Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 43 in total

  1. Chapple PJ
    Bull World Health Organ, 1966;34(2):243-8.
    PMID: 5296130
    Studies have recently been published of surveys of antibodies to common respiratory viruses in human sera from several parts of the world. The present article reports the findings of a survey of antibodies to two more viruses (adenovirus type 8 and coxsackievirus type A21) in human sera mainly collected from six widely separated geographical regions (Alaska, England, Marshall Islands, Sarawak, South-West Africa and Tunisia).A world-wide geographical distribution of infection with these two viruses was found. However, antibodies to individual viruses were not found with the same frequency in all countries; and, in marked contrast to the findings in the earlier surveys of antibodies to the common respiratory viruses, the frequency of antibodies was not the same for each virus in sera from the same country. It was not possible to draw any final conclusions as to the reasons for the observed differences.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation*
  2. Ismail MI, Tan SW, Hair-Bejo M, Omar AR
    J Vet Sci, 2020 Nov;21(6):e76.
    PMID: 33263227 DOI: 10.4142/jvs.2020.21.e76
    BACKGROUND: The predominant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) strains detected in chickens in Malaysia are the Malaysian variant (MV) and QX-like, which are associated with respiratory distress, nephropathy, and high mortality. On the other hand, the antigenic relatedness and efficacy of IBV vaccines against these 2 field IBV strains are not well characterized.

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the antigen relatedness and efficacy of different IB vaccine strains against a challenge with MV and QX-like strains.

    METHODS: The antigen relatedness and the ability of different IB vaccine strains in conferring protection against MV and QX-like were assessed based on the clinical signs, macroscopic lesions, and ciliary activity.

    RESULTS: The MV strain IBS037A/2014 showed minor antigenic subtype differences with the vaccine virus Mass H120 and 4/91 strains but showed major antigenic subtype differences with the K2 strain. The Malaysian QX-like strain IBS130/2015 showed major antigenic subtype differences with the MV strain IBS037A/2014 and the vaccine strains except for K2. Chickens vaccinated once with Mass (H120) or with non-Mass (4/91 and K2) developed antibody responses with the highest antibody titer detected in the groups vaccinated with H120 and 4/91. The mean ciliary activities of the vaccinated chickens were between 56 to 59% and 48 to 52% in chickens challenged with IBS037A/2014 and IBS130/2015, respectively. The vaccinated and challenged birds showed mild to severe lesions in the lungs and kidneys.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite the minor antigenic subtype differences, a single inoculation with Mass or non-Mass vaccines could not protect against the MV IBS037A/2014 and QX-like IBS130/2015.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation
  3. Joshi C, Bapat R, Anderson W, Dawson D, Cherukara G, Hijazi K
    J Clin Periodontol, 2021 12;48(12):1570-1586.
    PMID: 34545592 DOI: 10.1111/jcpe.13550
    AIM: The present systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the strength of a reported association between elevated serum anti-periodontal bacterial antibody responses and coronary heart disease (CHD).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty original studies were identified after systematically searching five databases. The majority (n = 11) compared serum anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and/or anti-Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) IgG antibody responses between CHD patients and control participants. The strength of the association between serum anti-Pg antibodies and CHD (n = 10) and serum anti-Aa antibodies and CHD (n = 6) was investigated using a meta-analysis approach separately.

