Attitudes towards assisted death activities among medical students, the future health gatekeepers, are scarce and controversial. The aims of this study were to explore attitudes on euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide among final year medical students in Athens, to investigate potential differences in attitudes between male and female medical students and to review worldwide attitudes of medical students regarding assisted death activities. A 20- item questionnaire was used. The total number of participants was 251 (mean age 24.7±1.8 years). 52.0% and 69.7% of the respondents were for the acceptance of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide, respectively. Women's attitudes were more often influenced by religious convictions as well as by the fact that there is a risk that physician-assisted suicide might be misused with certain disadvantaged groups. On the other hand, men more often believed that a request for physician-assisted suicide from a terminally ill patient is prima-facie evidence of a mental disorder, usually depression. Concerning attitudes towards euthanasia among medical students in various countries there are contradictory results. In USA, the Netherlands, Hungary and Switzerland most of the students supported euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide. However, in many other countries such as Norway, Sweden, Yugoslavia, Italy, Germany, Sudan, Malaysia and Puerto Rico most students expressed negative positions regarding euthanasia and physician assisted suicide.
INTRODUCTION: Due to globalization and changes in the health care delivery system, there has been a gradual change in the attitude of the medical community as well as the lay public toward greater acceptance of euthanasia as an option for terminally ill and dying patients. Physicians in developing countries come across situations where such issues are raised with increasing frequency. As euthanasia has gained world-wide prominence, the objectives of our study therefore were to explore the attitude of physicians and chronically ill patients toward euthanasia and related issues. Concomitantly, we wanted to ascertain the frequency of requests for assistance in active euthanasia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Questionnaire based survey among consenting patients and physicians.
RESULTS: The majority of our physicians and patients did not support active euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide (EAS), no matter what the circumstances may be P < 0.001. Both opposed to its legalization P < 0.001. Just 15% of physicians reported that they were asked by patients for assistance in dying. Both physicians 29.2% and patients 61.5% were in favor of withdrawing or withholding life-sustaining treatment to a patient with no chances of survival. Among patients no significant differences were observed for age, marital status, or underlying health status.
CONCLUSIONS: A significant percentage of surveyed respondents were against EAS or its legalization. Patient views were primarily determined by religious beliefs rather than the disease severity. More debates on the matter are crucial in the ever-evolving world of clinical medicine.
KEYWORDS: Attitude; euthanasia; legalization; multi-cultural; physician-assisted suicide
The views and concerns of the employers of reservists sent on overseas deployments are largely unknown. A survey was conducted of 126 Australian employers who participated in Exercise Boss Lift sponsored by the Australian Defence Force, which involved a visit to their employees deployed on overseas service in the Solomon Islands and Malaysia during the period 2006-2010. Employers reported a substantial number of positive aspects of reservist deployment for both their enterprise and the individual reservist employee, including an increase in leadership, teamwork, skills, maturity, and confidence. There were 40% fewer reported negatives, which primarily concerned the costs associated with the absence of an important employee. The employers expressed needs for greater information regarding dates of absence of their reservist employee and assistance from the ADF to enable them to enhance the overall deployment. Importantly, employers sought confirmation of ways to effectively manage the transition of their reservist from military service back to their civilian roles. Some employers offered to act as advocates.
Medication error is defined as any preventable event that might cause or lead to an inappropriate use or harming of the patient. Such events could be due to compounding, dispensing, distribution, administration and monitoring. The aim of the present study was to determine the nurses' perception on medication error that were related directly or indirectly to the process of administration of drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted on 92 staff nurses working in the selected wards in one of the hospitals in East Malaysia. Data was obtained through structured questionnaires. RESULTS. Analysis of data was done through SPSS program for descriptive inferential statistics. Out of a total of 92 subjects, sixty-eight (73.9%) indicated medication error occurred because the nurses were tired and exhausted. Seventy nine subjects (85.9%) believed that any medication error should be reported to the doctors; another 74 (80.2%) knew that their colleagues committed medication error and 52 (56.5%) did not report the case. Forty eight (52.17%) subjects committed medication error at least once throughout their life. Of the 48 committed medication, 45 (93.75%) nurses believed that the error committed was not serious; while 39 (81.25%) believed the error occurred during the 1st 5 years of their working experience.
Proper isolation is an essential prerequisite for successful endodontic treatment. This article aims to provide an update on the prevalence of rubber dam (RD) use, and the role of education along with attitudes of general dental practitioners (GDPs) and patients towards the application of RD in endodontics. Critical ethical issues are also highlighted. Using certain keywords, an electronic search was conducted spanning the period from January 1983 to April 2013 to identify the available related investigations, and the pooled data were then analysed. The results show that although RD is the Standard of Care in endodontic practice, there is a clear discrepancy in what GDPs are taught in dental school and what they practice after graduation. There is little scientific evidence to support the application of RD; however, patient safety and clinical practice guidelines indicate that it is unnecessary and unethical to consider a cohort study to prove what is already universally agreed upon. A few clinical situations may require special management which should be highlighted in the current guidelines. This would pave the way for clear and straightforward universal guidelines.
