Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 78 in total

  1. Schratz A, Pineda MF, Reforma LG, Fox NM, Le Anh T, Tommaso Cavalli-Sforza L, et al.
    Adv. Parasitol., 2010;72:79-107.
    PMID: 20624529 DOI: 10.1016/S0065-308X(10)72004-2
    Ethnic minority groups (EMGs) are often subject to exclusion, marginalization and poverty. These characteristics render them particularly vulnerable to neglected diseases, a diverse group of diseases that comprise bacteria, ecto-parasites, fungi, helminths and viruses. Despite the health policy relevance, only little is known of the epidemiological profile of neglected diseases among EMGs. We reviewed country data from Australia, Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam and found several overlaps between regions with high proportions of EMG population and high prevalence rates of neglected diseases (infections with soil-transmitted helminths, filarial worms, schistosomes, food-borne trematodes and cestodes). While the links are not always clearly evident and it is impossible to establish correlations among highly aggregated data without control variables-such as environmental factors-there appear indeed to be important linkages between EMGs, socio-economic status and prevalence of neglected diseases. Some determinants under consideration are lack of access to health care and general health status, poverty and social marginalization, as well as education and literacy. Further research is needed to deepen the understanding of these linkages and to determine their public health and socio-economic significance. In particular, there is a need for more data from all countries in the Western Pacific Region that is disaggregated below the provincial level. Selected case studies that incorporate other control variables-such as risk factors from the physical environment-might be useful to inform policy makers about the feasibility of prevention and control interventions that are targeted at high-risk EMGs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
  2. Abad-Casintahan F, Chow SK, Goh CL, Kubba R, Hayashi N, Noppakun N, et al.
    J. Dermatol., 2016 Jul;43(7):826-8.
    PMID: 26813513 DOI: 10.1111/1346-8138.13263
    In patients with darker skin types (Fitzpatrick phototypes III-VI), acne is often accompanied by post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). Further, acne-related pigmentation can pose a greater concern for the patient than the acne lesions. There has been little formal study of this acne-related PIH. Recently, the Asian Acne Board - an international group of dermatologists with interest in acne research - made a preliminary evaluation of the frequency and characteristics of PIH in seven Asian countries. A total of 324 sequential acne subjects were evaluated for the presence of PIH. The majority (80.2%) of subjects had mild to moderate acne and there were more females than males (63.0% vs 37.0%). In this population of patients consulting a dermatologist for acne, 58.2% (188/324) had PIH. The results also showed that pigmentation problems are often long lasting: at least 1 year for more than half of subjects and 5 years or longer in 22.3%. In accordance with our clinical experience, patients reported that PIH is quite bothersome, often as bothersome or more so than the acne itself and sometimes more problematic. Excoriation was commonly reported by patients, and may represent a modifiable risk factor that could potentially be improved by patient education.
    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
  3. Hashami B, Abdul Halim O, Yusoff K
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Jun;49(2):149-57.
    PMID: 8090094
    A total of 209 randomly selected Malaysian university students (128 from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 81 from the University of New South Wales) completed a self-filled questionnaire enquiring about their smoking behaviour and psychosocial characteristics. The prevalence of smoking was 26.6 per cent among students in Malaysia and 18.8 per cent among students in Australia (average 23.4%). Both samples have similar patterns in terms of age of starting smoking, time of the day when they smoked, family and peer history of smoking, and whether or not they inhaled deeply during smoking. The smokers tend to be male, studying beyond the first year, staying with peers outside the hostel, having financial sources other than a scholarship, and abnormal mental health score. However, the smokers from the Australian samples were noted to smoke less and made fewer attempts at quitting the habit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
  4. Science, 2014 Jul 11;345(6193):164-5.
    PMID: 25013064 DOI: 10.1126/science.345.6193.164
    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
  5. Azil AH, Ritchie SA, Williams CR
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2015 Oct;27(7):705-14.
    PMID: 25186807 DOI: 10.1177/1010539514548760
    This qualitative study aimed to describe field worker perceptions, evaluations of worth, and time costs of routine dengue vector surveillance methods in Cairns (Australia), Kuala Lumpur and Petaling District (Malaysia). In Cairns, the BG-Sentinel trap is a favored method for field workers because of its user-friendliness, but is not as cost-efficient as the sticky ovitrap. In Kuala Lumpur, the Mosquito Larvae Trapping Device is perceived as a solution for the inaccessibility of premises to larval surveys. Nonetheless, the larval survey method is retained in Malaysia for prompt detection of dengue vectors. For dengue vector surveillance to be successful, there needs to be not only technical, quantitative evaluations of method performance but also an appreciation of how amenable field workers are to using particular methods. Here, we report novel field worker perceptions of dengue vector surveillance methods in addition to time analysis for each method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
  6. Ng SC, Tang W, Leong RW, Chen M, Ko Y, Studd C, et al.
    Gut, 2015 Jul;64(7):1063-71.
    PMID: 25217388 DOI: 10.1136/gutjnl-2014-307410
    The rising incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Asia supports the importance of environmental risk factors in disease aetiology. This prospective population-based case-control study in Asia-Pacific examined risk factors prior to patients developing IBD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
  7. Viennet E, Knope K, Faddy HM, Williams CR, Harley D
    Commun Dis Intell Q Rep, 2013 Jun;37(2):E136-43.
    PMID: 24168087
    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a major threat to Australia given the distribution of competent vectors, and the large number of travellers returning from endemic regions. We describe current knowledge of CHIKV importations into Australia, and quantify reported viraemic cases, with the aim of facilitating the formulation of public health policy and ensuring maintenance of blood safety.
    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
  8. Tan KS, Tan CT, Churilov L, MacKay MT, Donnan GA
    Int J Stroke, 2010 Oct;5(5):428-30.
    PMID: 20854631 DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-4949.2010.00478.x
    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
  9. Nasner-Posso KM, Cruz-Calderón S, Montúfar-Andrade FE, Dance DA, Rodriguez-Morales AJ
    Int J Infect Dis, 2015 Jun;35:103-6.
    PMID: 25975651 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2015.05.009
    OBJECTIVE: There are limited sources describing the global burden of emerging diseases. A review of human melioidosis reported by ProMED was performed and the reliability of the data retrieved assessed in comparison to published reports. The effectiveness of ProMED was evaluated as a source of epidemiological data by focusing on melioidosis.

