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  1. Sharif Nia H, Lehto RH, Pahlevan Sharif S, Mashrouteh M, Goudarzian AH, Rahmatpour P, et al.
    Omega (Westport), 2021 Sep;83(4):760-776.
    PMID: 31366310 DOI: 10.1177/0030222819865407
    Ensuring use of valid and reliable scales for evaluating death anxiety that are relevant to the cultural context where they are applied is essential. The purpose of the study was to conduct a systematic review of the psychometric properties of Templer's Death Anxiety Scale (DAS) across cultures. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, SID, and Magiran databases were systematically searched for studies published between 1970 and 2017 using Mesh terms. Two independent researchers used Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies and Checklist of Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy to evaluate study quality. Included studies were conducted in Iran, United States, Italy, China, Egypt, Spain, and Australia. Overall study quality was acceptable in 15 evaluated articles. However, findings demonstrated that two (one study), three (seven studies), four (four studies), and five factors (three studies) were extracted across the respective studies. Confirmatory concurrent validity was assessed in two studies. While Templer's DAS has stood the test of time as a commonly used index of capturing the conscious experience of death anxiety, there are psychometric inconsistencies in identified factor solutions across cultures. Findings emphasize the need for continued evaluation of how the DAS is translated in specific countries with assessment in relation to other death construct tools.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis
  2. Soleimani MA, Yaghoobzadeh A, Bahrami N, Sharif SP, Sharif Nia H
    Death Stud, 2016 10;40(9):547-557.
    PMID: 27259574
    In this study, 398 Iranian cancer patients completed the 15-item Templer's Death Anxiety Scale (TDAS). Tests of internal consistency, principal components analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted to assess the internal consistency and factorial validity of the Persian TDAS. The construct reliability statistic and average variance extracted were also calculated to measure construct reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. Principal components analysis indicated a 3-component solution, which was generally supported in the confirmatory analysis. However, acceptable cutoffs for construct reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity were not fulfilled for the three subscales that were derived from the principal component analysis. This study demonstrated both the advantages and potential limitations of using the TDAS with Persian-speaking cancer patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis*
  3. Osman ZJ, Mukhtar F, Hashim HA, Abdul Latiff L, Mohd Sidik S, Awang H, et al.
    Compr Psychiatry, 2014 Oct;55(7):1720-5.
    PMID: 24952938 DOI: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2014.04.011
    OBJECTIVE: The 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) is frequently used in non-clinical research to measure mental health factors among adults. However, previous studies have concluded that the 21 items are not stable for utilization among the adolescent population. Thus, the aims of this study are to examine the structure of the factors and to report on the reliability of the refined version of the DASS that consists of 12 items.
    METHOD: A total of 2850 students (aged 13 to 17 years old) from three major ethnic in Malaysia completed the DASS-21. The study was conducted at 10 randomly selected secondary schools in the northern state of Peninsular Malaysia. The study population comprised secondary school students (Forms 1, 2 and 4) from the selected schools.
    RESULTS: Based on the results of the EFA stage, 12 items were included in a final CFA to test the fit of the model. Using maximum likelihood procedures to estimate the model, the selected fit indices indicated a close model fit (χ(2)=132.94, df=57, p=.000; CFI=.96; RMR=.02; RMSEA=.04). Moreover, significant loadings of all the unstandardized regression weights implied an acceptable convergent validity. Besides the convergent validity of the item, a discriminant validity of the subscales was also evident from the moderate latent factor inter-correlations, which ranged from .62 to .75. The subscale reliability was further estimated using Cronbach's alpha and the adequate reliability of the subscales was obtained (Total=76; Depression=.68; Anxiety=.53; Stress=.52).
    CONCLUSION: The new version of the 12-item DASS for adolescents in Malaysia (DASS-12) is reliable and has a stable factor structure, and thus it is a useful instrument for distinguishing between depression, anxiety and stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis*
  4. Kaur S, Zainal NZ, Low WY, Ramasamy R, Sidhu JS
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 May;27(4):450-60.
    PMID: 24807887 DOI: 10.1177/1010539514533719
