METHODS: C. tropicalis isolates from sterile specimens were collected over a 12-month period. Conclusive identification was achieved biochemically with the ID 32 C kit. Susceptibility to nine antifungal agents was carried out using the colourimetric broth microdilution kit Sensititre YeastOne YO10. Biofilm-producing capability was evaluated by quantifying biomass formation spectrophotometrically following staining with crystal violet.
RESULTS: Twenty-four non-repetitive isolates of C. tropicalis were collected. The resistance rates to the triazole agents were 29.2% for fluconazole, 16.7% for itraconazole, 20.8% for voriconazole and 8.3% for posaconazole-the pan-azole resistance rate was identical to that of posaconazole. No resistance was recorded for amphotericin B, flucysosine or any of the echinocandins tested. A total of 16/24 (66.7%) isolates were categorized as high biomass producers and 8/24 (33.3%) were moderate biomass producers. None of our isolates were low biomass producers.
CONCLUSION: The C. tropicalis isolates from our centre were resistant only to triazole agents, with the highest resistance rate being recorded for fluconazole and the lowest for posaconazole. While this is not by itself alarming, the fact that our isolates were prolific biofilm producers means that even azole-susceptible isolates can be paradoxically refractory to antifungal therapy.
METHODS: Data from heart transplant recipients (n = 87) administered the oral immediate-release formulation of tacrolimus (Prograf®) were collected. Routine drug monitoring data, principally trough concentrations, were used for model building (n = 1099). A published tacrolimus model was used to inform the estimation of Ka , V2 /F, Q/F and V3 /F. The effect of concomitant azole antifungal use on tacrolimus CL/F was quantified. Fat-free mass was implemented as a covariate on CL/F, V2 /F, V3 /F and Q/F on an allometry scale. Subsequently, stepwise covariate modelling was performed. Significant covariates influencing tacrolimus CL/F were included in the final model. Robustness of the final model was confirmed using prediction-corrected visual predictive check (pcVPC). The final model was externally evaluated for prediction of tacrolimus concentrations of the fourth dosing occasion (n = 87) from one to three prior dosing occasions.
RESULTS: Concomitant azole antifungal therapy reduced tacrolimus CL/F by 80%. Haematocrit (∆OFV = -44, P