vascular pattern of infiltration while 3 exhibited the more ominous glomerular pattern. Three died of chronic renal failure and 2 of congestive cardiac failure attributable to renal and cardiac amyloidosis respectively. One patient succumbed to septicaemia and the remaining 1 to acute myocardial infarction. AA amyloidosis remains a serious and significant complication of leprosy among Malaysians.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology
  17. Looi LM
    Histopathology, 1981 Nov;5(6):615-22.
    PMID: 7319480
    Nineteen out of 121 consecutive cardiac biopsies from 107 patients were found to contain amyloid deposits on routine Congo red screening. Seventeen were left atrial appendages removed during mitral valvotomy for chronic rheumatic mitral valve disease while the remaining two were right atrial appendages excised during surgical repair of atrial septal defects. The distribution of amyloid deposits within the atria and their tinctorial characteristics are described. The high prevalence of atrial amyloidosis observed could not be attributed to generalized or senile amyloidosis. The possibility that this is a distinctive localized form of amyloidosis secondary to chronic heart disease is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology
  18. Looi LM, Prathap K
    Pathology, 1979 Oct;11(4):575-82.
    PMID: 93739
    Material from 334 consecutive autopsies on Orang Asli subjects performed in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur between May 1967 and June 1978 was examined for amyloidosis. Nine positive cases were found, all in patients above 40 years of age, giving an age-corrected incidence of about 9%. In 6 cases, amyloidosis was probably secondary to tuberculosis. The remaining 3 cases exhibited a pericollagenous distribution characteristic of primary amyloidosis. Involvement of the heart and lungs was prominent. However, there were considerable similarities in the distribution and staining properties of the amyloid in the 2 groups. Though both the heart and kidney were frequently affected, the kidney was the most common organ to give rise to clinical symptoms. Infection probably plays a major contributory role in amyloidosis in the Orang Asli.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology*
  19. Looi LM
    Hum Pathol, 1993 Jun;24(6):602-7.
    PMID: 8505038
    Congo red screening of 211 consecutive cardiac biopsy specimens obtained during cardiac surgery from 167 patients revealed 26 (16%) instances of isolated atrial amyloidosis (IAA). The ages of IAA-positive patients ranged from 25 to 52 years (mean age, 39 years). Twenty-three (88%) IAA-positive biopsy specimens were from patients with chronic rheumatic heart disease (CRHD) while three (12%) were from patients with an atrial septal defect (ASD). The prevalence of IAA in the CRHD patients was 23%, appreciably higher than that in the ASD patients (15%) and in other patients with atrial biopsies. The prevalence of IAA in both CRHD and ASD patients was significantly higher (P < .001) than in controls. Controls consisted of 247 healthy adults who were autopsied after traumatic deaths, with an age range of 18 to 89 years (mean age, 38 years). Only seven (3%) control subjects were IAA positive; all were over 40 years of age. Isolated atrial amyloidosis deposits were permanganate resistant and immunohistochemically positive for human amyloid P (AP) protein and negative for human amyloid-associated (AA) protein and immunoglobulin light chains. They were observed as fine congophilic and birefringent deposits in intramyocardial vessel walls, along the myocardial sarcolemma, and in the subendocardium. There was associated myocyte hypertrophy but no atrophy. Electron microscopy demonstrated typical nonbranching amyloid fibrils. It is postulated that stretching of the atria in chronic heart disease results in a raised prevalence of IAA. Recent reports that IAA contains atrial natriuretic peptide, a polypeptide hormone product of atrial myocytes, supports this view.
    Matched MeSH terms: Amyloidosis/pathology
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