    The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is a common screening instrument used to determine the levels of anxiety and depression experienced by a patient and has been extensively used in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to establish the factor structure of HADS in a Malaysian sample of 189 patients with CAD. Factor analysis of HADS using principal component analysis with varimax rotation yielded 3 factors. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the use of HADS in assessing 3 distinct dimensions of psychological distress--namely, anxiety, anhedonia, and psychomotor retardation. The HADS showed good internal consistency and was found to be a valid measure of psychological distress among Malaysian patients with CAD. However, low mean scores on the original 2 factors--that is, anxiety and depression--and also on the 2 depression subscales--anhedonia and psychomotor retardation--suggests that the recommended cutoff score to screen for psychological distress among CAD patients be reevaluated. Further research to determine the generalizability and consistency for the tridimensional structure of the HADS in Malaysia is recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis*
  5. Quek KF, Atiya AS, Heng NGC, Beng CC
    Int J Impot Res, 2007 May-Jun;19(3):321-5.
    PMID: 17136103
    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual dysfunction among the general population. PE has often been associated with a psychological state of mind. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) can be used as an instrument to assess the emotional and psychological state. The present study was designed to assess the reliability and validity of the HADS in a Malaysian population. The validity and reliability were studied in subjects with and without PE. Test-retest methodology was used to assess the reliability whereas Cronbach's alpha was used to assess the internal consistency. In the control and the PE groups, the internal consistency was good and a high degree of internal consistency was observed for all 14 items. In the control group, the Cronbach's alpha values at baseline were from 0.811 to 0.834, whereas for retest, the Cronbach's alpha values were from 0.821-0.838 items. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was high for the control (0.797-0.868: baseline and 0.805-0.872: retest) and PE group (0.822-0.906: baseline and 0.785-0.887: retest). The high value of ICC and the internal consistency was due to high reliability and consistency of the items at 2-week interval. A degree of significance between the baseline and week-2 scores was observed across all items in the PE group but not in the control group. The HADS is a suitable, reliable, valid and sensitive instrument to measure the clinical change for anxiety and depression in the Malaysian population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis*
  6. Chin YW, Lai PS, Chia YC
    BMC Fam Pract, 2017 02 20;18(1):25.
    PMID: 28219325 DOI: 10.1186/s12875-017-0601-9
    BACKGROUND: Several disease specific instruments have been developed to identify and assess diabetes distress. In Malaysia, the Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale has been validated in Malay, but it does not have specific domains to assess the different areas of diabetes-related distress. Hence, we decided to use the Diabetes Distress Scale instead. To date, only the Malay version of the Diabetes Distress Scale has been validated in Malaysia. However, English is widely spoken by Malaysians, and is an important second language in Malaysia. Therefore, our aim was to determine the validity and reliability of the English version of the Diabetes Distress Scale among patients with type 2 diabetes in Malaysia.
    METHODS: The Diabetes Distress Scale was administered to 114 patients with type 2 diabetes, who could understand English, at baseline and 4 weeks later, at a primary care clinic in Malaysia. To assess for convergent validity, the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale was administered at baseline. Discriminative validity was assessed by analysing the total diabetes distress scores of participants with poor (HbA1c > 7.0%) and good glycaemic control (HbA1c ≤ 7.0%).
    RESULTS: The majority of our participants were male 65(57.0%), with a median duration of diabetes of 9.5 years. Exploratory factor analysis showed that the Diabetes Distress Scale had 4 subscales, as per the original Diabetes Distress Scale. The overall Cronbach's α was 0.920 (range = 0.784-0.859 for each subscale). The intraclass correlation ranged from 0.436 to 0.643 for test-retest. The Diabetes Distress Scale subscales were significantly correlated with the different subscales of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (spearman's rho range = 0.427-0.509, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis*
  7. Shamsuddin K, Fadzil F, Ismail WS, Shah SA, Omar K, Muhammad NA, et al.
    Asian J Psychiatr, 2013 Aug;6(4):318-23.
    PMID: 23810140 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2013.01.014
    University students face not only challenges related with independent living, but also academic challenges. This predisposes them to depression, anxiety and stress, which are fairly common.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis*
  8. Isa MR, Moy FM, Abdul Razack AH, Zainuddin ZM, Zainal NZ
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(4):2237-42.
    PMID: 23725119
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of applied progressive muscle relaxation training on the levels of depression, anxiety and stress among prostate cancer patients.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was conducted at the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) over six months. Prostate cancer patients from UMMC received the intervention and patients from UKMMC were taken as controls. The level of depression, anxiety and stress were measured using Depression, Anxiety Stress Scales - 21 (DASS-21).