    METHODS: Using the keyword 'melioidosis' in the ProMED search engine, all of the information from the reports and collected data was reviewed using a structured form, including the year, country, gender, occupation, number of infected individuals, and number of fatal cases.

    RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-four entries reported between January 1995 and October 2014 were identified. A total of 4630 cases were reported, with death reported in 505 cases, suggesting a misleadingly low overall case fatality rate (CFR) of 11%. Of 20 cases for which the gender was reported, 12 (60%) were male. Most of the cases were reported from Australia, Thailand, Singapore, Vietnam, and Malaysia, with sporadic reports from other countries.

    CONCLUSIONS: Internet-based reporting systems such as ProMED are useful to gather information and synthesize knowledge on emerging infections. Although certain areas need to be improved, ProMED provided good information about melioidosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
  10. Jamal F
    Vaccine, 1999 Jul 30;17 Suppl 1:S75-8.
    PMID: 10471186
    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
  11. Pozio E
    PMID: 12041576
    Seven species belonging to the Trichinella genus (five with encapsulated larvae and two with non-encapsulated larvae in host muscles) and three additional genotypes have been described to date: T. spiralis (genotype T1), a cosmopolitan species with a high infectivity to swine and rats; T. nativa (T2), etiological agent of sylvatic trichinellosis in arctic and subarctic areas of the Holarctic region, and its related genotype (Trichinella T6), detected in Alaska, Idaho, Montana, Pennsylvania, Wyoming, and Ontario; T. britovi (T3), etiological agent of sylvatic trichinellosis in temperate areas of Europe and Asia, and its related genotypes Trichinella T9 in Japan and Trichinella T8 in South Africa and Namibia; T. murrelli (T5), etiological agent of sylvatic trichinellosis in temperate areas of the USA; T. nelsoni (T7), etiological agent of sylvatic trichinellosis in Africa south of the Sahara; T. pseudospiralis (T4), a non-encapsulated cosmopolitan species infecting both mammals and birds; and T. papuae (T10), a recently discovered non-encapsulated species in sylvatic swine of Papua New Guinea. In the Southeast Asia and Australian regions, T. spiralis, T. pseudospiralis and T. papuae have been detected in sylvatic and domestic animals and in humans. A focus of human trichinellosis due to T. papuae was recently discovered in Papua New Guinea, with a prevalence of 28.9%. Trichinellosis has also been documented in domestic animals and/or humans in Cambodia, Indonesia (Bali and Sumatra), Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and New Zealand, and in wildlife of Tasmania.
    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
  12. McMinn P, Lindsay K, Perera D, Chan HM, Chan KP, Cardosa MJ
    J Virol, 2001 Aug;75(16):7732-8.
    PMID: 11462047
    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a frequent cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) epidemics associated with severe neurological sequelae in a small proportion of cases. There has been a significant increase in EV71 epidemic activity throughout the Asia-Pacific region since 1997. Recent HFMD epidemics in this region have been associated with a severe form of brainstem encephalitis associated with pulmonary edema and high case fatality rates. In this study, we show that four genetic lineages of EV71 have been prevalent in the Asia-Pacific region since 1997, including two previously undescribed genogroups (B3 and B4). Furthermore, we show that viruses belonging to genogroups B3 and B4 have circulated endemically in Southeast Asia during this period and have been the primary cause of several large HFMD or encephalitis epidemics in Malaysia, Singapore, and Western Australia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
  13. Kwon S, Bower C, English D
    PMID: 14565623
    Birth defects in infants born to non-Caucasian, non-Indigenous mothers in Australia have not been described in detail previously.
    Matched MeSH terms: Western Australia/epidemiology
  14. Parker G, Cheah YC, Roy K
    Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 2001 Jun;36(6):287-93.
    PMID: 11583458
    A large literature argues for the Chinese--whether in mainland China or elsewhere--being highly likely to express depression somatically, leading to predictable detection and diagnostic difficulties. If true, detection might be assisted if a set of somatic proxies of depression were identified, and this was the principal initial objective in mounting this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
  15. Kirkland PD, Daniels PW, Nor MN, Love RJ, Philbey AW, Ross AD