    RESULTS: Most studies (61%) reported that the serum IgG antibody responses were elevated in CHD patients than in controls. The meta-analyses showed a significant association between elevated serum IgG antibody responses (anti-Pg and anti-Aa) and CHD, with pooled odds ratios of 1.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.38, p = .001] and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04-1.47, p = .0004), respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: A modest increase of CHD events in individuals with higher serum anti-Pg and anti-Aa IgG antibody responses may support their use as potential biomarkers to detect and monitor at-risk populations. However, the observed inconsistencies with the design and interpretation of immunoassays warrant standardization of the immunoassays assessing antibody responses against periodontal bacteria.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation
  4. Yahya MD, Watson RR
    Life Sci, 1987 Dec 07;41(23):2503-10.
    PMID: 2824957
    The immunomodulatory effects of morphine and the active components of marijuana, particularly tetrahydrocannabinol, on various aspects of the host immune parameters include alterations in humoral, cell-mediated and innate immunity. Most studies have shown immunosuppressive effects due to use of these abused substances, although there are reports that they may not produce any deleterious effect and may even enhance some aspects of host immunity. They reduce resistance to cancer growth and microbial pathogens in animals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation/drug effects*
  5. Xian TH, Sinniah K, Yean CY, Krishnamoorthy V, Bahari MB, Ravichandran M, et al.
    BMC Immunol, 2020 05 25;21(1):29.
    PMID: 32450807 DOI: 10.1186/s12865-020-00360-1
    BACKGROUND: Cholera, an acute watery diarrhoeal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 and O139 across the continents. Replacing the existing WHO licensed killed multiple-dose oral cholera vaccines that demand 'cold chain supply' at 2-8 °C with a live, single-dose and cold chain-free vaccine would relieve the significant bottlenecks and cost determinants in cholera vaccination campaigns. In this direction, a prototype cold chain-free live attenuated cholera vaccine formulation (LACV) was developed against the toxigenic wild-type (WT) V. cholerae O139 serogroup. LACV was found stable and retained its viability (5 × 106 CFU/mL), purity and potency at room temperature (25 °C ± 2 °C, and 60% ± 5% relative humidity) for 140 days in contrast to all the existing WHO licensed cold-chain supply (2-8 °C) dependent killed oral cholera vaccines.

    RESULTS: The LACV was evaluated for its colonization potential, reactogenicity, immunogenicity and protective efficacy in animal models after its storage at room temperature for 140 days. In suckling mice colonization assay, the LACV recorded the highest recovery of (7.2 × 107 CFU/mL) compared to those of unformulated VCUSM14P (5.6 × 107 CFU/mL) and the WT O139 strain (3.5 × 107 CFU/mL). The LACV showed no reactogenicity even at an inoculation dose of 104-106 CFU/mL in a rabbit ileal loop model. The rabbits vaccinated with the LACV or unformulated VCUSM14P survived a challenge with WT O139 and showed no signs of diarrhoea or death in the reversible intestinal tie adult rabbit diarrhoea (RITARD) model. Vaccinated rabbits recorded a 275-fold increase in anti-CT IgG and a 15-fold increase in anti-CT IgA antibodies compared to those of rabbits vaccinated with unformulated VCUSM14P. Vibriocidal antibodies were increased by 31-fold with the LACV and 14-fold with unformulated VCUSM14P.

    CONCLUSION: The vaccine formulation mimics a natural infection, is non-reactogenic and highly immunogenic in vivo and protects animals from lethal wild-type V. cholerae O139 challenge. The single dose LACV formulation was found to be stable at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C) for 140 days and it would result in significant cost savings during mass cholera vaccination campaigns.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation/immunology*
  6. Butt J, Jenab M, Pawlita M, Tjønneland A, Kyrø C, Boutron-Ruault MC, et al.
    Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2020 07;29(7):1475-1481.
    PMID: 32332031 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-1545
    BACKGROUND: While Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric cancer, it has also been suggested to be involved in colorectal cancer development. However, prospective studies addressing H. pylori and colorectal cancer are sparse and inconclusive. We assessed the association of antibody responses to H. pylori proteins with colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

    METHODS: We applied H. pylori multiplex serology to measure antibody responses to 13 H. pylori proteins in prediagnostic serum samples from 485 colorectal cancer cases and 485 matched controls nested within the EPIC study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariable conditional logistic regression to estimate the association of H. pylori overall and protein-specific seropositivity with odds of developing colorectal cancer.

    RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of colorectal cancer cases were H. pylori seropositive compared with 44% of controls, resulting in an OR of 1.36 (95% CI, 1.00-1.85). Among the 13 individual H. pylori proteins, the association was driven mostly by seropositivity to Helicobacter cysteine-rich protein C (HcpC; OR: 1.66; 95% CI, 1.19-2.30) and Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) (OR: 1.34; 95% CI, 0.99-1.82), the latter being nonstatistically significant only in the fully adjusted model.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective multicenter European study, antibody responses to H. pylori proteins, specifically HcpC and VacA, were associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer.

