The use of an autologous ipsilateral internal iliac artery to restore circulation after excision of a ruptured femoral aneurysm in a patient addicted to drugs is described. Autogenous vein graft was not available. The advantages of using the internal iliac artery in this situation are discussed. The use of internal iliac artery graft in this situation has not been previously described in the literature.
Symptomatic bronchial artery aneurysm warrants urgent intervention. It has a known association with pulmonary infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus. We hereby report an elderly lady with a ruptured left superior bronchial artery mycotic aneurysm. She was in the early stages of treatment for a left lung abscess. She had multiple episodes of haemoptysis following which she underwent a left lower lobectomy. Presentation of lung abscess with a concurrent ruptured mycotic aneurysm warrants early surgical intervention and can be curative as seen in this case.
Mycotic descending thoracic aneurysm with aortobronchial fistula is a rare condition which is associated with high mortality. Treatment in the era of minimally invasive procedure can often be controversial. The risk of graft infection should be considered as well as the unknown long term behavior of the endovascular stent. Here, we describe our initial experience of performing emergency thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair in an unstable patient presenting with haemoptysis.
This is a case report of a pseudoaneurysm due to Salmonella aortitis in a 52 year old man. The condition is rare and represents one of the few cases reported in Malaysia. The diagnosis was made preoperatively by ultrasonography and computed tomography. This was confirmed at surgery where there was a 3 cm defect at the posterior wall of the aorta at L2/3 level. The aneurysmal sac extended to the retrocrural space at the 12th vertebra level cranially on the right side to the lower border of the 3rd lumbar vertebra caudally. It had a smooth fibrous wall and contained a mixture of organised haematoma and pus. At operation the aneurysm was excised, the affected region was carefully debrided and the aorta grafted with an in-situ in-lay graft. Antibiotic therapy was instituted until clinical response was evident, leukocytosis was reduced and blood culture was negative. However 4 months after surgery, the patient returned in irreversible shock and succumbed to disseminated intravascular coagulation secondary to massive upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage from an aortoduodenal fistula.
This is a study of 54 intravenous drug user's (IVDUs) with infected pseudoaneurysms undergoing ligation and debridement at the Vascular Unit, Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL) from February 1993 to February 1996. The median age was 37 years with a male preponderance (53:1). Chinese form the largest ethnic group with 57.4% of the cases. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism cultured. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive cases numbered 21 (38.9%). Four of the patients had to have an above-knee amputation after surgery. Simple ligation and debridement of all necrotic tissue is an acceptable mode of therapy in these patients with low amputation rates.
Melioidosis is a protean disease which is endemic to Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Here, we report a case of infected aortic aneurysm due to Burkholderia pseudomallei in an immunocompetent man 6 months after a trip to northern Malaysia. This patient initially received inappropriate surgical and antibiotic treatment, leading to a peri-prosthetic aortic infection with lumbar spondylitis and contiguous psoas muscle abscess. This case highlights the difficulty of diagnosing melioidosis given its diverse clinical manifestations and the limits of routine microbiological methods to identify B. pseudomallei Melioidosis should be considered a possible diagnosis in individuals with unexplained fever subsequent to travel in an endemic area.
A 10-year-old girl with mild aortic regurgitation presented with cerebral infarction. Two-dimensional echocardiography showed vegetations on the septal wall of the left ventricular outflow tract without involvement of the aortic valve itself. After successful antibiotic treatment the patient developed an intra-cranial haemorrhage due to rupture of a large intracranial mycotic aneurysm. Consent for surgical treatment of the mycotic aneurysm was not obtained. Twelve months later repeat angiography showed that the aneurysm had undergone spontaneous obliteration.
Bacterial arteritis is relatively uncommon and management of this condition, which carries high morbidity and mortality, is difficult and time-consuming. Common organisms implicated include Salmonella and Staphylococcus. Arteritis as a result of infection by Burkholderia pseudomallei (formerly Pseudomonas pseudomallei) has been rarely reported in the English literature. This organism, which is endemic in our part of the world, is well known to cause a wide spectrum of septic conditions. A review of cases managed at Hospital Kuala Lumpur revealed that bacterial arteritis due to melioidosis is not such a rare entity. We share our experience in the management of this condition using three cases as examples.
Introduction: Melioidosis, also known as Whitmore disease, is caused by the gram-negative bacillus, Burkholderia pseudomallei and remains a public health concern in Southeast Asia and northern parts of Australia. This study attempts to identify all possible complications of melioidosis and its outcomes.
Methods: Literature search was conducted from databases such as PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus from 1st January 2000 to 31st August 2019. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) search strategy was used with the terms ‘Melioidosis’ or ‘Burkholderia pseudomallei’ and ‘Complications’.
Results: A total of 162 titles were identified and 22 articles were included in the review. Findings showed that among the 22 articles, the ratio of male to female melioidosis incidence was 2.3 to 1, with most cases (86.4%) aged older than 14 years old and showed a mean age of 46 years old. A third (7/22) of the papers reported the involvement of the nervous system as a complication of melioidosis followed by cardiovascular complications. Among the 23 cases reported, 13 had underlying medical conditions with most of them (84.6%) having diabetes mellitus or newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Overall, only one case (4.3%) had resulted in mortality, while 17.4% developed complications and 78.3% managed a full recovery after undergoing treatment for melioidosis.
Conclusion: The most commonly found complication of melioidosis involved the nervous system but patient outcomes were favourable. Rare complications included mycotic aneurysm that can be fatal. Melioidosis can affect almost any organ leading to various complications.
Iliac aneurysms are rare in children, especially mycotic aneurysms. Re-vascularization is challenging given the infected field and concern on patency due to their growth potential and a longer life-span. We report a complex case of a mycotic iliac aneurysm in a child. A 12-years-old boy with a previous history of infective endocarditis was referred to us for a right common iliac mycotic aneurysm after presenting with pain. A balloon-expandable stent-graft was deployed across the aneurysm during the acute presentation. He improved post-operatively, but developed abdominal pain four weeks later. A repeat computed tomography (CT) imaging showed a new inflammation of the appendix which was adhered to the calcified wall of the aneurysm and an endoleak from the internal iliac artery. A laparotomy was performed and the right internal iliac artery ligated along with an appendicectomy and omental pedicle. Postoperatively the patient was well and discharged home. Six-month surveillance revealed a healthy child and imaging showed a patent stent-graft and no residual collection.