    Vet. Clin. North Am. Food Anim. Pract., 2002 Nov;18(3):557-71, ix.
    PMID: 12442583
    Viruses belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae generally have not been recognized as a significant cause of disease in pigs until recently. Between 1997 and 1999, there were large outbreaks of disease in pigs in Australia and Malaysia due to infection with viruses that have been shown to be new members of the Paramyxoviridae family. This article reviews current knowledge of Menangle and Nipah virus infections in pigs, the only major species of domestic animals to experience serious disease after infection with these viruses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
  16. Hall RA, Scherret JH, Mackenzie JS
    Ann N Y Acad Sci, 2001 Dec;951:153-60.
    PMID: 11797773
    Kunjin (KUN) is a flavivirus in the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex that was first isolated from Culex annulirostris mosquitoes captured in northern Australia in 1960. It is the etiological agent of a human disease characterized by febrile illness with rash or mild encephalitis and, occasionally, of a neurological disease in horses. KUN virus shares a similar epidemiology and ecology with the closely related Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE) virus, the major causative agent of arboviral encephalitis in Australia. Based on traditional antigenic methods, KUN was initially found to be similar to, but distinct from, reference strains of West Nile (WN) virus and designated as a new species. However, more recent phylogenic analyses have revealed that some strains of WN virus, including the isolates from New York, are more similar to KUN virus and form a separate lineage to other WN viruses. An unusual KUN isolate from Malaysia and the African virus Koutango appear to form additional lineages within the WN group of viruses. While these findings are in agreement with the Seventh Report of the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses that designates KUN as a subtype of West Nile, they also suggest that the species should be further subdivided into additional subtypes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
  17. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec., 1993 Dec 10;68(50):371-5.
    PMID: 8305295
    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
  18. Aung AK, Tang MJ, Adler NR, de Menezes SL, Goh MSY, Tee HW, et al.
    J Clin Pharmacol, 2018 10;58(10):1332-1339.
    PMID: 29733431 DOI: 10.1002/jcph.1148
    We describe adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting characteristics and factors contributing to length of time to report by healthcare professionals. This is a retrospective study of voluntary reports to an Australian healthcare ADR Review Committee over a 2-year period (2015-2016). Descriptive and univariate models were used for outcomes, employing standardized ADR definitions. Hospital pharmacists reported 84.8% of the 555 ADRs: 70.3% were hospital onset reactions, and 71.7% were at least of moderate severity. Immunologically mediated reactions were most commonly reported (409, 73.7%). The median time to submit an ADR report was 3 (interquartile range 1-10) days. Longer median times to reporting were associated with multiple implicated agents and delayed hypersensitivity reactions, especially severe cutaneous adverse reactions. A total of 650 medications were implicated that involved multiple agents in 165/555 (29.7%) reports. Antimicrobials were the most commonly implicated agents. Immunologically mediated reactions were most commonly associated with antimicrobials and radiocontrast agents (P < .0001, odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95%CI 2.4-5.5, and P = .04, OR 4.2, 95%CI 1.2-18.2, respectively). Opioids and psychoactive medications were more commonly implicated in nonimmunological reported ADRs (P = .0002, OR 3.9, 95%CI 1.9-7.9, and P < .0001, OR 11.4, 95%CI 4.6-27.8, respectively). Due to the predominant reporting of immunologically mediated reactions, a targeted education program is being planned to improve identification and accuracy of ADR reports, with the overall aim of improved management to ensure quality service provision and patient safety.
    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
  19. Ng SC, Tang W, Ching JY, Wong M, Chow CM, Hui AJ, et al.
    Gastroenterology, 2013 Jul;145(1):158-165.e2.
    PMID: 23583432 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2013.04.007
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are becoming more common in Asia, but epidemiologic data are lacking. The Asia-Pacific Crohn's and Colitis Epidemiology Study aimed to determine the incidence and phenotype of IBD in 8 countries across Asia and in Australia.