Mahathir Mohamad was born in 1925 in Alor Star, Kedah. He entered the King Edward VII College of Medicine in Singapore in 1947 and graduated in 1953. His years in the medical school equipped young Mahathir with the training necessary to assess and diagnose a problem, before dispensing the appropriate treatment. Throughout his later years in the political limelight, Dr Mahathir recognised the very important role the medical college had in laying the strong foundation for his successful career. He joined UMNO in 1945, already interested in politics at the tender age of 20; he was first elected into Parliament in 1964. The vigorous expression of his candid views did not go down well during the troubled days following the 13 May 1969 racial riots and he was expelled from UMNO, his writings were banned, and he was considered a racial extremist. Nevertheless, his intellectual and political influence could not be ignored for long; he returned to Parliament in 1974, and became the fourth, and longest serving, Prime Minister of Malaysia in 1981. Dr Mahathir has found fame as a Malay statesman, and an important Asian leader of the twentieth century with much written, locally and internationally, debating his policies. This article, using Dr Mahathir's own writings, starts with his description of his early life, proceeds to look at his medical career, then touches on his diagnosis of the problems plaguing the Malays, before concluding with his views on the need to stand up to the prejudices and pressures of the Western world. Throughout his life, Dr Mahathir behaved as the ever-diligent medical doctor, constantly studying the symptoms to diagnose the cause of the ills in his community and country, before proceeding to prescribe the correct treatment to restore good health. It is a measure of his integrity and intellectual capability that he did not seek to hide his failures, or cite unfinished work in an attempt to cling to political power.
In the world of medical literature, little has been reported about the fears of patients undergoing bronchoscopy. The aim of this study was to identify the common fears of patients undergoing fibreoptic bronchoscopy and to determine whether any factors might contribute to reducing these fears. One hundred and four consecutive patients undergoing bronchoscopy were interviewed. Sixty one patients expressed fear about the procedure, as follows: afraid of pain (33); afraid of breathing difficulties (11); afraid of oropharyngeal irritation (5); afraid of the bronchoscopy findings (2); afraid of sedation, cross-infection and nasal lignocaine spray, respectively (3); and unable to be specific (7). There was no difference between the "no fear" and "fearful" groups in ethnicity, source of referral, education, previous endoscopy, doctors' explanation and the patients' understanding of the procedure and its indication. "Fearful" patients were significantly younger (t=2.082, p=0.037) and female (chi2=4.180, p=0.038). Doctors were more likely to explain the indication for bronchoscopy than how it would be performed (chi2=6.403; p=0.011), and patients were more likely to understand why they needed a bronchoscopy than how it would be performed (chi2=21.505; p<0.001). Fear preceding bronchoscopy is independent of patients' demographic features except for age and gender. Doctors tend to explain "why" but not "how" the procedure is performed. Provision of detailed information about sensations that are likely to be experienced in bronchoscopy could be used to allay some of these common fears.
This paper attempts to explain both the persistence of traditional misconceptions about leprosy as well as the relative ineffectiveness of the Leprosy Control Programme. It has been pointed out that leprosy is a disease with tremendous social significance. To improve the Programme therefore, the human element which is of paramount importance must be identified and rectified. It is felt however, that we the providers should set our own house in order first. We need to find out the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the medical personnel and auxiliaries relating to leprosy, and identify the factors that contribute to their lack of motivation and undesirable attitudes which in turn deter patients from seeking and continuing treatment. Interventions based on the findings of such studies will contribute considerably towards the successful implementation of the Programme.
In 1984, in Sarawak, there were a total of 1,099 recorded cases of leprosy for a population of 1.3 million. However, for each case recorded, it is estimated that two others remain undiagnosed as a consequence of the stigmatization associated with leprosy. For the five year period, 1979-1983, an average of 29 new cases were detected each year of which 8.6 (30%) were deformed due to the late stages at which it was being reported. To increase the case-finding rate, human behavioural research was applied to the leprosy control programme so as to develop culture-specific health education packages aimed at self diagnosis and self referral in order to detect the large pool of undiagnosed cases hidden behind the veil of aversion, fear and ignorance. This was achieved through anthropological studies to identify how the various major ethnic groups perceived leprosy and their attitudes towards leprosy. Taking into account these findings, health education packages aimed at adults as well as children were developed for the Chinese as well as the non-Chinese, and consisted of newspaper articles, cartoon tape-slides, cartoon story books and posters.