    IMPACT: Biological mechanisms for a potential causal role of H. pylori in colorectal carcinogenesis need to be elucidated, and subsequently whether H. pylori eradication may decrease colorectal cancer incidence.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation/genetics*
  7. Shu MH, MatRahim N, NorAmdan N, Pang SP, Hashim SH, Phoon WH, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016;6:22332.
    PMID: 26923424 DOI: 10.1038/srep22332
    Vaccination may be an alternative treatment for infection with multidrug-resistance (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii. The study reported here evaluated the bactericidal antibody responses following immunization of mice using an inactivated whole-cell vaccine derived from antibiotic-exposed MDR A. baumannii (I-M28-47-114). Mice inoculated with I-M28-47 (non-antibiotic-exposed control) and I-M28-47-114 showed a high IgG antibody response by day 5 post-inoculation. Sera from mice inoculated with I-M28-47-114 collected on day 30 resulted in 80.7 ± 12.0% complement-mediated bacteriolysis in vitro of the test MDR A. baumannii treated with imipenem, which was a higher level of bacteriolysis over sera from mice inoculated with I-M28-47. Macrophage-like U937 cells eliminated 49.3 ± 11.6% of the test MDR A. baumannii treated with imipenem when opsonized with sera from mice inoculated with I-M28-47-114, which was a higher level of elimination than observed for test MDR A. baumannii opsonized with sera from mice inoculated with I-M28-47. These results suggest that vaccination with I-M28-47-114 stimulated antibody responses capable of mounting high bactericidal killing of MDR A. baumannii. Therefore, the inactivated antibiotic-exposed whole-cell vaccine (I-M28-47-114) has potential for development as a candidate vaccine for broad clearance and protection against MDR A. baumannii infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation
  8. Sinniah M, Halimah M, Krishnamurthy T, Lye MS, Choo CH, Shamsiah I
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Dec;49(4):336-40.
    PMID: 7674968
    Immunisation of health care workers and staff working in laboratory and hospital settings has been implemented since 1988. However due to the high cost of currently available HBV vaccine, many health personnel outside the Ministry of Health are not being immunised. This study sought to determine the immunogenicity of three doses of a low cost plasma-derived Korean HBV vaccine on employees of an institute for mentally handicapped and their spouses and children. We found that the Hepatitis B Vaccine-KGCC to be safe and immunogenic. The response to 10 mcg and 20 mcg Hepatitis B Vaccine-KGCC after third dose was good with 100% seroconversion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation
  9. Yadav, M., Harnam, S.
    The total and allergen-specific IgE response of patients with rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivities, rhinitis with asthma and rhinitis with dermatitis was analyzed to a panel of twelve high risk airborne and food allergens. It has been found that this panel will detect 96 percent of the allergen-causing diseases in children. It was found that 26 (76%) of the 34 young patients had a family history for atopy suggesting a high frequency of inheritance of allergic disorders. Elevated total IgE was found in most patients with allergic disease. Positive IgE antibody response to two species of Dermatophagoides mite-allergens was found in 7/12 (58%) patients with rhinitis, 11/11 (100%) patients with rhinoconjunctivitis, 7/9 (78%) cases ofrhinitis with asthma and 3/3 (100%) cases of rhinitis with dermatitis. Some of the patients also responded to food allergens. Food allergy was noted in 4/12 (33%) cases of rhinitis, 11/11 (100%) cases of rhinoconjunctivitis, 4/9 (44%) cases of rhinitis with asthma and 1/3 (33%) cases of rhinitis with dermatitis. Patients with rhinoconjunctivitis who tested positive at high titres for mites invariably had enhanced response for cockroaches, shrimps and crabs suggesting invertebrate antigen cross-reactivity. A few patients however, did not show this type of cross-reactivity although they had high titres of anti-mite IgE antibodies indicating that they responded to non cross-reacting allergen epitopes. Response to multiple allergens appears to be a common feature of most patients with respiratory or skin allergic diseases. The prevalence of multiple target-organ allergy to wide variety offood and environmental allergens complicates the long term management ofpatients with such allergic disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation
  10. Lai JY, Lim TS
    Int J Biol Macromol, 2020 Nov 15;163:640-648.
    PMID: 32650013 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.06.268
