Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 259 in total

  1. Nathan AM, de Bruyne JA
    Indian J Pediatr, 2015 Jul;82(7):660-1.
    PMID: 25514886 DOI: 10.1007/s12098-014-1640-z
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
  2. Loh KY
    Aust Fam Physician, 2007 Jul;36(7):554.
    PMID: 17619674
    A 25 year old college student with a past history of congenital heart disease presented with high grade fever and palpitations. He complained of painful red nodules on his finger pulp and his toes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
  3. Lim VK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1994 Dec;49(4):315-6.
    PMID: 7674965
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
  4. Hussein bin Mohamed Sal
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1973 Jun;27(4):262-70.
    PMID: 4270783
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
  5. Ponnampalam JT
    Med J Malaya, 1965 Mar;19(3):222-3.
    PMID: 4220474
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
  6. Md Rezal RS, Hassali MA, Alrasheedy AA, Saleem F, Md Yusof FA, Godman B
    Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther, 2015 May;13(5):665-80.
    PMID: 25813839 DOI: 10.1586/14787210.2015.1025057
    BACKGROUND: Knowledge, perceptions and prescribing behaviour are key to antibiotic prescribing. The aim of this paper is to systematically review this.
    METHOD: An extensive literature search from 1990 to 2014.
    RESULTS: Nineteen articles were included; eight in ambulatory care, seven in hospital settings and four in both, across all countries. Physicians still have inadequate knowledge and misconceptions about antibiotic prescribing. Moreover, some physicians, although aware that antibiotics are of limited benefit in some conditions, still prescribed them. Several factors influenced prescribing, including patients' expectations, severity and duration of infections, uncertainty over diagnosis, potentially losing patients and influence of pharmaceutical companies. Pocket-sized guidelines seen as an important source of information for physicians.
    CONCLUSION: Inadequate knowledge of prescribing is prevalent among physicians. However, many physicians were interested in improving their antibiotic prescribing. Multifaceted interventions targeting all key stakeholders, including patients, are needed to improve future antibiotic prescribing.
    KEYWORDS: antibiotics; irrational use of medicines; patients; physicians; prescribing behaviour; resistance; systematic reviews
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use*
  7. Norhayati MN, Ho JJ, Azman MY
    PMID: 25803008 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010089.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common infectious diseases in children. It has been reported that 64% of infants have an episode of AOM by the age of six months and 86% by one year. Although most cases of AOM are due to bacterial infection, it is commonly triggered by a viral infection. In most children it is self limiting, but it does carry a risk of complications. Since antibiotic treatment increases the risk of antibiotic resistance, influenza vaccines might be an effective way of reducing this risk by preventing the development of AOM.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in reducing the occurrence of acute otitis media (AOM) in infants and children.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1946 to July week 1, 2014), EMBASE (2010 to July 2014), CINAHL (1981 to July 2014), LILACS (1982 to July 2014), Web of Science (1955 to July 2014) and reference lists of articles to July 2014.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing influenza vaccine with placebo or no treatment in infants and children aged younger than six years old. We included children of either sex and of any ethnicity, with or without a history of recurrent AOM.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened studies, assessed trial quality and extracted data. We performed statistical analyses using the random-effects and fixed-effect models and expressed the results as risk ratio (RR), risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) for dichotomous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    MAIN RESULTS: We included 10 trials (six trials in high-income countries and four multicentre trials in high-, middle- and low-income countries) involving 16,707 children aged six months to six years. Eight trials recruited participants from a healthcare setting. Nine trials (and all five trials that contributed to the primary outcome) declared funding from vaccine manufacturers. Four trials reported adequate allocation concealment and nine trials reported adequate blinding of participants and personnel. Attrition was low for all trials included in the analysis.The primary outcome showed a small reduction in at least one episode of AOM over at least six months of follow-up (five trials, 4736 participants: RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.96; RD -0.04, 95% CI -0.07 to -0.02; NNTB 25, 95% CI 15 to 50).The subgroup analyses (i.e. number of courses, settings, seasons or types of vaccine administered) showed no differences.There was a reduction in the use of antibiotics in vaccinated children (two trials, 1223 participants: RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.83; RD -0.15, 95% CI -0.30 to -0.00).There was no significant difference in the utilisation of health care for the one trial that provided sufficient information to be included. The use of influenza vaccine resulted in a significant increase in fever (six trials, 10,199 participants: RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.24; RD 0.02, 95% CI -0.00 to 0.05) and rhinorrhoea (six trials, 10,563 children: RR 1.17, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.29; RD 0.09, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.16) but no difference in pharyngitis. No major adverse events were reported.Compared to the protocol, the review included a subgroup analysis of AOM episodes by season, and changed the types of influenza vaccine from a secondary outcome to a subgroup analysis.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccine results in a small reduction in AOM. The observed reduction with the use of antibiotics needs to be considered in the light of current recommended practices aimed at avoiding antibiotic overuse. Safety data from these trials are limited. The benefits may not justify the use of influenza vaccine without taking into account the vaccine efficacy in reducing influenza and safety data. The quality of the evidence was high to moderate. Additional research is needed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