    METHODS: We performed a prospective, population-based study of IBD incidence in predefined catchment areas, collecting data for 1 year, starting on April 1, 2011. New cases were ascertained from multiple overlapping sources and entered into a Web-based database. Cases were confirmed using standard criteria. Local endoscopy, pathology, and pharmacy records were searched to ensure completeness of case capture.

    RESULTS: We identified 419 new cases of IBD (232 of ulcerative colitis [UC], 166 of Crohn's disease [CD], and 21 IBD-undetermined). The crude annual overall incidence values per 100,000 individuals were 1.37 for IBD in Asia (95% confidence interval: 1.25-1.51; 0.76 for UC, 0.54 for CD, and 0.07 for IBD-undetermined) and 23.67 in Australia (95% confidence interval: 18.46-29.85; 7.33 for UC, 14.00 for CD, and 2.33 for IBD-undetermined). China had the highest incidence of IBD in Asia (3.44 per 100,000 individuals). The ratios of UC to CD were 2.0 in Asia and 0.5 in Australia. Median time from symptom onset to diagnosis was 5.5 months (interquartile range, 1.4-15 months). Complicated CD (stricturing, penetrating, or perianal disease) was more common in Asia than Australia (52% vs 24%; P = .001), and a family history of IBD was less common in Asia (3% vs 17%; P < .001).

    CONCLUSIONS: We performed a large-scale population-based study and found that although the incidence of IBD varies throughout Asia, it is still lower than in the West. IBD can be as severe or more severe in Asia than in the West. The emergence of IBD in Asia will result in the need for specific health care resources, and offers a unique opportunity to study etiologic factors in developing nations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
  20. Kandane-Rathnayake R, Golder V, Louthrenoo W, Luo SF, Jan Wu YJ, Li Z, et al.
    Int J Rheum Dis, 2019 Mar;22(3):425-433.
    PMID: 30398013 DOI: 10.1111/1756-185X.13431
    AIM: The aim of this manuscript is to describe the development of the Asia Pacific Lupus Collaboration (APLC) cohort.

    METHOD: The APLC cohort is an ongoing, prospective longitudinal cohort. Adult patients who meet either the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Modified Classification Criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) Classification Criteria, and provide informed consent are recruited into the cohort. Patients are routinely followed up at 3- to 6-monthly intervals. Information on demographics, clinical manifestations, treatment, pathology results, outcomes, and patient-reported quality of life (Short-form 36 version 2) are collected using a standardized case report form. Each site is responsible for obtaining local ethics and governance approval, patient recruitment, data collection, and data transfer into a centralized APLC database.

    RESULTS: The latest APLC cohort comprises 2160 patients with >12 000 visits from Australia, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand. The APLC has proposed the Lupus Low Disease Activity State (LLDAS) as a treat-to-target (T2T) endpoint, and reported several retrospective and cross-sectional analyses consistent with the validity of LLDAS. Longitudinal validation of LLDAS as a T2T endpoint is currently underway.

    CONCLUSION: The APLC cohort is one of the largest contemporary SLE patient cohorts in the world. It is the only cohort with substantial representation of Asian patients. This cohort represents a unique resource for future clinical research including evaluation of other endpoints and quality of care.

    Matched MeSH terms: Australia/epidemiology
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