    RESULTS: A total of 77 patients from the UMMC and 78 patients from the UKMMC participated. At the end of the study, 90.9% and 87.2% of patients from the UMMC and UKMMC groups completed the study respectively. There were significant improvements in anxiety (p<0.001, partial ?2=0.198) and stress (p<0.001, partial ?2=0.103) at the end of the study in those receiving muscle training. However, there was no improvement in depression (p=0.956).

    CONCLUSIONS: The improvement in anxiety and stress showed the potential of APMRT in the management of prostate cancer patients. Future studies should be carried out over a longer duration to provide stronger evidence for the introduction of relaxation therapy among prostate cancer patients as a coping strategy to improve their anxiety and stress.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis
  9. Yusoff N, Low WY, Yip CH
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(4):915-7.
    PMID: 21790225
    The main objective of this paper is to examine the psychometric properties of the Malay Version of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), tested on 67 husbands of the women who were diagnosed with breast cancer. The eligible husbands were retrieved from the Clinical Oncology Clinic at three hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data was collected at three weeks and ten weeks following surgery for breast cancer of their wives. The psychometric properties of the HADS were reported based on Cronbach' alpha, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), Effect Size Index (ESI), sensitivity and discriminity of the scale. Internal consistency of the scale is excellent, with Cronbach's alpha of 0.88 for Anxiety subscale and 0.79 for Depression subscale. Test-retest Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) is 0.35 and 0.42 for Anxiety and Depression Subscale, respectively. Small mean differences were observed at test-retest measurement with ESI of 0.21 for Anxiety and 0.19 for Depression. Non-significant result was revealed for the discriminant validity (mastectomy vs lumpectomy). The Malay Version of the HADS is appropriate to measure the anxiety and depression among the husbands of the women with breast cancer in Malaysia.
    Study site: Oncology clinic, University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis*
  10. Quek KF, Low WY, Razack AH, Loh CS, Chua CB
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 Jun;59(2):258-67.
    PMID: 15559178 MyJurnal
    To validate the English version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) in a sample of Malaysia patients with and without urinary symptoms. Validity and reliability were studied in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and patients without LUTS. Reliability was evaluated using the test-retest method and internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Sensitivity to change was expressed as the effect size in the pre-intervention versus post-intervention score in additional patients with LUTS who underwent transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Internal consistency was excellent. A high degree of internal consistency was observed for each of the 40 items with Cronbach's alpha value = 0.38 to 0.89 while the Cronbach's alpha for the total scores was 0.86. Test-retest correlation coefficients for the 40 items score were highly significant. Intraclass correlation coefficient was high (ICC=0.39 to 0.89). A high degree of sensitivity and specificity to the effects of treatment was observed. A high degree of significant level between baseline and post-treatment scores was observed across nearly half of the items in surgical group but not in the non-LUTS group (control subjects). The STAI is reliable, valid and sensitive to clinical change in a sample of Malaysian patients with and without urinary symptoms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis*
  11. Salleh MR
    Med J Malaysia, 1989 Dec;44(4):275-82.
    PMID: 2520035
    The severity of anxiety and depression in 72 patients presenting with somatic complaints to the psychiatric clinic were assessed after excluding organic illnesses. Majority of the patients were females, between 15 to 34 years of age and came from lower socio-economic background. A high percentage of patients were brought up by dominant mothers and the married patients had passive husbands or active wives controlling the family. Generally the severity of depression was correlated with the severity of anxiety (C.C = 0.704, P less than 0.01). Majority of the patients were found to have both mixed anxiety depressive symptoms and the anxiety symptoms masking the underlying depressive symptomatology.
    Study site: Psychiatric Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis
  12. Yeoh CM, Thong KS, Seed HF, Nur Iwana AT, Maruzairi H
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 08;74(4):307-311.
    PMID: 31424038
    INTRODUCTION: Psychological morbidities are common amongst healthcare professionals particularly among junior house officers (HO) who are in a transitional stage from being a medical student to a doctor. They undergo many stressors during this period and hence might suffer from higher psychological morbidities such as depression, anxiety and stress.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress among HO in Sarawak General Hospital (SGH), Kuching, Sarawak. The socialdemographic factors were also evaluated to identify the high-risk groups.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 227 house officers in SGH over a period of three months. The social-demographic data such as age, sex, marital status, current posting, duration of posting, place of graduate and state of origin were obtained from interviews with the respondents. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress scale (DASS) questionnaire was completed to assess the psychological morbidities.