The focus of this study is to analyze the level of knowledge, awareness, and attitude toward plastic waste and to distinguish the key drivers that encourage the households in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to participate in "No plastic campaign," This study used the logistic regression model to explain the factors that may affect the willingness to participate (WTP) of households in the campaign. In this study, it is found that 35 % of households are willing to participate in the campaign. The results of the study also indicate that people who are more informed and more convinced of their knowledge have a more positive attitude toward recycling than their counterparts do. Furthermore, this study provides additional evidence of the level and classification of importance of motivating factors for plastic recycling, using the modified average and coefficient of variation of the models. From the analysis, the factor "helps reduce landfill use" is found as the most important factor and the factor of "raising money for charity" is found as the least important factor that motivates households to participate in recycling. The determinations of the study suggest some strategies that could hold implications for government and households to boost them to participate in the campaign "No Plastic Bag."
With the introduction of problem-based learning (PBL) in medical and health professionals’ undergraduate courses, self-directed learning (also known as self-regulated learning) becomes an integral component of the learning process. There may be slight variations in how educators and students perceive self-directed learnin .However, self-directed learning provides an opportunity for collaborative discussion of the new information collected and allows learners to construct new knowledge as they address their learning issues. Therefore, self-directed learning is not just about researching for new knowledge or finding answers for questions; self-directed learning is about developing competencies, skills and attitudes that foster the learning processes. Interestingly, not all learners will be able to adapt this approach of learning once they enroll in a PBL course. The process will develop gradually and require a number of actions from the learner, including: (i) Realising the need to change their learning style to suite the needs of the medical curriculum, (ii) constructing a plan that accommodates the new learning objectives, (iii) Practicing self-directed learning and sharing their experiences with peers, and (iv) Continuing evaluation of their self-directed learning approach and improving their learning style. Therefore, the aims of this manuscript are: (i) discuss the meaning of self-directed learning in the context of PBL, and review the research outcomes in this area, (ii) understand the different factors that may affect student’s self-directed learning strategies, and (iii) briefly explore the meaning of construction of knowledge and how it can enforce students’ self-directed learning, integration of knowledge and deeper understanding of topics learnt.
Introduction: None of the identified studies employed quantitative scales correlating the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy. Method: This study aimed to study the relationship between the knowledge and attitudes toward epilepsy, using the Epilepsy Knowledge Questionnaire (EKQ) and the Public Attitudes Toward Epilepsy (PATE) scale. Results: A total of 279 publics with a mean age of 36.6±14.7 years (ranged from 15-77 years), 50.8% female with majority (63.0%) Chinese, and 49.5% with tertiary education level, were recruited. The mean score of epilepsy knowledge questionnaire (EKQ) was 21.05±3.92 (95% CI: 20.57-21.48). Higher score in EKQ was associated with higher education level (p
In determining consumer’s acceptance of any products in the market, packaging appearance, branding and pricing of the products are important. This study focused on consumer’s perception towards the outlook of the coffee packaging which resulted in influencing their purchasing decision through survey study. This current study was done on three main issues namely appropriateness of appearance, branding and pricing as reflected by the first impression towards the product’s packaging. Survey was done targeting on consumers (n = 100) reside in Kelantan, Malaysia through printed and online questionnaires distribution. Results obtained shows that consumers notice the differences possessed by each coffee packaging in the market and they purchase what they like based on their perception. According to Pearson Correlation, respondents also have the opinion that appearance, branding and pricing are correlated to each other in order to convey the correct messages to the correct group of people (p-value > 0.5). Response from the respondents reflected the behaviour of consumers reside in Kelantan that the overall outlook (packaging appearance, branding and pricing) of a coffee packaging were taken into consideration during their buying process. Therefore, it is crucial for the packaging itself to be able to create emotional attachment in consumers’ mind during their first glimpse.
The attention on genetically modified (GM) food industry is increasing due to the flourishing
of biotechnology. However, there are some debates on the associated benefits and risks of
employing modification technology in food industry. This study strives to examine the causes
that determine consumers’ benefit and risk perceptions on GM foods. Besides, the influence of
perceived benefit and risk of GM food on consumers’ attitude is investigated. The empirical
results of this study showed that GM food knowledge, and GM food characteristics have been
acting as important predictors of both benefits and risks perceptions. Further, it is also found
that perceived benefits showed significant positive influence on attitude, and attitude affects
purchase intention towards GM food. Research implications to policy makers, scientists, and
market practitioners are covered, in which suggestions and recommendations are provided
to these parties. Lastly, research implications and recommendations to future research are