OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the antigen relatedness and efficacy of different IB vaccine strains against a challenge with MV and QX-like strains.
METHODS: The antigen relatedness and the ability of different IB vaccine strains in conferring protection against MV and QX-like were assessed based on the clinical signs, macroscopic lesions, and ciliary activity.
RESULTS: The MV strain IBS037A/2014 showed minor antigenic subtype differences with the vaccine virus Mass H120 and 4/91 strains but showed major antigenic subtype differences with the K2 strain. The Malaysian QX-like strain IBS130/2015 showed major antigenic subtype differences with the MV strain IBS037A/2014 and the vaccine strains except for K2. Chickens vaccinated once with Mass (H120) or with non-Mass (4/91 and K2) developed antibody responses with the highest antibody titer detected in the groups vaccinated with H120 and 4/91. The mean ciliary activities of the vaccinated chickens were between 56 to 59% and 48 to 52% in chickens challenged with IBS037A/2014 and IBS130/2015, respectively. The vaccinated and challenged birds showed mild to severe lesions in the lungs and kidneys.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the minor antigenic subtype differences, a single inoculation with Mass or non-Mass vaccines could not protect against the MV IBS037A/2014 and QX-like IBS130/2015.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty original studies were identified after systematically searching five databases. The majority (n = 11) compared serum anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and/or anti-Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) IgG antibody responses between CHD patients and control participants. The strength of the association between serum anti-Pg antibodies and CHD (n = 10) and serum anti-Aa antibodies and CHD (n = 6) was investigated using a meta-analysis approach separately.
RESULTS: Most studies (61%) reported that the serum IgG antibody responses were elevated in CHD patients than in controls. The meta-analyses showed a significant association between elevated serum IgG antibody responses (anti-Pg and anti-Aa) and CHD, with pooled odds ratios of 1.23 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-1.38, p = .001] and 1.25 (95% CI: 1.04-1.47, p = .0004), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: A modest increase of CHD events in individuals with higher serum anti-Pg and anti-Aa IgG antibody responses may support their use as potential biomarkers to detect and monitor at-risk populations. However, the observed inconsistencies with the design and interpretation of immunoassays warrant standardization of the immunoassays assessing antibody responses against periodontal bacteria.
RESULTS: The LACV was evaluated for its colonization potential, reactogenicity, immunogenicity and protective efficacy in animal models after its storage at room temperature for 140 days. In suckling mice colonization assay, the LACV recorded the highest recovery of (7.2 × 107 CFU/mL) compared to those of unformulated VCUSM14P (5.6 × 107 CFU/mL) and the WT O139 strain (3.5 × 107 CFU/mL). The LACV showed no reactogenicity even at an inoculation dose of 104-106 CFU/mL in a rabbit ileal loop model. The rabbits vaccinated with the LACV or unformulated VCUSM14P survived a challenge with WT O139 and showed no signs of diarrhoea or death in the reversible intestinal tie adult rabbit diarrhoea (RITARD) model. Vaccinated rabbits recorded a 275-fold increase in anti-CT IgG and a 15-fold increase in anti-CT IgA antibodies compared to those of rabbits vaccinated with unformulated VCUSM14P. Vibriocidal antibodies were increased by 31-fold with the LACV and 14-fold with unformulated VCUSM14P.
CONCLUSION: The vaccine formulation mimics a natural infection, is non-reactogenic and highly immunogenic in vivo and protects animals from lethal wild-type V. cholerae O139 challenge. The single dose LACV formulation was found to be stable at room temperature (25 ± 2 °C) for 140 days and it would result in significant cost savings during mass cholera vaccination campaigns.
METHODS: We applied H. pylori multiplex serology to measure antibody responses to 13 H. pylori proteins in prediagnostic serum samples from 485 colorectal cancer cases and 485 matched controls nested within the EPIC study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariable conditional logistic regression to estimate the association of H. pylori overall and protein-specific seropositivity with odds of developing colorectal cancer.
RESULTS: Fifty-one percent of colorectal cancer cases were H. pylori seropositive compared with 44% of controls, resulting in an OR of 1.36 (95% CI, 1.00-1.85). Among the 13 individual H. pylori proteins, the association was driven mostly by seropositivity to Helicobacter cysteine-rich protein C (HcpC; OR: 1.66; 95% CI, 1.19-2.30) and Vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) (OR: 1.34; 95% CI, 0.99-1.82), the latter being nonstatistically significant only in the fully adjusted model.
CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective multicenter European study, antibody responses to H. pylori proteins, specifically HcpC and VacA, were associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer.
IMPACT: Biological mechanisms for a potential causal role of H. pylori in colorectal carcinogenesis need to be elucidated, and subsequently whether H. pylori eradication may decrease colorectal cancer incidence.
CASE SUMMARY: We report two cases of anti-E hemolytic diseases in neonates. One of the neonates had severe hemolysis presenting with severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, while the other had moderate anemia and unconjugated hyperbilrubinemia. Although both the neonates were treated by phototherapy and intravenous immunoglobulin, one of them received double volume exchange transfusion.
CONCLUSION: There appeared to be an increase in the occurrence of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn caused by Rh antibodies other than anti-D. In this case report, both patients presented with anemia and hyperbilirubinemia but were successfully treated, with a favorable outcome.