    RESULTS: HO were found to have high prevalence of psychiatric morbidities such as depression (42%), anxiety (50%) and stress (42.7%). Foreign graduates showed a significantly higher odds of depression (odds ratio, OR: 3.851; 95% confidence interval, 95%CI: 2.165, 6.851), anxiety (OR: 2.427; 95%CI: 1.394, 4.225) and stress (OR: 2.524; 95%CI: 1.439, 4.427) as compared to local graduates.. Further, non-Sarawakians were observed to have higher odds of developing anxiety (OR: 1.772; 95%CI: 1.022, 3.073) as compared to the Sarawakians.

    CONCLUSION: HO in SGH had high prevalence of depression, anxiety and stress. Therefore, psychiatric morbidities should be screened regularly amongst the HOs in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis
  13. Wang C, Tee M, Roy AE, Fardin MA, Srichokchatchawan W, Habib HA, et al.
    PLoS One, 2021;16(2):e0246824.
    PMID: 33571297 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246824
    The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted the economy, livelihood, and physical and mental well-being of people worldwide. This study aimed to compare the mental health status during the pandemic in the general population of seven middle income countries (MICs) in Asia (China, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam). All the countries used the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) to measure mental health. There were 4479 Asians completed the questionnaire with demographic characteristics, physical symptoms and health service utilization, contact history, knowledge and concern, precautionary measure, and rated their mental health with the IES-R and DASS-21. Descriptive statistics, One-Way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and linear regression were used to identify protective and risk factors associated with mental health parameters. There were significant differences in IES-R and DASS-21 scores between 7 MICs (p<0.05). Thailand had all the highest scores of IES-R, DASS-21 stress, anxiety, and depression scores whereas Vietnam had all the lowest scores. The risk factors for adverse mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic include age <30 years, high education background, single and separated status, discrimination by other countries and contact with people with COVID-19 (p<0.05). The protective factors for mental health include male gender, staying with children or more than 6 people in the same household, employment, confidence in doctors, high perceived likelihood of survival, and spending less time on health information (p<0.05). This comparative study among 7 MICs enhanced the understanding of metal health in the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis
  14. Rajiah K, Saravanan C
    Am J Pharm Educ, 2014 Nov 15;78(9):163.
    PMID: 25525278 DOI: 10.5688/ajpe789163
    To analyze the effect of psychological intervention on reducing performance anxiety and the consequences of the intervention on first-year pharmacy students.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis
  15. Saravanan C, Heidhy I
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(18):7629-34.
    PMID: 25292039
    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smokers have their own motivation and justification to smoke. For example, smoking reduces their stress or enhances their pleasure. This study aimed to identify the (a) prevalence of cigarette smokers among undergraduates in Malaysia, (b) gender differences in nicotine dependence among current smokers, (c) differences in psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) based on the status of smoking cigarettes (current, former and non-smokers) and (d) extent to which precipitating factors (tension reduction, addiction, automatism, handling, social interaction, pleasure, and stimulation) predict the smoking behavior among current smokers.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study 780 undergraduate students participated from a private university in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor state in Malaysia. The Depression, Stress and Anxiety Scale, Modified Reason for Smoking Scale and Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test were used to measure psychological problems, predictors of smoking behavior and nicotine dependency among current smokers.

