In the world of medical literature, little has been reported about the fears of patients undergoing bronchoscopy. The aim of this study was to identify the common fears of patients undergoing fibreoptic bronchoscopy and to determine whether any factors might contribute to reducing these fears. One hundred and four consecutive patients undergoing bronchoscopy were interviewed. Sixty one patients expressed fear about the procedure, as follows: afraid of pain (33); afraid of breathing difficulties (11); afraid of oropharyngeal irritation (5); afraid of the bronchoscopy findings (2); afraid of sedation, cross-infection and nasal lignocaine spray, respectively (3); and unable to be specific (7). There was no difference between the "no fear" and "fearful" groups in ethnicity, source of referral, education, previous endoscopy, doctors' explanation and the patients' understanding of the procedure and its indication. "Fearful" patients were significantly younger (t=2.082, p=0.037) and female (chi2=4.180, p=0.038). Doctors were more likely to explain the indication for bronchoscopy than how it would be performed (chi2=6.403; p=0.011), and patients were more likely to understand why they needed a bronchoscopy than how it would be performed (chi2=21.505; p<0.001). Fear preceding bronchoscopy is independent of patients' demographic features except for age and gender. Doctors tend to explain "why" but not "how" the procedure is performed. Provision of detailed information about sensations that are likely to be experienced in bronchoscopy could be used to allay some of these common fears.
In 1984, in Sarawak, there were a total of 1,099 recorded cases of leprosy for a population of 1.3 million. However, for each case recorded, it is estimated that two others remain undiagnosed as a consequence of the stigmatization associated with leprosy. For the five year period, 1979-1983, an average of 29 new cases were detected each year of which 8.6 (30%) were deformed due to the late stages at which it was being reported. To increase the case-finding rate, human behavioural research was applied to the leprosy control programme so as to develop culture-specific health education packages aimed at self diagnosis and self referral in order to detect the large pool of undiagnosed cases hidden behind the veil of aversion, fear and ignorance. This was achieved through anthropological studies to identify how the various major ethnic groups perceived leprosy and their attitudes towards leprosy. Taking into account these findings, health education packages aimed at adults as well as children were developed for the Chinese as well as the non-Chinese, and consisted of newspaper articles, cartoon tape-slides, cartoon story books and posters.
One of the main reasons for poor response in organ donation is the lack of positive attitudes and knowledge present in health care professionals. Definite legislation, policies and programmes dealing with brain death and cadaveric organ transplantation have shown some favourable results in terms of increasing donor rates. These programmes are mainly Western based; therefore adopting such programmes to be used locally may not be adequate or proper. To address this issue, we decided to carry out a questionnaire in two tertiary hospitals in Malaysia, one with a well establish brain death and cadaveric organ transplantation programme and one with none.
A study was carried out to identify some of the cultural factors in the epidemiology of filariasis in an endemic community in Malaysia. The viewpoint of the community, data an responses on knowledge of illness and filariasis, host related factors, health examination, vector study were analysed and discussed. The observations noted on cultural factors were: Occupational pattern: Different agricultural occupations seemed to related to transmission in terms of body exposure. Activities not related to production of crops: Play groups in late afternoon, bathing of household members near and after sunset, congregations at prayer houses very much exposed the population to mosquito bites in different degree in terms of length of time spent outside the house. Knowledge of filariasis: Filariasis was understood in terms of elephantiasis, the chronic stage of the disease. Other signs of disease-adenolymphangitis, red lines running down one or both legs and abscess were generally recognized but not often annonated with specific disease. Attitude toward disease: Filariasis was not seen as a health problem and the idea of filarial worms was still hard to believe. Knowledge on disease causation: Biological causes were generally recognized, though the idea of bacteria was not widespread.
A study of food ideology and eating behavior in a Malay village demonstrates that the relationship between belief and action is complex and not always predictable. Over-reliance upon stated beliefs, and generalizations derived from particular ecological settings, have influenced investigators into making universal and logical statements about Malay eating behavior and its health consequences--a logic which, however, does not always jibe with reality. Food ideology, like any other portion of a belief system, is subject to innovation, interpretation and rationalization, and contains within it 'rules to break rules' which assure the continued integrity of the symbolic system by patterning what might otherwise be seen as rifts in its fabric. An understanding of eating behavior must be based both on a knowledge of the subsidiary, as well as primary, clauses of food ideology, and on direct observation of the behaviors elicited by these beliefs and modified by the setting, the situation and the individual.
For any health education to succeed, the people's perception of the disease, their beliefs and cultural practices are of utmost importance as these have tremendous influence on their acceptance of new ideas. It is therefore essential to develop appropriate health education packages based on the understanding of the traditional and socio-cultural belief systems of the people. Thus on the basis of anthropological studies, health education packages were developed for the leprosy control programme in Sarawak, aimed at both adults and children. Newspaper articles, cartoon tape-slides, cartoon story books as well as posters were developed for both Chinese as well as other groups such as Malays, Ibans and Kayans. These were field tested and are now used in the Rejang Valley of Sarawak.