  8. Nami Y, Haghshenas B, Abdullah N, Barzegari A, Radiah D, Rosli R, et al.
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2015 Feb;64(Pt 2):137-46.
    PMID: 25525206 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.078923-0
    Genetic and environmental factors can affect the intestinal microbiome and microbial metabolome. Among these environmental factors, the consumption of antibiotics can significantly change the intestinal microbiome of individuals and consequently affect the corresponding metagenome. The term 'probiotics' is related to preventive medicine rather than therapeutic procedures and is, thus, considered the opposite of antibiotics. This review discusses the challenges between these opposing treatments in terms of the following points: (i) antibiotic resistance, the relationship between antibiotic consumption and microbiome diversity reduction, antibiotic effect on the metagenome, and disease associated with antibiotics; and (ii) probiotics as living drugs, probiotic effect on epigenetic alterations, and gut microbiome relevance to hygiene indulgence. The intestinal microbiome is more specific for individuals and may be affected by environmental alterations and the occurrence of diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use*
  9. Kho BP, Ong CMY, Tan FTY, Wee CY
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2013 Apr;68(2):136-40.
    PMID: 23629559 MyJurnal
    Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is mostly viral in aetiology, but patients presenting with such complaints are frequently prescribed antibiotics. This may result in increased development of antimicrobial resistance. The objectives of this study are to determine the choice and proportion of oral antibiotics prescribed in patients with URTI, in a Sarawak district hospital setting. All outpatient prescriptions received in July 2011 in 10 hospitals with relevant diagnoses were analysed. A total of 6747 URTI prescriptions met the inclusion criteria, and 64.8% (95% CI 63.7%, 65.9%) had antibiotic prescribed. Medical Assistants (MAs) were significantly more likely to prescribe antibiotics compared to Medical Officers (MOs) (p < 0.001). Prescribers were significantly influenced by the patient's age and specific diagnosis when prescribing antibiotics for URTI (p < 0.001). Antibiotic choices differed between MOs and MAs, where some of the antibiotic choices were inappropriate. There is a need for multi-faceted interventions to improve antibiotic prescribing rate and choice.
    Study site: 10 district hospitals, Sarawak, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
  10. Lim AL, Pua KC
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Jun;67(3):340-1.
    PMID: 23082433 MyJurnal
    Lemierre syndrome is an uncommon disease which commonly arise from acute bacterial oropharyngeal infection. This disease was first described in 1900 by Courmont and Cade Lemierre. It is commonly caused by Fusobacterium necrophorum. Lemierre syndrome has been reported to be serious and potentially fatal in the preantibiotic era. It is characterized by an oropharyngeal infection leading to secondary septic thrombophlebitis of the internal jugular vein with embolization to the lungs and other organs. The incidence has become relatively rare at present and is usually only diagnosed when unsuspected culture results are available. We report a case of Lemierre syndrome which was recently diagnosed in our centre.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use*
  11. Daud J, Ishak SR, Deris ZZ, Hitam WH
    Asian Pac J Trop Biomed, 2011 Oct;1(5):419-20.