    RESULTS: The results showed that 14.7%(n=106) of the students were smokers. Current smokers exhibited more psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) compared to former and non-smokers. Addiction, tension reduction, pleasure and automatism were predictors of smoking behavior among the current smoking students. Step wise regression analysis showed that smoking behavior was highly predicted by nicotine dependency or addiction. Smoking students were motivated to smoke cigarettes as they believed that it reduced their tension and enhance pleasure.

    CONCLUSIONS: Hence, there is a need for health promotion and anti-tobacco prevention as cigarette smokers experience more psychological problems. Nicotine dependency or addition was one of the major causes for smoking behavior among the student population in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis*
  16. Norizan A, Shamsuddin K
    J Intellect Disabil Res, 2010 Nov;54(11):992-1003.
    PMID: 20868445 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2788.2010.01324.x
    Having children with intellectual disability can be stressful for most parents. Currently there are very few studies focusing on parenting stress among mothers of children with Down syndrome (DS) in Asia. The present study examined the level of parenting stress experienced by Malaysian mothers of children with DS and evaluated the child and maternal factors that contributed to parenting stress based on Hill's ABC-X Model (Hill 1949).
    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis
  17. Esa R, Hashim NA, Ayob Y, Yusof ZY
    BMC Oral Health, 2015 Mar 10;15:28.
    PMID: 25886943 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-015-0013-y
    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the faces version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale (MCDASf) Malay version in 5-6 and 9-12 year-old children.
    METHODS: The MCDASf was cross culturally adapted from English into Malay. The Malay version was tested for reliability and validity in 3 studies. In the Study 1, to determine test-retest reliability of MCDASf scale, 166 preschool children aged 5-6 years were asked to rank orders five cartoons faces depicting emotions from 'very happy' to 'very sad' faces on two separate occasions 3 weeks apart. A total of 87 other 5-6 year-old children completed the Malay-MCDASf on two separate occasions 3 weeks apart to determine test-retest reliability for Study 2. In study 3, 239 schoolchildren aged 9-12 years completed the Malay-MCDASf and the Malay-Dental Subscale of the Children Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS) at the same sitting to determine the criterion and construct validity.
    RESULTS: In study 1, Kendall W test showed a high degree of concordance in ranking the cartoon faces picture cards on each of the 2 occasions (time 1, W = 0.955 and time 2, W = 0.954). The Malay-MCDASf demonstrated moderate test-retest reliability (Intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.63, p <0.001) and acceptable internal consistency for all the 6 items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.77) and 8 items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.73). The highest MCDASf scores were observed for the items 'injection in the gum' and 'tooth taken out' for both age groups. The MCDASf significantly correlated with the CFSS-DS (Pearson r = 0.67, p < 0.001).
    CONCLUSIONS: These psychometric findings support for the inclusion of a cartoon faces rating scale to assess child dental anxiety and the Malay-MCDASf is a reliable and valid measure of dental anxiety in 5-12 year-old children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Anxiety/diagnosis*
  18. Koh D, Abdullah AM, Wang P, Lin N, Luo N
    PLoS One, 2016;11(11):e0165555.
    PMID: 27835652 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165555
    BACKGROUND: The Malay spoken in Brunei a South East Asian country where Malay is the national language is distinctive and different from Malay spoken in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. This study aimed to develop a Brunei Malay version of the 5-level EQ-5D questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) and to assess its psychometric properties among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

    METHODS: The Brunei Malay EQ-5D-5L was developed by culturally adapting two existing Malay versions. A total of 154 Bruneians with T2DM completed the questionnaire in two different points of time with one week apart. Known-groups validity of the utility-based EQ-5D-5L index and visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) was evaluated by comparing subgroups of patients known to differ in health status. Test-retest reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) or Cohen's kappa.