    Antibody phage display is regarded as a critical tool for the development of monoclonal antibodies for infectious diseases. The different classes of antibody libraries are classified based on the source of repertoire used to generate the libraries. Immune antibody libraries are generated from disease infected host or immunization against an infectious agent. Antibodies derived from immune libraries are distinct from those derived from naïve libraries as the host's in vivo immune mechanisms shape the antibody repertoire to yield high affinity antibodies. As the immune system is constantly evolving in accordance to the health state of an individual, immune libraries can offer more than just infection-specific antibodies but also antibodies derived from the memory B-cells much like naïve libraries. The combinatorial nature of the gene cloning process would give rise to a combination of natural and un-natural antibody gene pairings in the immune library. These factors have a profound impact on the coverage of immune antibody libraries to target both disease-specific and non-disease specific antigens. This review looks at the diverse nature of antibody responses for immune library generation and discusses the extended potential of a disease-specified immune library in the context of phage display.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation
  11. Abu Nor N, Zamri-Saad M, Md Yasin IS, Salleh A, Mustaffa-Kamal F, Matori MF, et al.
    Vaccines (Basel), 2020 Dec 04;8(4).
    PMID: 33291587 DOI: 10.3390/vaccines8040734
    Vibrio harveyi causes vibriosis in various commercial marine fish species. The infection leads to significant economic losses for aquaculture farms, and vaccination is an alternative approach for the prevention and control of fish diseases for aquaculture sustainability. This study describes the use of formalin-killed Vibrio harveyi (FKVh) strain Vh1 as a vaccine candidate to stimulate innate and adaptive immunities against vibriosis in a marine red hybrid tilapia model. Tilapia are fast growing; cheap; resistant to diseases; and tolerant to adverse environmental conditions of fresh water, brackish water, and marine water and because of these advantages, marine red hybrid tilapia is a suitable candidate as a model to study fish diseases and vaccinations against vibriosis. A total of 180 healthy red hybrid tilapias were gradually adapted to the marine environment before being divided into two groups, with 90 fish in each group and were kept in triplicate with 30 fish per tank. Group 1 was vaccinated intraperitoneally with 100 µL of FKVh on week 0, and a booster dose was similarly administered on week 2. Group 2 was similarly injected with PBS. Skin mucus, serum, and gut lavage were collected weekly for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a lysozyme activity assay from a total of 30 fish of each group. On week 4, the remaining 60 fish of Groups 1 and 2 were challenged with 108 cfu/fish of live Vibrio harveyi. The clinical signs were monitored while the survival rate was recorded for 48 h post-challenge. Vaccination with FKVh resulted in a significantly (p < 0.05) higher rate of survival (87%) compared to the control (20%). The IgM antibody titer and lysozyme activities of Group 1 were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the unvaccinated Groups 2 in most weeks throughout the experiment. Therefore, the intraperitoneal exposure of marine red hybrid tilapia to killed V. harveyi enhanced the resistance and antibody response of the fish against vibriosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation
  12. Gordon Smith CE, McMahon DA, Turner LH
    Bull World Health Organ, 1963;29:75-80.
    PMID: 14043754
    In view of the risk of introduction of yellow fever into South-East Asia, comparative studies have been made of yellow fever vaccination in Malayan volunteers with a high prevalence of antibody to related viruses and in volunteers without related antibody. In a previous paper the neutralizing antibody responses of these volunteers were reported. The present paper describes the haemagglutinin-inhibiting (HI) antibody responses of the same groups of volunteers and discusses the relationship of these responses to the neutralizing antibody responses.The HI responses to yellow fever following vaccination closely paralleled the neutralizing antibody responses whether vaccination was subcutaneous or by multiple puncture. Volunteers with a high level of YF HI antibody due to infection with other group B viruses were found to be less likely to show a significant YF HI response than those without antibody. 90% of HI responses could be detected by the 21st day after vaccination.As with neutralizing antibody responses, volunteers given vaccine doses of 50-500 mouse intracerebral LD(50) subcutaneously gave greater responses than those given higher doses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation*
  13. Boyle MJ, Chan JA, Handayuni I, Reiling L, Feng G, Hilton A, et al.
    Sci Adv, 2019 09;5(9):eaax4489.
    PMID: 31579826 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax4489