A postal questionnaire survey was carried out among military doctors during June to August 1979 on habits and attitudes to smoking. An 87% response rate was obtained. Smoking prevalence was found to be 50%. 45% of medical officers are heavy smokers. Age at starting influence the amount smoked. Service life had no influence on smoking habits. Attitudes to smoking vary between the different categories of doctors. The habits and attitudes indicate a mental revolution on the part of doctors is required prior to any anti-smoking programme as they have to be sufficiently motivated to lead the fight.
Information on the beliefs and practices of 50 Chinese diabetic patients concerning the cause and treatment of their ill-health were collected by the interview method with the aid of a questiOnnaire which has been protested. it was found that 34 of the patients were using “Chinese” medicines, in addition to Western-style treatment. Only two of the patients knew the true cause of diabetes. 37 of the patients understood that treatment cannot effect a radical cure. The beliefs and practices of the diabetic patients were inﬂuenced by two main sources of information, the pattern of traditional Chinese beliefs and Western medicine. The implications of the study in community health education on diabetes and education of the diabetic patient were discussed.
A study in Sarawak, Malaysia, revealed diverse opinions, prejudices and degrees of knowledge about leprosy among various ethnic groups. The information gathered was used as the base on which a health education package relating to the disease was established. It is intended that this will lead to the early detection and treatment of a higher proportion of cases than has previosly been possible
A' brief' of an attempt in integration of health education of patients as a part and parcel of treatment and management in hospitals in Kelantan is outlined. The methodology used in the context of local situation is described, problems and short-comings highlighted, and a few suggestions made including recommendations for further such trial efforts in other hospitals in the country.
INTRODUCTION: Dental care has remained as an unmet need for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). Dental students are considered as future healthcare workforce and having beliefs which are discriminating may have negative attitudes towards providing care to these individuals (Azodo et al., 2010). The study aimed to assess the ethical beliefs and attitudes of dental students towards PLWHAs for providing care.
METHODS: It is a descriptive correlational and cross sectional study. Nine public and private dental schools in Malaysia participated in the study. Data was collected using a validated self-administered questionnaire.
RESULTS: A total of 481 dental students participated in this study, yielding response rate of 78%. Majority of the participants (74%) believed that patients' HIV status should be disclosed to patients' sexual partner without permission. Approximately 60% of the participants reported that rooms/beds of HIV patients should be clearly marked. Regarding patient disease status 28% of the students reported that it is appropriate to test a patient for HIV/AIDS without patient's permission. Only Fifty five percent of the students expressed the willingness to treat HIV patients and 49% reported to held fear of getting infected while treating patients with HIV/AIDS. Sixty four percent of the participants reported to be more comfortable giving care to non-HIV patients than HIV-positive patients.
CONCLUSION: Dental students' ethical beliefs about HIV/AIDS were not consistent with the ethical principles as stated in the code of ethics and they held negative attitudes towards PLWHAs. Ethical beliefs were found to be a determinant that may influence future attitudes of these students towards individuals with HIV/AIDS when providing care.
A KAP study on dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) was carried out in three areas in the Federal Territory. The three areas were selected based on their ethnic group composition and were Jinjang North (Chinese), Kampung Bahru (Malays) and Sentul (Indians). Houses were selected by a systematic sampling method and house-to-house interviews were carried out with a pre-tested, predesigned questionnaire. 546 (87.62%) of the households responded.
What proved to be a lively yet highly technical conference on the assessment of the acceptance and use-effctiveness of family planning methods was held in Bangkok last June by ECAFE on the initiative of Dr. C. Chandrasekaran, the regional demographic adviser. The meeting was attended by a strong contingent of demographers, sociologists and statisticans from the USA and by workers from Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. There were representatives of FAO, WHO and the Population Division of the UN. The conference considered and debated a wide range of issues involved in evaluation, from the definition of terms to detailed procedures in the calculation of indices and the detection of fertility trends. A certain amount of new ground was broken with the introduction of the concept of "extended use-effectiveness" (the study of pregnancy rates among acceptors of a method beyond the point of discontinuance) and the presentation of new methods of calculating births prevented by contraceptive use. Some progress was made towards laying down standards for the frequency of performance of surveys, both of K.A.P. in populations at large, and of contraceptive continuance and event-rates among acceptors. Attention was given to the special problems of evaluation presented by oral contraceptives, and by data on abortions and sterilizations. The proven usefulness of the life-table method of studying use-effectiveness was reaffirmed, and work on refining this now basic tool of evaluation was reported. A number of quite different schemes of data collection and processing for study of the characteristics of acceptors was described, and it was accepted by the participants that, although as much standardization as possible was desirable, each programme must make its own selection from the range of possibilities in the light of specific conditions. In addition to the main lines of analysis of use-effectiveness and programme effectiveness, the conference spent some time on discussion of such subjects as cost analysis, sensitive indices of fertility change, and the use of models in connection with programme study and evaluation. The specific evaluation needs and procedures of a number of countries in the ECAFE region were described. Although the conference fell far short of providing a comprehensive and agreed set of rules for the evaluation of family planning programmes. Indeed this was not its objective it admirably performed the function of acquainting theoretical and practical workers with each other's problems, and ensuring that all concerned were brought up-to-date on the progress being made in the region in the development and use of evaluation tools