    RESULTS: As hypothesized, patients known to have 'better' health had higher EQ-5D-5L index scores than those having 'worse' health in all 7 known-groups comparisons. The hypothesized difference in the EQ-VAS scores was observed in only 4 of the 7 known-groups comparisons. Kappa values ranged from 0.206 to 0.446 for the EQ-5D-5L items; the ICC value for the EQ-5D-5L index and EQ-VAS was 0.626 and 0.521, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The utility-based EQ-5D-5L index appears to be valid and reliable for measuring the health of Brunei patients with T2DM. The validity of the EQ-VAS in Brunei requires further investigation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis*
  19. Nasreen HE, Rahman JA, Rus RM, Kartiwi M, Sutan R, Edhborg M
    BMC Psychiatry, 2018 06 15;18(1):195.
    PMID: 29902985 DOI: 10.1186/s12888-018-1781-0
    BACKGROUND: Research on antepartum psychiatric morbidities investigating depressive and anxiety symptoms in expectant mothers and fathers is lacking in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of antepartum depressive, anxiety and co-occurring significant symptoms and explore the associated factors in a cross-section of Malaysian expectant mothers and fathers.

    METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from a prospective cohort study of 911 expectant mothers and 587 expectant fathers during their third trimester of pregnancy, from health clinics of two states in the east and west coasts of Malaysia. The validated Malay version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the anxiety sub-scale of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale were used to measure the depressive and anxiety symptoms. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified the determinants of antepartum depressive and anxiety symptoms (ADS and AAS).

    RESULTS: Prevalence of ADS was 12.2% in expectant mothers and 8.4% in expectant fathers, while AAS was 28.8% in expectant mothers and 13.3% in expectant fathers, and co-occurring significant symptoms was 8.0% in expectant mothers and 4.0% in expectant fathers. Expectant mothers and fathers having perceived social/family support were less likely to suffer from ADS. Intimate partner violence, poor relationship with husbands, depression in earlier pregnancy and husband's depression in current pregnancy in expectant mothers, and living in rented house, sex preference for the unborn child, stressful life events and wife's depression in current pregnancy in expectant fathers were associated with a greater likelihood of ADS. The determinants for AAS were living in rented house and with parents/in-laws, poor relationship with husbands, restrictions during pregnancy and stressful life events for expectant mothers, and stressful life events and being unsupportive towards wives in household chores for expectant fathers.

    CONCLUSION: Both ADS and AAS are prevalent in expectant mothers and fathers, and largely an undetected problem in Malaysia. Administration of couple-based screening and referral program during antenatal check-up should be universal practices to identify and treat the psychiatric morbidities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis
  20. Syed Elias SM, Petriwskyj A, Scott T, Neville C
    Australas J Ageing, 2019 Mar;38(1):E25-E30.
    PMID: 30426630 DOI: 10.1111/ajag.12598
    OBJECTIVE: To explore how older people with loneliness, anxiety and depression experience a spiritual reminiscence therapy (SRT) program and to explore its acceptability within the Malaysian population.

    METHODS: Unstructured observations and a focus-group discussion were carried out with 18 participants involved in a six-week SRT program in a residential care facility in Kuala Lumpur.

    RESULTS: Analysis revealed four themes: (i) Enthusiastic participation; (ii) Connections across boundaries; (iii) Expressing and reflecting; and (iv) Successful use of triggers.

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that the process of reminiscence, on which the program was based, was enjoyable for the participants and created opportunities to form connections with other members of the group. The use of relevant triggers in the SRT program that related to Malaysian cultures, ethnicities and religions was helpful to engage the participants and was acceptable across the different religions and ethnicities.

    Matched MeSH terms: Anxiety/diagnosis
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