    PMID: 23569805 DOI: 10.1016/S2221-1691(11)60092-0
    Infectious conjunctivitis is a very common presentation to medical professional and ophthalmologist all over the world. Although its typically self-limiting and treatable in almost all of the cases, but we need to be aware of the rare and potentially life threatening if the cause is not promptly identified and treated accordingly. In our case report, we highlighted the rare case of Neisseria meningitidis as a primary cause of keratoconjunctivitis. Neisseria meningitidis is a rare etiology of keratoconjunctivitis and its ocular presentations are quite similar with other bacterial or viral infection. The infection may potentially fatal if systemic invasion occurred, however with immediate and proper treatment the outcome is satisfactory. Early diagnosis and proper antibiotic treatment are critical to prevent systemic spread of the infection. Public health intervention is needed to prevent outbreak of the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
  12. Suhaili DN, Goh BS, Gendeh BS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2010 Mar;65(1):49-52.
    PMID: 21265249 MyJurnal
    Acute sinusitis is most often a mild self-limiting disease. However, it may progress into severe and life threatening complications. One of the commonest being orbital complication of which visual loss is a direct consequence. In this 10 year retrospective study, the nature of orbital complication, clinical presentation and treatment modalities and outcome seen in children with acute sinusitis in a tertiary referral institute were reviewed. Of six patients, there was a case of preseptal cellulitis, 4 cases of subperiosteal abscess and one case of orbital abscess. Periorbital swelling was a common presenting feature. In 5 cases this was associated with proptosis with one case of impending optic nerve compression. The value of computed tomography and opthalmological examination as a component in the management plan is highlighted. All patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics but evidence of abscess collection warranted urgent surgical drainage in 5 patients, 3 being endoscopic drainage while external approach was done for the remaining 2 patients. Thus a child exhibiting orbital complication of acute sinusitis, prompt diagnosis and treatment is essential in obtaining the best outcome for the child.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
  13. Ismail TS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2009 Sep;64(3):250-5; quiz 256.
    PMID: 20527283 MyJurnal
    Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are important events in COPD patients and place a large burden on healthcare resources. COPD patients with frequent exacerbations have accelerated decline in lung function, poorer health status and are at higher risk of mortality. The mainstay of treatment includes increasing short acting bronchodilator therapy and systemic glucocorticosteroids with or without antibiotics. Non invasive ventilation is indicated in those with respiratory failure with acidosis or hypercapnia. Preventive strategies to reduce exacerbations include smoking cessation, immunisation against influenza and S. pneumonia, chronic maintenance inhaled pharmacotherapy, pulmonary rehabilitation and self management education.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
  14. Norazah A, Salbiah N, Nurizzat M, Santhana R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2009 Jun;64(2):166-7.
    PMID: 20058580 MyJurnal
    A 64-year old patient, who had bacteraemia, did not respond to vancomycin despite the MRSA isolate being sensitive to the antibiotic at MIC 2 microg/mL. Electron microscopy of the MRSA isolate showed thickening of the cell wall, which was not observed in MRSA with lower vancomycin MIC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use*
  15. Kuan YC, How SH, Ng TH, Fauzi AR
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Feb;51(2):e43-5.
    PMID: 20358143
    Melioidosis is known to cause abscesses in various organs, including the cranium, though less commonly. We present a patient with scalp abscess and subdural empyema that was visible on computed tomography of the brain. The neurosurgical drainage grew Burkholderia pseudomallei. Despite our best effort to treat the patient using parenteral antibiotics and surgical drainage, the patient did not survive.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
  16. Hazalin NA, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Wahab IA, Cole AL, Abdul Majeed AB
    PMID: 19930582 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-9-46
    Endophytes, microorganisms which reside in plant tissues, have potential in producing novel metabolites for exploitation in medicine. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of a total of 300 endophytic fungi were investigated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use*
  17. Valayatham V
    Int. J. Infect. Dis., 2009 Mar;13(2):e53-5.
    PMID: 18829361 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2008.06.015
    Salmonella sp is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Although commonly infecting the gastrointestinal system, other presentations are not unheard of. Salmonella is an unlikely and an unusual cause of genital tract infection. We describe a woman with suspected pelvic inflammatory disease eventually confirmed as Salmonella O C2 infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
  18. Norsa'adah B
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2007 Jun;62(2):181.
    PMID: 18705463
    Principally, there are two problems in prescribing . They are prescribing decision and prescribing writing process, which contribute to 39% and 61% of prescription problems respectively. The first type of problem has more serious consequences and may even cause mortality. In that study, the issue is the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Over-prescribing of antibiotics in primary health care, especially for respiratory tract diseases is a problem worldwide . There are concerns about the rising prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, cost and the potentially harmful consequences of unnecessary prescription such as drug interaction and allergy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use*
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