    Most studies on human immunity to malaria have focused on the roles of immunoglobulin G (IgG), whereas the roles of IgM remain undefined. Analyzing multiple human cohorts to assess the dynamics of malaria-specific IgM during experimentally induced and naturally acquired malaria, we identified IgM activity against blood-stage parasites. We found that merozoite-specific IgM appears rapidly in Plasmodium falciparum infection and is prominent during malaria in children and adults with lifetime exposure, together with IgG. Unexpectedly, IgM persisted for extended periods of time; we found no difference in decay of merozoite-specific IgM over time compared to that of IgG. IgM blocked merozoite invasion of red blood cells in a complement-dependent manner. IgM was also associated with significantly reduced risk of clinical malaria in a longitudinal cohort of children. These findings suggest that merozoite-specific IgM is an important functional and long-lived antibody response targeting blood-stage malaria parasites that contributes to malaria immunity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation/immunology
  14. Ooi A, Tan S, Mohamed R, Rahman NA, Othman RY
    J Biotechnol, 2006 Feb 24;121(4):471-81.
    PMID: 16271415
    A cucumber green mosaic mottle virus (CGMMV) full-length clone was developed for the expression of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The expression of the surface displayed HBsAg by the chimeric virus was confirmed through a double antibody sandwich ELISA. Assessment of the coat protein composition of the chimeric virus particles by SDS-PAGE analysis showed that 50% of the coat proteins were fused to the HBsAg. Biological activity of the expressed HBsAg was assessed through the stimulation of in vitro antibody production by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PBMC that were cultured in the presence of the chimeric virus showed up to an approximately three-fold increase in the level of anti HBsAg immunoglobulin thus suggesting the possible use of this new chimeric virus as an effective Hepatitis B vaccine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation/immunology
  15. Sagara I, Dicko A, Ellis RD, Fay MP, Diawara SI, Assadou MH, et al.
    Vaccine, 2009 May 18;27(23):3090-8.
    PMID: 19428923 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.03.014
    A double blind, randomized, controlled Phase 2 clinical trial was conducted to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and biologic impact of the vaccine candidate Apical Membrane Antigen 1-Combination 1 (AMA1-C1), adjuvanted with Alhydrogel. Participants were healthy children 2-3 years old living in or near the village of Bancoumana, Mali. A total of 300 children received either the study vaccine or the comparator. No impact of vaccination was seen on the primary endpoint, the frequency of parasitemia measured as episodes >3000/microL/day at risk. There was a negative impact of vaccination on the hemoglobin level during clinical malaria, and mean incidence of hemoglobin <8.5 g/dL, in the direction of lower hemoglobin in the children who received AMA1-C1, although these differences were not significant after correction for multiple tests. These differences were not seen in the second year of transmission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation/drug effects
  16. Rasool M, Sabina EP
    J Nat Med, 2009 Apr;63(2):169-75.
    PMID: 19093070 DOI: 10.1007/s11418-008-0308-2
    In recent years, Spirulina has gained more and more attention from medical scientists as a nutraceutical and a source of potential pharmaceuticals. The present study was conducted to elucidate the immunomodulatory effect of Spirulina fusiformis (a cyanobacterium of the family Oscillatoriaceae) in vivo and in vitro. The in vivo effect of S. fusiformis (400 or 800 mg/kg body wt.) on humoral immune response, cell-mediated immune response and tumour necrosis factor alpha was investigated in mice. We also evaluated the effect of S. fusiformis (50 or 100 microg/ml) in vitro on mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin)-induced T lymphocyte proliferation in heparinized human peripheral blood. For comparison, dexamethasone was used as a standard. In mice, S. fusiformis (400 or 800 mg/kg body wt.) administration significantly inhibited the humoral immune response, cell-mediated immune response (delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH)) and tumour necrosis factor alpha in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro, S. fusiformis (50 or 100 microg/ml) decreased the mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin)-induced T lymphocyte proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner when compared with control cells. These observations clearly suggest that S. fusiformis has a remarkable immunosuppressive effect, which provides a scientific validation for the popular use of this drug, and helped us in further work on investigating its complete mechanism of action.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation/drug effects
  17. Usman AS, Mustaffa R, Ramli N, Diggi SA
    Asian J Transfus Sci, 2013 Jan;7(1):84-5.
    PMID: 23559775 DOI: 10.4103/0973-6247.106750
    OBJECTIVE: Maternal allo-antibody production is stimulated when fetal red blood cells are positive for an antigen absent on the mother's red cells. The maternal IgG antibodies produced will pass through the placenta and attack fetal red cells carrying the corresponding antigen. Allo-immune hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn caused by anti-E rarely occurs.

    CASE SUMMARY: We report two cases of anti-E hemolytic diseases in neonates. One of the neonates had severe hemolysis presenting with severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, while the other had moderate anemia and unconjugated hyperbilrubinemia. Although both the neonates were treated by phototherapy and intravenous immunoglobulin, one of them received double volume exchange transfusion.

    CONCLUSION: There appeared to be an increase in the occurrence of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn caused by Rh antibodies other than anti-D. In this case report, both patients presented with anemia and hyperbilirubinemia but were successfully treated, with a favorable outcome.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation
  18. Sosroseno W, Bird PS, Gemmell E, Seymour GJ
    Oral Dis, 2006 Jul;12(4):387-94.
    PMID: 16792724
    To determine whether oral tolerance with the oral bacterium Actinomyces viscosus was inducible in mice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation
  19. Teh A, Leong KW, Bosco JJ, Koong PL, Jayaranee S
    Med J Malaysia, 1995 Jun;50(2):166-70.
    PMID: 7565188
    Acquired haemophilia is a rare clinical condition arising from the spontaneous development of inhibitors to factor VIII. We describe two cases encountered in the University Hospital over the past five years. We also review the literature and discuss the therapeutic difficulties faced in dealing with patients with high levels of inhibitors. In one of these patients we also describe, for the first time in this region, a novel method in managing the acute bleeding episode in acquired haemophilia using recombinant factor VIIa.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation
  20. Effendy AW, Zamri-Saad M, Puspa R, Rosiah S
    Vet. Rec., 1998 Apr 18;142(16):428-31.
    PMID: 9595632
    A trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of intranasal vaccination in protecting goats against pneumonic pasteurellosis with intramuscular vaccination using an oil adjuvant vaccine, and a combination of the two methods. Forty goats were divided into four equal groups. Group 1 was vaccinated twice intranasally with formalin-killed Pasteurella haemolytica A2, group 2 was vaccinated twice intramuscularly with an oil adjuvant vaccine containing P haemolytica A7, and group 3 was initially vaccinated intranasally with the formalin-killed P haemolytica A2 followed by intramuscular vaccination with the oil adjuvant vaccine. In each group the two vaccinations were carried out four weeks apart. Group 4 was the unvaccinated control group. All goats were challenged intratracheally with 4 ml of an inoculum containing live P haemolytica A2 at a concentration of 1.3 x 10(7) colony forming units/ml two weeks after the last vaccination and were killed 14 days after the challenge. Although group 2 showed the highest clinical score following the challenge, deaths were observed only in group 3. Three goats in group 1 had pneumonic lung lesions, compared with six goats in group 2 and all the goats in groups 3 and 4. The lung lesions in group 1 were significantly (P < 0.05) less severe than in groups 3 and 4. Similarly, the lesions in group 2 were markedly less severe than in groups 3 and 4, although the differences were not significant. The difference between the extent of the lung lesions in the goats in groups 1 and 2 was not significant. Antibody against P haemolytica A2 in group 1 reached peak levels and was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than in the control group one week after the second vaccination, before declining.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antibody Formation
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